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Heward is treated of by Mr. Bardsley as being a or Herward, of Cambridgeshire, temp. Edward I., variant spelling of Heyward; and I believe he is Chequée, or and azure, on a bend gules, three quite right. There is no phonetic law against it. eagles displayed argent. My own family bore But how Hereward can be twisted into Heward is Argent, a chevron between three stags' heads caquite beyond me.

bossed gules ; but in the History of the Com. We are further told that Howard is a contraction moners it is stated, without, I think, any real of the Anglo-Saxon Holdward, the governor of a proof, that previous to the reigns of Charles I. and hold or keep.” The objections to his are over- Charles II, the Berkshire Harwoods used indiswhelming.

criminately eagles and stage' heads. Howard is a mere variant of Haward, another I quote the following from Burke's 'Visitation form of Hayward ; this has been shown in of Seats and Arms": 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. X. 29, 60, 74; and still more

“In the time of Edward I., in the 'Normina de conclusively from registers, also in "N. & Q.'; but Nobilium Equitumque, &c., de Northfolk, Sir


Herward is mentioned as bearing d'azure a une fesse I forget the reference, and cannot just now recover gabonne de goules, et de vert iii hewtes d'argent.' it. The derivations from hogward and hallward

Sir Bernard Burke also states that these same are both bad guesses, and unsupported. However this may be, I, at any rate, should like to ask where arms were borne

at the Visitation of London in we can find the A.-S. Holdward "; and, for the 1634 by George Harwood, brother of Sir Edward matter of that, where we can find the A.-S. hold Harwood, who was killed at the siege of Maestricht in the sense of stronghold or “keep.” I do not in 1632. This Sir Edward Harwood was of Lincolnthink it at all right that we should be perpetually the Berkshire Harwoods,

though he has often been

shire origin, and apparently in no way related to troubled with bogus “Anglo-Saxon ” words that seem to have originated merely in imaginative introduced into their pedigree. brains. Every one who knows Anglo-Saxon at all

Is not E. V. H. incorrect in his derivation of knows that hold is an adjective, meaning “faith. Howard from holdward ? The modern editions of ful" or "true.” When (very rarely) it is used as

Burke's 'Peerage' deduce the Dukes of Norfolk a substantive, it means

The A.-S. from one Hereward, the exile, whose grandson form of hold, a fortress, is not hold, but heald!

Hereward, or Howard, and his wife Wilburga made Next we are told that “ Leofwin”

(temp. Henry II.) a grant of land to the church of lover of war.” It is really too much that such an Saxon name, and it by no means follows that the

Lynn. Heroward was probably a very ordinary astonishing mistake should be inflicted on us. is a quadruple blunder. For first, it is misspelt ; rived from it possess a common origin.

numerous families whose modern surnames are dethe word meant is Leofwine, and the final e, being agential, makes all the difference. Secondly, leof


12, Onslow Gardens, S.W. (rather léof) does not mean “lover,” nor is it a substantivo ; it is an adjective, meaning “ dear,” HANOVER (7th S. v. 488; vi. 55).-MR. STEGGALL, modern Eng. lief. Thirdly, win does not mean quoting from Ebers's 'Dictionary,' finds that in war; the proper spelling is winn, with a double n, 1798 this name was spelt Hannover, which he and it makes a difference in Anglo-Saxon etymo- thinks is “therefore probably the earliest form.” logy whether an n is really double or not. And The earliest form is Hanovere, which occurs in a fourthly, the word meant is wine, a friend. Leofwine is simply “ dear friend.” What then becomes century, and printed by Pertz (“Monumenta Ger

'Life of St. Bernward,' written in the eleventh of " lover of war”? WALTER W. SKEAT.

maniæ,' vol. vi. p. 783). The etymology “hohen E. V. H.’s query is interesting to me, as my Ufer,” suggested by scheid in 1750, is approved

" ancestors, who were settled from the fourteenth to by Grimm, and is generally accepted' by scholars.

See Förstemann, 'Alt-deutsches Namenbuch,' vol.

ii. Berkshire, originally spelt their name Hereward. 1. p: 710; and Egli

, 'Etymologisch-geographisches Robert Bereward gave, by grant, dated 19 Ed: Lexicon,' p. 234.

