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just association. Erasistratus could scarcely have adopted so wil a theory, unless it had been in trying to put together the fragment of a broken system, of which he was uvable to collect the whol materials. Perhaps then he had heard from the priests of Egyp some tradition upon this subject, which he imperfectly understood This tradition might have been, that the vital air is separated ir the lungs from the air respired, and that it produces sensible changes upon the blood, when that fluid is pushed forwards into the arteries.

The impartial reader will now judge, whether it be not probable, that the physicians of Greece owed much to those of Egypt. He must have observed the admiration, bordering on the limits of exaggeration, with which Homer speaks of the medical knowledge of the Egyptians. He can have scarcely questioned either the ignorance of the Asclepiades, or the frauds which they practised. He must have seen, that the Greeks really knew nothing of the art of healing, until Pythagoras returned from Egypt and the East, where he had obtained all his learning. Then indeed the light of science began to dawn upon Europe. Medicine was taught upon rational principles; and the disciples of the school of Crotona, such as Empedocles the Sicilian, Epicharmus and Metrodorus of Cos, Timæus the Locrian, and Democides, were celebrated as physicians in Greece, in Italy, and in Asia. About half a century after the death of Pythagoras, Democritus, who had passed many years in Chaldea and Egypt, revisited his native country. He found leisure amidst his philosophical labors, to give lessons in medicine to Hippocrates. Another food of light poured in upon Greece. The pupil of Democritus became the medical preceptor of mankind. Finally, the reader must have observed, that immediately after the establishment of the Greeks at Alexandria, the science of anatomy suddenly florished, and suddenly decayed. It seems as if the first comers had profited by the traditions of the Egyptian priests, had appropriated to themselves all that remained yet untouched of the wreck of ancient learning, and had left their successors to the efforts of their own ingenuity. Thus in following the progress of medical knowledge among the Greeks, we find that it was always connected with their: mtercourse with the Egyptians, and that every new accession of information among

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them was preceded by some communication with that people. Who indeed can contemplate with impartiality the history of medicine in Greece, without seeing that the art could not have so suddenly advanced towards perfection, unless there had been some foreign source, from which such men as Pythagoras and Democritus drew their knowledge ? Science is not of mushroom growth. It is born of experience. It becomes strong when it rests upon the accumulated testimonies of the wise. Like the oak, it comes slowly to maturity; nor shows itself clad in the fulness of its honors to the generation that saw it planted in the soil. February, 1818.

W. DRUMMOND. P.S. No. XXXII. p. 267. for “ 14,850 will give as precisely 118,800,000 feet,' read • 14,850, multiplied by 3000, will give as precisely 118,800,000 feet.' A few lines below, for “ 19,840,” read • 19,340.

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NOTÆ ET CURÆ SEQUENTES IN ARATI

DIOSEMEA,

a Th. FORSTER, F.L.S.

No. 111.-[Continued from No. XXXIII. p. 51.]

Ου γαρ ότ' αμφοτέρωθεν ομού περί μέσσον έχωσιν
'Hέλιον κεϊναι νεφέλαι, σχεδόν ωκεανοίο
Γίγνεται άμβολίη, διόθεν χειμώνος ιόντος.
Eίγε μεν εκ βορέαο μιοΐη φοινίσσοιτο,

155

148–156. Observa, vel orientis vel tum expecta; si ex Austro ventum ex occidentis solis, si illa nubium phæno- ea parte. mena, quæ parhelia vocant, aut ab Au Per raphacov intelligenda est falsa stro aut a Borea rubescunt, aut utrim- solis species juxta solem apparens ; non que; nec frivole custodi hanc observa- simpliciter nubes rubens aut splendida tionem. Non enim, cum utrimque juxta solem. Nonnulli transtulere simul eæ nubes solem in medio conti “ nubes quas parhelia vocant.” Sed dent, cum prope oceanum sit, pluviæ quoniam de nubibus lucidis juxta solem venientis dilatio e cælo fit. Si vero e apparentibus, aliis locis agitur, sine ullo Borea una sola rubescat, e Borea fla- nominis hujus (Taphacor) usn, placet

'Εκ βορέα πνοιάς κε φέροι, νοτίη δε, νότοιο.
*Η και που ραθέμιγγες επιτροχόωσ' υετοϊο:
Εσπερίοις και μάλλον αλήθεια τεκμήραιο:
Εσπέροθεν γαρ ομώς σημαίνεται έμμενές αιεί. .
Σκέπτεο και φάτνην: η μέν τ' ολίγη εικυία

