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martyrs in which Bishop Hooper is related to have KLAUS GROTH'S LECTURE IN LONDON.-Dr. G. taken refuge from the persecution of the Six Danneh), in his essay on 'Low German Language Articles at Sutton Court, under the protection of and Literature' (Berlin, 1875), mentions by the Sir John St. Loe, of whose family the Hoopers way a lecture delivered in London by Klaus Groth, were retainers ? A copy of the book was here forty the celebrated Low German writer and poet. Has years ago, but has been lost.

this lecture been published either in English or EDWARD STRACHEY. in German; and where ?

H. Gaidoz. Sutton Court, Pensford, Bristol.

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. HERALDIC : QUARTERINGS OF SIR THOMAS Thomas DRAY.-Information concerning the MORE. - The Chancellor and his father, Sir John Thomas Dray who wrote ' Chronic Diseases,' 8vo., More, and their descendants bore Quarterly 1 and 1772, will be gratefully received. D. VALE. 4, More ; 2 and 3, Arg., on a chev. between three St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S. unicorns' heads erased sa. as many bezants. To

MUSICAL TASTE IN BIRDS.-A correspondent what family do these arms belong; and when were of the Essex Naturalist in the current number of they acquired by the Mores? Sir John's grand that journal says:mother was Johanna, daughter of John Leycester. The arms in question are not hers. Who did his

“For two successive days last week, while playing the

organ in the school chapel, a robin has come in through father, John More, marry; or, rather, who was Sir the open door, attracted, I can hardly doubt, by the John's mother? Any information as to these arms music. The bird has come and sat on a choir seat or the ancestors of Sir John and Sir Thomas More behind me, at a distance of about three feet from my will be thankfully received by

shoulder, and sang as if on a tree in the open air. The

louder I played, the more vigorously it sang, and apCOL. MOORE, C.B.

parently thoroughly enjoyed it; if ever I left off playing, Frampton Hall, near Boston.

it ceased singing also. Occasionally it would fly down to 'THE CROSS Roads: A ROMANCE OF REAL the west end and then come up again and sing by my

side." LIFE.'- I have in my library a mutilated copy of a book with this title. The covers and title-page musical taste in birds ?

Can any of your readers give similar instances of

ONESIPHORUS. being lost, I can obtain no clue to the name of author or publisher. The work was written in

WORKMEN'S ECLOGUES.-Recalling the times French, probably

between 1820 and 1830, during “when every trade was a mystery and had its own the period of the Restoration. As I am anxious to guardian saint,” Coleridge adds ('The Friend,' obtain it in the original, I should be much obliged 1818, iii. 82):for any information on the subject.

“There are not many things in our elder popular CRAVEN SMITH, M.D.

literature, more interesting to me than those contests, or Cravengea, Torquay.

Amabean Eclogues between workmen for the superior “Nièce (ONCLE) À LA MODE DE BRETAGNE.” | to be sold at our village fairs, in stitched sheets, neither

worth and dignity of their several callings, which used -Why are the daughter of a first cousin and the untitled nor undecorated, though without the superfluous first cousin of a parent so called ?

cost of a separate title-page." ROBERT PIERPOINT,

A reference to any collection of these, either St. Austin's, Warrington,

originals or in reprint would oblige. J. D. C. THERE'S A DIFFERENCE I WEEN."-Some fifty

AMSTERDAM BOURSE OPEN TO CHILDREN.years ago a worthy and witty baronet of this county Some few years ago, in passing through the streets used to sing a comic song describing the impostures of Amsterdam near the Bourse, I saw a number practised by the various classes of beggars. The of children and adults standing about the entrance first verse was as follows :

to that building, and heard a terrible noise of shoutThere's a difference I ween

ing and the blatant playing upon toy musical in"Twixt a beggar and a queen, And I 'll tell you the reason why

struments by boys and girls inside; and as I saw A queen can't swagger,

so many passing in and out, I ventured to enter Nor get drunk like a beggar,

myself, and endeavoured to ascertain what it Nor be half so happy as I.