ISAAC TAYLOR. ward III. (1345), lands in East Hagbourne, or In the documents concerning the town of HanHackbourne, to the Abbey of Cirencester, of which over which have been published critically (“Urkunabbey William Hereward was abbot in 1346. I denbuch des Historischen Vereins für Niedermust here record that the descent from Hereward sachsen. Heft V., Urkundenbuch der Stadt the Great, hinted at in the pedigrees contained in Hannover bis zum Jahre 1369, Hannover, 1860') Burke's History of the Commoners,' the 1850 the writing with two n's is very rare. I have edition of the Landed Gentry,' and in Burke's found it but twice in documents copied from the *Visitation of Seats and Arms," is, in my opinion, originals (p. 7, anni 1226, “ Lambertus de Honapocryphal.

novere"; and p. 35, anni 1272, “In Honnovere"), The arms which E. V. H. remembers having besides twice in documents not printed from the seen are probably those of Sir Robert Hereward, originals. The ordinary orthography, which occurs

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more than a hundred times, is Honovere. Later a long, drab-coloured coat with a star upon the documents have been published by Grupen, under right breast and a cape ; each of his arms encircles the title of 'Origines et Antiquitates Hanoverenses, a gin-drinking old woman, and at his feet, one of &c.,' Goettingen, 1740. To judge from these—which is cloven like a satyr's, sprawls a young though, of course, in former times no great import- woman who applies a bottle to her lips. A dandy, ance was attached to orthographic niceties—the standing near, inspects the scene through his quizwriting with two n's becomes more frequent from, and observes, “ Hang her! She's quite the fifteenth century. Respecting the o or a in drunk.” A label issuing from the mouth of the the first syllable, there is in the “Urkundenbuch,' principal person makes him observe, “As for me, p. 60, a note that in the twelfth and thirteenth my name is sufficient; I am known by the title of centuries the town clerks nover, strangers rarely, the Paragon of Debauchery, and I only claim to bo wrote Hanovere.

A. Fels. the [Prince]'s Confidential Friend." The letterpress Hamburg.

description of the caricature contains the following

illustrative paragraph :SOAPY SAM (7th S. vi. 46).—The sobriquet of “Soapy Sam” given to the late Bishop Wilber- buckishly attired, with a peculiar cast of countenance,

A tall, strapping - looking person, shabbily but force most certainly did not have its origin in the now stepped forward, and cried out, “My name is sufcombination of his own initials S. O. (Sam. Oxon) ficient. Whoever has heard of must know that with those of the Principal of Cuddesdon, A. P. I am without a rival in the annals of debauchery, I (Alfred Pott, not Potts), but was certainly anterior claim no higher honour than to be my Prince's friend in to the somewhat unfortunate juxtaposition of those I have for some time been searching without sucletters in the chapel of that college to which MR.cess for an octavo portrait of Major Hanger. SIKES refers. A friend of mine was present on the

ALFRED WALLIS, F.R.S.L. occasion alluded to, and I have heard him tell how

Exeter. dismayed he was when, on reaching the east end This Lord Coleraine was the same person as the of the chapel and turning round to survey the build- Hon. Geo. Hanger, gazetted an ensign in the army ing, he descried the unhappy letters S. O. A. P. in 1796. See Mr. Walford's Tales of Great in floral decorations above the stalls of the bishop Families,' first series, vol. ii. p. 101, where details and of the principal respectively, at the west end. of his life and his portrait will be found. “An enemy,” he exclaimed, “hath done this."