160

nobis vepów Tà reddere (ut supra) nu. plane non ignorabant veteres : ita Arisbium effectus seu phænomena, quæ toteles, Td de altiov TOÚTWv åndytay parhelia νοcant; cum qua interpreta- ταυτό, πάντα γάρ ανάκλασις ταυτά έστι: tione non male congruit Aristotelis par- διαφέρουσι δε τους τρόπους, και αφ' ών και heliorum descriptio, Παρήλιοι δε και ως συμβαίνει την ανάκλασιν γίγνεσθαι προς ράβδοι γίνονται εκ πλαγίας αεί και ούτ' τον ήλιον και προς άλλο τι των λαμπρών. ăvowev, otre Tobs Tỷ , số e evavias, [Aristot: Meteor. iii. 2.] Per paBồots ουδε δή νύκτωρ, αλλ' αεί περί τον ήλιον έτι intellige apparentes solis radios, quos δ ή αίρομένου και καταφερομέ.ει τα πλείστα Romani virgas appellavere. Seneca δε προς δύσμας μεσουρανού τες δε σπάνιόν de parheliis scribit, " Quid eas vocem τι γέγονεν οίον εν Βοσπόρο τοτε συνέπεσε" imagines solis? Historici soles vocant δι' όλης γαρ της ημέρας συνάσχοντες δύο et binos ternosque apparuisse memotaphacoe dieténetai uéxpı duodôv. [Arist. riæ tradunt. Græci Parhelia appellant, Meteor, iii. 2.] Plinius illustrat hanc quia in propinquo fere a sole visuntur descriptionem in Historiæ Naturalis aut quia adcedunt ad aliquain similitulibro de parbeliis ita locutus : “ Et dinem solis.” Io capite xiii. ita est, rursus plures soles simul cernuntur, nec “ Solent et bina parhelia fieri, eadem supra ipsum nec infra sed ex obliquo, ratione." Et paullo infra,“ Pluviarum numquam juxta nec contra terram, nec autem et hi soles (utar enim historica noctu ; sed aut oriente aut occidente. lingua) indicia sunt; præcipue si a Semel ex meridie conspectị in Bosphoro parte Austri constiterunt, unde ma. produntur; qui a matutino tempore xime nubes ingravescunt: cum utrimduravere in occasum. Trinos soles an que solem cinxit talis effigies (si Arato tiqui sæpius videre; sicut Sp. Pos. credimus) tempestas surgit.' [Senec. tumio, Q. Mutio, et Q. Martio, M. Por. Nat. Quæst. i. 13.] tio, et M. Antonio, P. Dolabella, et M. De rubescentibus nubibus ita Apol. Lepido, L. Planco coss. Et nostra lonius in Argonauticis, ætas vidit divo Claudio principe, con Τώ δε δι' ατραπιτοίο μεθ' ιερόν άλσος Ικονsulatu ejus Cornelio Orfito collega.

TO, Plures simul quam tres visi, ad hoc evi Φηγόν άπειρεσίην διλημένω, και επί κώας numquam produntur.” [Plin. Hist. Béßanto vepéan evalíyklov fhr' å vlovtos Nat. ii. 31.) Sepeca accnratius scri- 'Heliou Proyepoiol èpeuterat årtivegouv. bit,“ Sunt autem imagines solis in nube (Apollon. Rhod. Argon. jii. 126.] spissa et vicina in modum speculi. Valerius Flaccus imitabatur : Quidam parhelion ita definiunt: Nubes. “ Cnjus adhuc rutilam servabant bra. rotunda et splendida similisque soli.” chia pellem [Senec. Nat. Quæst. i. 2.]

Nubibus accensis similem ; aut cum v. 155. pouviooolto proprie ad purpu veste recincta reum seu phænicéum colorem refert; Labitur ardenti Thaumantias obvia Scapula derivat a verbo phænix : du Phæbo." bito an hoc in loco rubere pro purpu (Val. Flacc. Argon. viii. 114.] rescere ponitur; vel simpliciter splen 157–159. Pergit poeta narrare, aut descere intelligi debet. Parhelia sem- sicubi guttæ decidunt pluviæ. Occiper splendent ; aliqnando color addi. dentalibus enim certiora deprehendetur, per refractionem. Sed vetat Se. res. Namque ab occidente invariabilia peca, (de parheliis) “ Ceterum nihil signa semper sumuntur. De quibus habent ardoris hebetes ac languidi.” jam satis dictum est. [Senec. Nat. Quæst. i. 2.)