was all about. Upon asking a looker-onlike Then follows a chorus (which I forget) to the effect myself, he told me in Dutch, which I could most that it is all sham and imposture. I have never imperfectly understand that it was to commemorate seen the song in print, and being anxious to pos- some noble deed performed by a lad many years sess the whole of it

, I shall feel greatly indebted if ago, who, upon being asked how he should be any correspondent of N. & Q." will kindly send recompensed, expressed a wish that the Bourse me direct a copy of the song or inform me where might be thrown open one day in every year for it is to be met with.


children of Amsterdam to disport themselves WILLIAM KELLY, F.S.A. as I have above described. Can any of your Leicester,

readers give me a more perfect narration of this

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affair, as my imperfect knowledge of the language and adduced as a proof of the pre-existence of the rendered it very difficult for me to understand the human soul. To which of the seven or eigbt explanation my informant so kindly gave me? Olympiodori should it be attributed ; and is there

Geo. C. PRATT. any foundation of truth in the statement ? Norwich,

J. M. BRADFORD FAMILY. — Would any of the de- HARVEST HORN. – A writer in the Hertscendants of the marriage of Jane Bradford (who fordshire Notes and Queries,' published in the 1 was the daughter of John Bradford, of Falmer, Herts Mercury of September 15 last, states, Sussex, yeoman, and died 1749) and Humphrey “The custom of horn-blowing during harvest

, , Payne, of Brighton, favour me with any notes they operations is, I believe, one peculiar to Hertford i may possess of her family, for a history of the shire." I shall be glad to know if this is the case. name which I am compiling?

I have often heard the harvest horn in East Herts,

J. G. BRADFORD. but, so far as I can remember, not elsewhere. 157, Dalston Lane, E.

HENRI LE LOSSIGEL. [Answers may be sent direct.]

WYDDELIN. - At an old moated farmhouse, Tennyson's J. S.-Who was the J. S. to whom now known as Willeigh, or Walley, Hall, are the Lord Tennyson addressed his poem :

remains of a chapel, going by the name of Lady The wind that beats the mountain blows

Wyddelin's Chapel; and very old residents assert More softly round the open wold ?

they have tradition that preaching was done there. I had always thought it was John Sterling ; but It is situate in the parish of Fairstead, near Witham. I find that Sterling bad but one brother, and that Who was Lady Wyddelin or Widelin, or her anbrother survived him.

cestry and descendants ? Local histories furnish C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

no clue, and I have searched peerages in vain. I Foleshill Hall, Coventry.

shall be glad to learn of her or of the chapel.

PARKIN.-Can any one tell me the derivation of Colchester,
this word, applied to a kind of cake eaten by
Lancashire people on November 5? I am told

MERCURY.-In Lincolnshire a vegetable comthat it has no plural, unless "parkin cakes” is monly called "mercury” is constantly served at equal to one. I should be pleased, too, to hear the the dinner table. Can any reader tell me what is origin of the custom. I am almost a stranger in its scientific name? I have never seen it in use the North, and am away from books of reference.


H. T. F.


A SOCIETY OF KABBALISTS.—Johann F. Falk [See 4th S. viii. 494.]

succeeded to the directorate of a secret society of LIQUID GAS.-In Macready's 'Diary' of Aug. 31, students of the Kabbalah about 1810, in London, 1838, there is the following : “Went to the City

I believe. Its name was “ Chabrah Zereb aur with Bradwell and Brydone to see the newly in- bokher," as nearly as Hebrew can be put into vented light, the liquid gas; was much pleased with English. The late Eliphaz Lovi, of Paris, was it.” And on the following day there is an entry concerned in it later on. Is this society still in about “A Mr. Ashford called, on the part of the existence ?

GUSTAV MOMMSEN. Liquid Gas Company." Any particulars of this would be interesting.