MUS IN URBE. But it was too late then to alter it. The story, though tolerably well known, may be

G. F. R. B. will find soveral portraits of Col. worth repeating, that the bishop himself, being Hanger in Gillray's 'Caricatures. See pp. 32, 162, asked in a railway carriage by some impertinent 257, 262, 323, 423, 426, 437, 463, 523. fellow passenger, who pretended not to recognize

E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. him, "why the Bishop of Oxford was called Soapy BROMPTON (7th S. v. 389, 432) =Broom encloSam,” replied, "Don't you know? It is because

R. S. CHARNOCK. whatever mess he gets into he always comes out with clean hands." EDMUND VENABLES.

BOOTH OF GILDERSOME (3rd S. v. 172).- From a

recent note in the Leeds Mercury my attention has I have always understood that the coincidence been called to the inquiry of H. N. S. concerning of the combined initials S, O. and A. P. suddenly Booth of Gildresome. The family still flourishes struck with consternation the spectators on the at Gildersome, not Gildresome, as your correspond, occasion of a festivity at Cuddesdon which the ent puts it, and if H. N. S. is still in existence and bishop was to attend, and when there was not time cares to correspond with me I shall be glad to give to alter the floral arrangement, as his lordship was him any information I may possess thereupon. momentarily expected. This must have been after

Philip H. Booth. the sobriquet had been applied, or there would Gildersome, near Leeds. have been no such cause for disturbance. A very good story is told of the bishop himself, who asked SINGULAR SOLECISMS (7th S. ii. 434). --The a friend if he knew why he (the bishop) was called Globe of March 23, p. 5, col. 2, informs the world Soapy Sam. The friend, of course, expressed his that Lord Molyneux "introduced the Prince of ignorance on the subject. "Because," said the Right Wales" to the Mayor of Liverpooland several others. Rev. Samuel, “I come out of every transaction | Very kind of him, certainly! We may, perhaps, with clean banda."

C. H. charitably consider it a misprint, and not a solecism,

that in the next column we are told that large disGEORGE Hanger, FOURTI BARON COLERAINE tricts of the coast of the Black Sea have been (7 S. vi. 47). There is a caricature portrait of “sequestered” to the Crown. this person in a large cartoon, by George Cruik- At p. 633 of the Graphic, June 16, we have an shank, issued with the Scourge, for Nov. 2, 1812. illustration to a chapter of a current romance deHe is represented as a tall, full-faced man, wearing picting a fat little woman in the centre holding a

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fatter little man by her right hand and the fattest it is a widespread notion that it is a prudent thing big girl in tartan riding habit and sealskin jacket during a thunderstorm to leave a door or a window by her left. Under the trio is written,“ Take him, open for the easy egress of the lightning, should it my dear,' she added, placing his band in that of have got into the house. During the thunderstorms Clara's."

which prevailed in June last I noticed several Wbat is the sense of calling a common police houses in which the windows were open at the top

officer”? A notable instance of this and at the bottom, evidently with this intention. absurdity occurs in the Times of May 2, p. 5, I have seen the same thing at other places, notably col. 4, where a not very distinguished member of in Nottinghamshire. At one time, in Paris, when the force is so designated five several times. it began to thunder and lighten they used to ring

R. H. BUSK. the great bell at the Abbey St. Germain, which 16, Montagu Street, Portman Square.

they believed would make it cease.

The same ALPUE (7th S. vi. 39).—In the review of the new

used to be done in Wiltshire at Malmesbury edition of Sir G. Etherege's works at the above Abbey. , In The Burdypge of Paules Church in reference it is noted that this term of the game of

London' (1561) there is enumerated, amongst basset is not explained in the New Dictionary." other superstitions, " ringinge the hallowed Belle in It may, therefore, be worth while to state that this great Tempestes or Lightninges."

J. W. ALLISON. game is first described (in English) in the ‘Com

Stratford, E. pleat Gamester,' edition of 1709, where the following paragraph occurs in the “Explanation of the A similar widespread notion or superstition preTerms":

vails in the south-west of Germany, viz., to leave "9. The Alpiew is much the same thing as the Paroli, not the house door, but the sitting room door open and like that Term usd when a Couch is won by turning during a thunderstorm, after having shut all winup, or crooking the corner of the winning Card." dows, and to take your seat as far away from the Further, “the Couch,” which may also be un- windows as possible, in the middle of the room, to familiar to modern card-players, “is a term for the escape a possible stroke of lightning. first Mony that every Punter puts upon each Card,”

H. KREBS. &c. There are other terms used in basset which Oxford. would not a little mystify the punter of to-day. JULIAN MARSHALL.