160-166. Descriptio constellationis Horum omnium phantasmatum com- pátuns seu Pripsepis— Intuere quoque munis causa refractio est : ipsa tamen Præsepe; quod tenni nubeculæ simile differunt inter se secundum diversas sub Cancro boreali versatur. At circa interposita nubis qualitates; quod ipsum duæ stellæ parum lucentes fe

165

O

'Αχλύϊ, βορραίη υπό Καρκίνο ηγηλάζει.
'Αμφί δέ μιν δύο λεπτά φαινόμενοι φορέονται
'Αστέρες, ούτε τι πολλών απήοροι, ούτε μαλ' εγγύς,
'Αλλ' όσσον τε μάλιστα πυγούσιον oιήσασθαι
Είς μεν παρ' βορέαο, νότω δ' έπιέρχεται άλλος
Και τοι μεν καλέονται όνοι μέσση δε τε φάτνη,
"Ητε και εξαπίνης πάντη Διός ευδιάοντος
Γίνετάφαντος όλη: τοι δ' αμφοτέρωθεν ιόντες
'Αστέρες άλλήλων αυτοσχεδόν ένδάλλονται:
Ουκ ολίγω χειμώνι τότε κλύζονται αρουραι.
Ει δε μελαίνηται, τοι δ' αυτίκ' έoικότες ώσιν
'Αστέρες αμφότεροι περίχ' ύδατι σημαίνουέν.
Εί δ' ο μεν εκ βορέω φάτνης αμενηνα φαείνη
Λεπτος επαχλυόων, νότιος δ' όνος αγλαός είη,
Δειδέχθαι ανέμοιο νότου βορέω δε μάλα χρη
"Εμπαλιν αχλυόεντι φαεινομένω τε δοκεύειν.
Σήμα δέ τοι ανέμοιο και οιδαίνουσα θάλασσα,
Γινέσθω και μακρόν επ' αιγιαλοι βοόωντες,

170

αι ds W, ύς OS 24

175

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runtur; nec multom distantes, nec ventum Austrum expecta. Boream valde vicinæ ; sed talis distantia est ut vero è contra tenebrescente lucenteque maxime cubitum putes. Una Boreæ, observare oportet.-Theophrastum sealtera Aastro appropinquat. Atque cutis est, qui ipse hanc constellatiohæ quidem Asini vocantur; medium nem præcipue tempestatem præmonnautem Præsepe est. Ιta descripta est isse docet, εν τω Καρκίνο δύο αστέρες a Theophrasto. 'Εν τω Καρκίνω δύο εισιν, οι καλούμενοι ένοι, ών το μεταξυ το αστέρες εισίν οι καλούμενοι όνοι. [Theoph. νεφέλιον ή φάτνη καλουμένη: τούτο δε αν Sign. Pluv.]

ζοφώδης γένηται, υδατικόν. [Theoph. 167. Pergit enarrare quæ ex præsepi Sign. Pluv.] Et postea inter tempesprognostica sunt; quo meteorologica tatis signa, ή του όνου φάτνη ει συνίσταται astronomicis confundit. Νam diverse και ζοφερά γίνεται χείμωνα σημαίνει: harum stellarum species, non a propria [Theoph. Sign. Temp.] Quum cælum ipsarum atmosphæra, sed a nostro aëre nulla de causa apparente, ut scilicet efficiuntur; quare ergo hæ, magis quam nube, sed tamquam aëre densato obaliæ stellæ per obscuritatem suam tem- scuratur, ita ut in die sol, noctu vero pestates portendere possint? Si qui. luna et astra languido et obtuso lumine dem ab ipsarum aëre aut aliquo circa splendeant; nubes quam cirrostratum eas fieri possit speciei variatio, quis vocant diffusa est in aëre, e qua, ulla credit tantam inter tam remota sidera forma apparente, sed præcipue cuin relationem existere, ut aliquid in stellis late diffusa sit, certissima pluviarum visum pluviam in mundo præmoneret? signa eveniunt. Rectius tamen paullo Sensus est—Quod etiam confestim, inferius hoc præsagium ad omnes stellas cælo sereno, fit evanidum totuni ; atque poëta retulit, quod nunc ad præsepe stellæ utrimque coeuntes, si invicem solum referre videtur. Vide vv. 281– vicinæ apparent; non modica tempes- 286. tate arva inundant. Si autem nigres 178. Jam coelestia tempestatis procat, cursus vero eodem colore ambæ gnostica relinquens, terrestria amplectistellæ existunt, pluvias significant. Si tur. Et primum de ventorudo signis vero hic (ovos) qui est e præsepis bórea agens, ita docet super eorum adventn modice tenebrescens, languide splen- significare. Atqui signum venti esto dear, cum austrinus avellus lucidus sit, intumescens mare, nec non et margines