GEORGE ELLIS. St. John's Wood.

any reader of 'N. & Q.' inform me whether this

picture was painted in oils or in water colours, and ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK:-Is there any work on also where it now is ? The engravings of it are the Archbishops of York corresponding to Hook's rare, and fetch a considerable price. ‘Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury'?


BEANS IN LEAP-YEAR. — Some time ago a Thomas Lawson, the Quaker botanist, some- Worcestershire girl informed me than an old time priest of Rampside, was the son of Sir Thomas woman at Hartlebury had told her that all the and Lady Lucy Lawson. Can one of your readers beans this year had grown upside down because it trace the pedigree further, and add particulars of was leap-year. I have very recently received a his parents' lives ?

Q. V. letter from an old Northumberland borderer, an

unsophisticated Cheviot "herd,” and be happens INFANTS NEVER Laugh.—“ Infants for nearly to say, curiously enough, “The beans is all upside three weeks after their birth do not laugh when down in the pod in the feelds, the people thinks it awake; but when asleep they both laugh and cry." very strange.” So do I; and I shall be obliged This is quoted as the opinion of Olympiodorus, by any one kindly helping me to an explanation.



As the belief seems to extend from Northumber, land to the Midlands, possibly it is well known.

What movements amongst the beans can have
given rise to such a notion ?


(7th S. vi. 187, 309, 357.) Broadway, Worcestershire.

Canon Taylor in rifling Förstemann's article [See .Leap-Year Folk-lore,' 7th S. v. 204.] on struot has converted what is merely a conjecture UNCLE.—Can any of the readers of ‘N. & Q.' I that Förstemann did not know the grounds for Vil

into a definite assertion, and he does not tell us give me the origin of the word uncle as applied to mar's giving this word the meaning of" waste.” The a pawnbroker ?


connexion of this word with the O.E. verb strūdan, [See 3rd S. iii. 471.]

which has aroused the ire of A. L. M., is due to

CANON TAYLOR, who has added to his recklessness JACK HACKMAN.—Was there a portrait of Hack- by telling us that the Stort is connected with the man sketched by Rev. William Pēters, R.A., and strūt of the Thüringian river Un-strūt, and that engraved ; and under what circumstances ? this must be kept entirely distinct from the O.H.G.

EBORACUM. struot, although Förstemann connects the ThürinTAE DEFINITION OF A PROVERB.-At 7th S. vi. gian river-name with struot. The old forms of the 332 the Rev.John PICKFORD says, “ Earl Russell

, Un-strūt show that it is from *ströd, the earlier it is known, well defined a proverb as "the wisdom of form of O.H.G. struot. How an 0.E. ströd could many expressed by the wit of one,'

» » but I have produce the modern Stort CANON TAYLOR does not this definition ascribed to Archbishop

condescend to inform us. Whateley. Which of these is the author ?

Schade gives to 0.H.G. struot the meaning of Sandro Panza says, “Proverbs are short sentences

swamp, fen, or reedy ground," and suggests that drawn from long and wise experiences.” Perhaps Un-strūt was originally a stretch of marshy ground "N. & Q.' can aid in fixing the parentage of the drained by the One, and that as this marshy land first of these definitions. J. W. ALLISON.

became cultivated the name was gradually restricted Stratford, E.

to the river. I think that this must be something

like the history of the Gloucestershire Stroud. I JUDGE Best : GREAT MIND.-Analogous to the have searched in vain for an early mention of the escapades chronicled in 'Curiosities of Cataloguing' town of Stroud, and I cannot help thinking that it (70 S. v. 505; vi. 54) is a mistake in a legal derives its name either from the Stroud river or the index. Under the title “Best (Judge)” we find Stroud Valley. There is a "manerium de Strodes" the words "great mind” with reference to a certain in a charter of 1199 in the Charter Rolls, p. 3, but page. Turning to that page we read that “Judge this is clearly not the Gloucestershire Stroud. But Best had a great mind to commit a certain man I think that the “wood of the Strode” (“ boscus for contempt of court." Though confident that I de la Strode ") granted to Richard de Muscegros have met with this blunder as above described, in 1200 (id., 51b) must, from the grantee's name, I am obliged to beg readers of ‘N. & Q.,' to whom be the site of Stroud. There is a Robert of Stroode, I seldom look in vain, to tell me where to look for a regarder of Dean Forest in 1338 (“Cartul. S. Petri what I lack.