CHALLIS (7th S. vi. 7).-If DR. MURRAY will

accept of a reminiscence instead of a quotation, I CONFUCIUS (7th S. vi. 8).-Shoo is thus explained can inform him that in the nursery wherein I was in Prof. Legge's article on “Confucius” in the baby,” there was, about 1840, a nameless doll, 'Encyclopædia Britannica':

always known as Shally Dolly," because it wore “Foremost among theso (lessons] we must rank his a dress of this material. But I was taught to spell distinct enunciation of the 'golden rule,' deduced by the word not chaly, but chalé. Was there any him from his study of mau's mental constitution.


connexion with chale ?
Several times he gave that rule in express words :-
• Wbat you do not like when done to yourself do not
do to others. The peculiar nature of the Chinese lan-

Railway TICKETS (7th S. vi. 4).-In the years
guage enabled him to express this rule by one cha- 1840 and 1841 I had occasion to travel frequently
racter, which, for want of a better term, we may from Manchester to York. The clerk took down
translate in English by 'reciprocity.' When the ideo-
gram is looked at, it tells its meaning to the eye, my name and address and entered it into a way-
thing seen weightier than a thing heard.' It is com-

book before giving me my ticket. The ticket was posed of two other characters, one denoting heart," of paper. At one time the tickets were all collected and the other-itself composite-denoting ‘as. Tye at a barrier before entering the train. But this kung once asked if there was any one word which did not long continue, for persons took advantage would serve as a rule of practice for all one's life, and of the opportunity of travelling for a long journey the master replied, yer, daming this character (shu) the as heart, my heart; that is, in sympathy with while taking a short-journey ticket. The train was yours; and then be added his usual explanation of it, started by a bugle, on which the air "I'd be a which has been given above. It has been said that he butterfly was played. Carriages were made to only gave the rule in a negative form, but he under- resemble stage coaches as much as possible. Lugstood it also in its positive and most comprehensive force, and deplored, on one occasion at least, that he gage was placed on the top, much to the detriment had not always attained to taking the initiative in of the luggage, besides giving a great deal of unnecesdoing to others as he would have them do to him." sary labour to the porters. The guards sat in seats Prof. Douglas, in his 'Confucianism and Taonism, on the top of the carriages, where they were exposed argues in support of the merely negative force of not only to wind and rain, quite unnecessarily, but EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

to the far greater inconvenience of receiving all the

cinder-dust of the engine into the eyes and mouth. LETTING THE LIGHTNING OUT (7th S. vi. 8). - Myexperience of railway travelling goes muchfurther As the Editor suggests in a foot-note to this query, back. I travelled on the first railway that carried pas.


the precept.


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sengers, the Stockton and Darlington line, which Edition of the English Poets,” by Robert Bell, was opened for passenger traffic five years before · Ballads, Songs, &c., of the Peasantry,' London, the Liverpool and Manchester. Its first passenger 1857, p. 216, he will see that the story in the carriage was the body of a stage coach fixed to a Generation of Judges' (p. 14) may very well be railway truck. The majority of the passengers on correct, for there is this note on "The Lincolnshire the day of opening had to content themselves with Poacher':places in empty coal-waggons.

“This very old ditty has been transformed into the E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. dialects of Somersetsbire, Nothamptonshire, and LeiA collection of railway tickets would, half

cestershire, but it properly belongs to Lincoloshire."

ED. MARSHALL. century hence, be of some antiquarian interest. We have collections of postage stamps ad nauseam,

I think the above is the correct title of this and why not tickets ? Has any attempt been made ditty, though it has been made to do duty for to form one? I can fancy that were an interest Lancashire, Leicestershire, and I believe several once aroused in the collection of tickets it would other shires. The earliest copy I have seen is in soon far outstrip that in postage stamps, for the a duodecimo pamphlet printed at Dublin. This simple reason that tickets are more costly and was reprinted, with one or two_typographical more difficult to obtain. If any reader of N. &Q.' errors, in the Midland Counties Historical Colhas commenced collecting, I shall be glad to com- lector, vol. ii. p. 320.