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'Ακταί τ' εινάλιοι, οπότ' εύδιοι ήχήεσσαι
Γίγνωνται, κορυφαί τε βοώμεναι ούρεος άκραι.
Και δ' άν επί ξηρών ότερωδιός ου κατά κόσμον

180

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pontum."

multum sonantes. Etiam littora marina, mæve dispersæ aut aquæ bullantes. cum serena arguta fiunt, sonantiaque Pulmones marini in pelago, plarium summa montis cacumina. Theophras- dierum hyemem portendunt. Sæpe tus inter ventorum signa ponit Oánaora et silentio intumescit, flatuque altius οιδούσα, και ακται βοώσαι, και αιγιαλος solito jam intra se esse ventos fatetur. nxâv åveubens. [Theoph. Sign. Vent.] Equidem et montium sonitus nemorum

Virgilius in Georgicorum libro primo que mugitus prædicunt-Atque etiam ita Arati sensum expressit:

in campis tempestatem venturam præ“ Continuo ventis surgentibus aut freta cedens suus fragor. Cæli quidem murPonti

mur non dubiam habet significationem.” Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus [Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. 35.] altis

De hoc venti, e mari, prognostico ita Montibus audiri fragor; aut resonantia Silius versificat: longe

“ Sic ubi prima movent pelago certaLittora misceri et nemorum increbres mina venti, cere murmur.”

Inclusam rabiem ac sparsuras astra (Virg. Geor. i. 359.)

procellas Et in Æneidos libro decimo ubi cæli- Parturit unda freti, fundoque emota colarum fremitus ventorum flaminibus minaces comparat, de nemorum murmure scri- Expirat per saxa sonos, atque acta bit,

cavernis “ Talibus orabat Juno, cunctique fre- Torquet anhelantem in spumanti vertice

mebant Cælicolæ adsensu vario. Ceu flamina

[Sil. Ital. lib. iv.] prima

Et Valerius, Cum deprensa fremunt sylvis, et cæca " Ceu tumet atque imo sub gurgite volutant

concipit austros, Murmura, venturos nautis prodentia Unda silens.” ventos.

(Valer. Flacc. Argon. v.] [Virg. Æneid. x. 99.]

Seneca habet,

“ Agitata ventis unda Et Lucanus in quinto Pharsaliæ li- venturis tumet.” (Senec. Agam.] Etiam bro,

in Thyeste, “ Tum rector trepidæ fatur ratis ; Ad. “ Instat nautis fera tempestas, spice sævum

Cuin sine vento tranquilla tument.” Quanta paret pelagus : Zephyrusne " [Senec. Thyest. 957.] intendat an Eurus

Hoc prognosticum, recentiorum quamIncertum est : puppim dubius ferit un quam experientia confirmatum, primo dique pontus:

tamen ex Homero desumtum video, Nubibus et coelo Notus est. Si mur. qui in Iliade ita canit, mura ponti

Ως δ' ότε πορφύρη πέλαγος μέγα κύματα Consulimus, venient Cori in mare gur κωφώ gite tanto

'Οσσόμενον λιγέων ανέμων λαιμηρά κέNec ratis Hesperias tanget nec naufra λευθα. . gus oras.

[Homer. Il. E. 16.] (Lucan. Phars. v. 573.]

M.T. Cicero ad hanc venti significaPlinius in Hist. Nat. libro scribit : tionem respexisse videtur, quum tristi"Est et aquarum significatio. Mare ficas dicit esse saxorum voces : si tranquillum in portu a cursu stabit, Saxaquecana salis niveo spumata et murniuravit intra se, sentum prædi liquore cit. Si identidem, et hyemem et ini. Tristificas certant Neptuno reddere brem. Littora ripæque si resonabunt tranquillo; asperam tempestatem; item

(Cicero Divin. i.] maris ipsius tranquillo sonitus ; spu 181. In pertractandis ventorum in

voces.

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