JAMES D. BUTLER. Glouc.,' vol. iii. p. 235), who in all probability deMadison, Wis., U.S.

rived his name from the Stroud, whatever it was. BIOGRAPHY.—Where is it possible to find any, this, I think, is the source of this name.

This orthography points to an 0.E. *ströd, and biographical information about Prince Adalbert of

I have several examples of this word from the Prussia, who wrote a voyage, translated into Eng-0.E. charters, which show that strād was a neuter lish with this title : “Travels of the Prince Adalbert of Prussia in the South of Europe and Brazil, either marshy ground or ground covered with

It seems to mean

noun of the o-declension.* with a Voyage to the Amazon and the Xiugu, brushwood. translated by Sir R. H. Schomburgk and J. R. Taylor. London, Bogue, 1849, 2 vols. 8vo., with tury copy) : " Hæc sunt prata quæ ad illam per:

1. A.D. 889, Cart. Sax.,' ii. 202, 13 (tenth cenmaps and plates"}. The prince bad as a fellow tinent, (d est] et [=æt] Bioccan lea, and an suð traveller a Count Bismark, lieutenant of dragoons. healfe'strodes an cyninges medum." This appears Was this latter a relative of the great Chancellor ? to be the Kentish Strood. Can I have any information about his family?

2. A.D. 938, 'Cart. Sax.,' ii. 442, 34: “andlang


* It may, as Schade suggests of the O.H.G. form, have By the banks of a murmuring stream an elderly gentle- been originally a u-stem like flöd, “flood.” His sug, man sat,

gested connexion with the root sreu, “flow," is based On the top of his head was his wig, on the top of bis wig upon the now abandoned idea that the o of the Gothic was his hat.

W. HALL. fõdus represents an original au (=ou).

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dices on þæt strod; east andlang strodes ; of þam and their uo stems, and minded their Grimm's law; strode on Wederangrafe[s] scagan” (at Rimpton, all which things if they had done they would have Somerset). As scaga ("Shaw ") sometimes means saved us much trouble and perplexity. As it is, “marsh,” strād can here hardly have that meaning. however, we have to deal with facts as well as But it adjoins the scaga.

with scientific theories about facts, and as 3. A.D. 956, id., iii. 106, 8: "andlang dic[es] útt fact I find, for example, the modern name Ua. þurh wynna wudu on stroð norðweard." Another strut is spelt in fifteen different ways in docu

orm of the boundaries in No. 2. It will be noticed ments not later than the beginning of the that a wood occurs between the ditch and the ströd, eleventh century. I find the forms Unstrut, Unwhich wood may have been reckoned as part of the struot, Unstruoth, Unstruoht, Unstrot, Unstrod, ströd of No. 2. From the strād the boundaries go Unstred, Unstrhut, and seven more. I find an to the boundary baw (“mær-haga "), thence in the O.H.G. uo answering in N.H.G. names to seves field by the "wyrttruma” (tree-root) to Wederan- and an Old English 7 to eight different vowel grāf: so that it is evident many things are omitted sounds in the corresponding modern words. in the perambulation of No. 2.

The contemporaneous variations in old docu4. A.D. 956, id., iii. 144, 2 : Strod-wic, one of ments should be instructive, especially to pedants. the den-stows at Annington, Sussex. Like the Thus in proper names occurring in one and the den-bēru of Kentish charters, these were probably same document I have found e interchanged with woods for feeding swine.

a, i, ei, ai, and 0; a with ai, e, and 0; o with a,, 5. A.D. 972, Earle, 'Land Charters,' 447, 19 and u; i with e, ei, oi, and ai ; and ei with ex (contemp. charter ?): "of Beorwoldes sætan on

oi, and ai. Naturally the uncertainty with which hagan geat ; of hagan geate on secg 1[e]ages strod; the vowels are employed is greater in local or perof secg ![e]ahes strode on trob hrycg" (at Powick, sonal names than in the literary dialects. Though co. Worc.). The strôd is here connected with a the speech of Baden and the Palatinate is now sedge-lea near the Severn, which seems to favour High German, the local names are largely of Low Schade's definition.