ANON. municate with him.

G. W. M. CHAFFER (716 S. vi. 7). —

STORM=Frost (7th S. v. 448, 473).-Somewhat

analogous to this use of storm for frost is the use What do I care for the Doctor Seraphic,

of orage for wind of any kind, even for a light With all bis wordy chaffer and traffic ? "Golden Legend,' sect. vi. (p. 238, Albion ed.).

breeze, upon the Saône. Mr. P. G. Hamerton

twice notes this in 'The Saône : a Summer Is this such a quotation as DR. MURRAY wants ? C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

Voyage'; see pp. 58, 81. I quote from the latter Foleshill Hall, Coventry.

reference :

“The word 'orage' on the banks of the Saône has not CHAD PENNIES (7th S. vi. 7).-For some account its usual French meaning...... In ordinary French it of Chad pennies and Chad farthings see a letter means a storm, generally a thunderstorm, but on the from Samuel Pegge, printed in the Gentleman's wind, even a light breeze. Our pilot called the faintest

Saône it means the south wind, and, by extension, any Magazine for June, 1788.

breezes l'orage,' which produces the oddest effect until EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. one is accustomed to it. The English reader may realize Hastinge,

this by supposing that in some parts of England faint

breezes were always called thunderstorms by the inROYAL OFFERINGS AT THE FEAST OF THE habitants." EPIPHANY (7th S. v. 369; vi. 13).—In the year

St. SWITHIN. 1861 or 1862 I bad an opportunity of inspecting

In this county (Worcester) storm is invariably the Epiphany offerings. After being offered they applied by the peasantry to rain, while thunder become the property of the Dean of the Chapel and lightning is always called a tempest. Royal. Dr. Tait then occupied that office, and it

W. M. M. was through him that I saw the offerings. There was a red pasteboard box, with a gilt star on the LOUVIMA, A NEW CHRISTIAN NAME (76 S. vi. lid. Inside were three small silk bags, one con- 6).-CUTHBERT Bede's note on this name reminds taining a few grains of incense, another a few me of similar Christian Dames I have met with leaves of myrrh, and the other a small roll of while preparing the registers of St. Alphage, beaten gold such as is used by gilders. I have Canterbury, for the press. In 1706 Louina never heard of any such change as your corre- Backer was baptized, where probably u=v. spondent St. SWITHIN mentions. It certainly the name is Lovina. In 1730 Lovevina Cooper would be an improvement if a gold coin were was christened, and in 1769 I find a Levina substituted for such a mere apology for gold as Cramp. Possibly the whole of these may be is that used. E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.

variants of Lavinia. If not, the first and second

go far to prove that Sir Francis Knollys has “ PAIZ" AND

ALFRED CROWQUILL(7th S. vi. narrowly escaped " appropriating” an invention of 26).-In works illustrated by Alfred Crowquill has the last century.

J. M. COWPER. 'Pickwick Abroad,' by G. W. M. Reynolds, pub- Canterbury. lished in 1839, now a rare book, beep included ?


“Pereant qui ante nos nostra dixerunt.” If CuthSt. Andrews, N.B.

BERT BEDE coined the name Mareli for one of his

fictitious heroines, a very similar name was coined "TAE LINCOLNSHIRE POACHER' (7th S. vi. 26). for a real person long before his facile and amusing -If St. SWITHIN will consult "The Annotated pen began to be exercised. A lady well known to

If so

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visitors to Ventnor thirty or forty years ago, the Romulus, and considering the parallel name wife of the Rev. J. Noble Coleman, incumbent of Remus, given to Romulus's brother, or perhaps St. Catherine's Churcb, bore the name "Marella,” other self, a confusion may have arisen, and the which was evidently formed in the same way by result have been the changes of Romnes into the combination of portions of two Christian names. Ramnes, or rather Romnenses into Ramnenses. I can mention another example. When dining,

Julius STEGGALL. five-and-thirty years back, with that excellent 3, Queen Square, W.C. archæologist and accurate editor the late H. T. Riley, I met a young lady who, to my surprise,

KNIGHTED AFTER DEATH (7th S. v. 169, 235, answered to the name “Marmary.” Asking my 392).- Was not Bishop Fisher made a cardinal host whether I heard the name aright, he told me

after his death ? E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. that the young lady had been so called after her

Perhaps the following, which I take from the two godmothers, one of whom was named Martha, London Gazette of July 3, 1888, p. 3633, ought to and the other Mary, her own name combining the be added to Miss Busk's list :two.


“The King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment).-Lieut. MAJOR-GENERAL Sir John Stuart (7th S. vi. Edgar Piozi Wells (since deceased) to be captain vice

Brevet-Major A. Hunter D.S.O, seconded. Dated May 28).—The Annual Register for 1815 records the 23rd, 1888." death, on April 1, of

ONESIPHORUS. “Sir John Stuart, K.B., a Lieut.-Gen., and Lieut.-Gov. of Grenada. The title of Count of Maida was conferred

A GERMAN DICTIONARY OF PHRASE AND on him by the King of the two Sicilies on account of his FABLE (6th S. xi. 347, 455 ; 7th S. v. 255).-A gallantry in the battle of that name."

good book of the kind has just appeared, Die Edward H. MARSHALL, M.A.

Sprichwörtlichen Redensarten im Deutschen VolksReference Library, Hastings.

mund,' von Wilhelm Borchardt, Leipzig, Brock. Sir John Stuart died at Clifton on April 1, 1815,

haus, price 5 marks.


Hamburg, “ where he had gone for the recovery of his health, which had been declining ever since his return HISTORIATED (7th S. v. 485).--Is not rather too from Italy," and was buried in Bristol Cathedral. wide a meaning given to this word in your correSir John was a lieutenant-general in the army. spondent's note ? There are several words used to The title of Count Maida was conferred upon him describe large ornamental initials, such as bloomby the sovereign of the Two Sicilies for gallant ing, flourished, floriated, pictorial, historiated, conduct in the field. See Gentleman's Magazine illuminated, scroll - work initials, &c. By hisfor April, 1815, p. 379.

G. F. R. B. toriated I have understood only initials containing

histories, whether from the book in which they are THE FIRST SERIAL NOVEL (76 S. v. 467).--I used or any other. The initials in the Bishops' have a very strong impression that I read the Bible representing Neptune, Apollo and Daphne, “Romance of the Forest' in the pages of the Jupiter and Leda, &c., might be called historiated, Ladies' Magazine when I was a boy.

and others in the book might be called floriated; E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. but most booksellers would simply call them allornaRAMNES (7th S. v. 449).—That this word should mental or woodcut, and only apply the term hisbe derived from Romulus seems rather far-fetched, toriated to painted initials in manuscripts contain

When the yet in some way a connexion between the two may ing small figures of men and women. be pointed out, with no degree of certainty, of illuminations contain birds, insects, or grotesques, course, but as slightly possible.

they do not call them historiated. At least, such

R. R. Varro ('De Lingua Latina') frequently asserts is my experience, that Roma is derived from Romulus, and if this

Boston, Lincolnshire. derivation be accepted, the word Romanensis, Like MR. BUCKLEY I had noticed that his. found as early as Cato's 'De Re Rustica,' and per- toriated does not appear in Annandale's edition of haps derived through Romanus, is indirectly do Ogilvie, and about two years ago I sent Dr. Murrived from Romulus. From Romanensis might ray a quotation for the word from the Athenæum. come Ramnenses, whence, of course, Ramnes. No doubt historiated will duly appear in the 'New The above seems a long series of changes ; but, English Dictionary.'

JOHN RANDALL. taking into account the very long period between the foundation of Rome and the earliest written TITLE OF NOVEL (7th S. v. 488; vi. 15, 55). mention of the term Ramnes or Ramnenses, there -Tatton's inquiry is partly, but correctly, was room for much gradual variation in the word. answered by G. B. M. in giving the title of

A different connexion might be pointed out also the novel as 'Outward Bound." The author If Roma comes from Romulus, and Luceres from was Lieut. Edward Howard, who also wrote Lucumo, then Romnonses might be derived from Rattlin the Reefer,' both successful novels in

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