German character and origin. Tacitus tells us that One is tempted to compare the O.N. stors, Heidelberg which was called the Angladegau.

the Angli were Suevi, and there is a district near “plantation, land overgrown with brushwood, but the metathesis forbids its equation with ströd. bian and Allemannic names often conform to the

Hence it is not difficult to understand why SwaThis storð, whose history I do not know, was used in the old woodlands of Sherwood Forest, phonetic laws of English, and not to those of Gerand is still preserved in Dale-stortb, near Mans

We find much the same difficulty and the field.


same explanation when we come to deal witb

Angle and Saxon names in England. Names of Considering that the O.H.G. bruot corresponds the same meaning are pronounced very differently to the N.H.G. brut and the English brood, and in different counties. that the O.H.G. buode corresponds to the N.H.G. So when A. L. M. speaks of English be ought to bude and the English booth, I fail to see why the tell us whether he means the real English of our 0.H.G. struot and the N.H.G. strut (struth) should Yorkshiredales, with its broad vowels, or the not correspond to the English Strood, or, as it is Saxon of Wessex, or the mincing high polite of the sometimes written, Stroud, a name which as La cockney dialect. What is true for one is not true Stroud can be traced back to 1304. At all events, for the others. The subject is wider and the till a better explanation has been proposed it may anomalies greater than A. L. M. seems to think. hold the ground. It is, moreover, quite certain

ISAAC TAYLOR. that many Teutonic words must have existed in Old English of which there is no trace in our TAE PRINTER’s CAAPEL (7th S. vi. 364). --MR. literary records. Some have lingered on in the Blaydes bas started anew a subject of discussion English dialects, and of the former existence of which was unsuccessfully raised by “ingenious others there is abundant evidence in local names. Hone" ("Every-Day Book,'i, col. 1133, &c.) and There are many English names which can be revived by C. H. Timperley ("History of Printreadily explained by their continental analogues, ing,' 8vo., 1842, 614, &c.), who made free use of though our Anglo-Saxon dictionaries fail to throw Moxon's "Mechanical Exercises' (3 vols., 4to., any light on their meaning.

1677, '83, '96), from which publication, as MR. But I venture to think it is possible to be too Blaydes remarks, Randle Holme ( Academy of pedantic about our vowels, as well as about some Armory,' fol., Chester, 1688) also derived most other things. Doubtless if the Old High Germans of his technical information concerning the art of had been as well acquainted with 0.H.G. as printing. Hone, in particular, made a strenuous A. L. M. they might possibly have spelt their lan- effort to procure information “from chapels, or inguage as he spells it, and have accented their vowels dividuals belonging to them," concerning “ang old properly, and distinguished between their ú stems or present laws, or usages, or other matters of


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Such a paper,

interest connected with printing"; but it does not fining the word, “ Members of a Printing-Office appear from his subsequent publications that he after they have paid a certain fee”) until he has was able to arouse the interest of the fraternity suffi- served his time and become a journeyman. A comciently to induce any intelligent printer to take up papionship, in the modern use of the term, is the his challenge. And, as time rolls on, this sort of temporary union of two or more compositors in the literary material will become more and more diffi- setting up of some particular piece of work, which cult of gathering. Steam and stereotyping have is distributed to them in "takes” (under certain revolutionized printing ; the old customs have in rules and regulations) by the overseer ; and it great measure died out; and the grave and reverend has nothing to do with the chapel, unless one of the men who practised them in their youth, and who comps., conceiving himself wronged by his fellowe, alone could tell this generation anything trust- ** calls a chapel” to adjudicate upon the matter iu worthy about them, are fast fading away to join dispute. Thus, according to ancient custom, Mr. Weller the stage-coachman, Tom Smart the “ An apprentice when he is bound pays half-a-crown to bagman, and Boniface the landlord, in the realm of the Chapel; and when he is made free another half-crown, shadows where Fiction sits enthroned as king. If but yet is no member of the Chapel ; and, if he continue any of them are yet to be found, search must be to work journeywork in the same house, he pays another made in the office of some old weekly (provincial)

half-crown, and is then a member of the Chapel.” newspaper, supposing that there may yet exist one Although I cannot admit the analogy of comps.,

knights which has escaped the all-consuming greed of the or companions, amongst printers, with. political limited liability company.

companions attending a chapter of their order," I established in the Midlands whilst the

last century quite agree with MR.

BLADEs in thinking that the was young, it was my fortune to edit during many word chapel as used by printers has a common fashioned staff. Our overseer had grown grey in years of pleasant toil with a thoroughly old- origin with the word chapter employed in an

ecclesiastical or masonic sense. his position of responsibility and trust, and his

ALFRED WALLIS. sons (also in the office) were becoming elderly AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES': 'THE OLD printers under the supervision of their sire. The ENGLISH RULES OF ROYAL DESCENT' (74 S. vi. 259 old gentleman served his time, I think, with Luke 332, 392). –One always feels proud of drawing a Hansard, and had worked with Perry in the palmy reviewer out of his hole, though I am sorry to have days of the Morning Chronicle; he was venerable, done it by creating a suspicion that I was in a slow, and sure, and he was filled with a sense of hurry to write him down a fool. I do not think I the dignity of his craft and of its immeasurable deserve that: a man's memory may make such a superiority over every other calling. Letters ad- slip as I thought the reviewer's had without his dressed to The Father of the Chapel,” which being a fool. Otherwise there would be a great found their way from time to time into the edi- many more fools in the world than there are. torial bag, were handed to him without question; There are plenty as it is, and I suppose I am one and these were mostly begging appeals from needy of them, for I do not even now see that the rebrethren. He was fond of impressing the newly- viewer's words at p. 259 show that he knew of the entered apprentices with the advantage they held descent of the Princess Regent of Bavaria. It over mere tradesmen and artisans, in belonging to seems to my folly that for them to do so he must 80 ancient and honourable a calling as that of have defined “Maria Theresa I.” as such princess. printing ; telling them that “ in olden time, when However, it is no use arguing this point : a more pone but the privileged classes were permitted to interesting point is the remote cause of the misgo armed, the compositors wore swords by their apprehension between the American writer, the sides (being gentlemen by virtue of their art, and English reviewer, and myself. And that, I think, because the first compositor was a knight) and sat is what in my experience, at least) causes very at case, to mark the distinction between themselves many misapprehensions ; the crediting people with and ordinary mechanics, who stand to their work”! strict and categorical language when they intend no I have many times been questioned by our comps. such thing. It is quite clear that when the Americoncerning these matters, but could only reply that can writer wrote of “the old English rules of royal I could not answer for the swords, though there is descent” be meant nothing more than that rule, or good evidence in old woodcuts depicting printing- law, or custom of descent (whatever we may choose office interiors to prove that the sixteenth-century to call it) which was altered by 12 & 13 Will. III., comp. "sat at case.” Our old overseer is my autho- c. 3, and which unaltered would have placed rity for saying that a printer's “chapel" is not the “ Maria Theresa I.” on the English throne. But office itself, nor is it necessarily composed of all the English reviewer ignores this plain fact, and who work at case and press therein; as for " com- goes about to find a legal meaning for the words panionship," an apprentice may be a companion, the old English rules," &c. This second fact I but he does not rank among those whom Bailey do not perceive, and so I put the only other pos(* English Dict.,' 1748) calls « Chapelonians " (de- sible interpretation on the reviewer's words, and

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