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III. v. 6:

printed " observance" I prefer obeisance," the one Will you steiner be

proposed by Ritson, (1) because it departs least Than he that dies and lives by bloody drops? from the cursus literarum; (2) because it is a The late lamented Dr. Ingleby, in his 'Shakespeare Shakspearian word ; (3) because it seems a fitting Hermeneutics' (p. 59), while acknowledging the close to the list foregoing, as it were bowing assent good service done by the Rev. W. R. ARROW to all. SMITH ('N. & Q.,' 1st S. vii. 542) in proving that V. iv. 4:the phrase “dies and lives was a recognized hysteron I sometimes do believe, and sometimes do not; proteron," was far too acute to think that this was

fAs those that fear they hope, and know they fear. sufficient to solve the difficulty in the passage Notwithstanding all supposed needed, and all at. before us. "Mr. Arrowsmith," says Dr. Ingleby, tempted emendation, the wrongly suspected line still " tells us that to die and live' means to subsist holds its place in the text; and may it do so for ever from the cradle to the grave.' Shakespeare's execu- with all its truly Shakspearian conciseness and contioner, then, must have been initiated into his densation! If hope were destitute of all elements 'mystery' pretty early.” But, with all deference, I of doubt or fear it would cease to be hope, and do not think that Dr. Ingleby himself solves the become assured expectation instead. We fear what difficulty when he gives as the solution, “ The pro- we hope (what, or that which, supplies the ellipsis in fession or calling of a man is that by which be the text), because while we hope we cannot rid our

dies and lives,' i.e., by which he liver, and failing selves of fear that the object of hope may be unwhich he dies." Every one understands what is attainable. The desired object is thus a source at meant by living by a thing ; but to speak of dying once of hope and of fear. We know what we fear, by a thing seems very strained and unnatural. inasmuch as hope implies a known want, which we But, in another sense,

fear may never be supplied. The common executioner

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. Whose heart the accustomed sight of death makes hard,

Mapse of Arbuthnott, N.B. does indeed die, while he “lives by bloody drops."

P.S.-II. vii. 70, Means or moans. After all The horrible craft he plies turns his heart into

there stone, kills all that is human in him, and leaves In Jamieson's 'Scottish Dictionary' I find, “ To

may be no misprint; means may mean moans. when he commenced his terrible trade, when he meun, to lament"; " To mene, meyne, meane, to bewas still in some degree human, there might be moan (Barbour)”; “ To mene, meane, to make meaning in the pardon which he begged ere he lamentation, to utter moans "; " Mene, mein, mane, let the axe fall " upon the humbled neck"; but moaning." I am much pleased to find, quite unbefore long this would become a heartless' and expectedly, this strong support to my interpretaunmeaning

formality. Shakspeare knew well the tion of the passage in Shakspeare. meaning of death of soul. “There is thy gold,” said Romeo to the apothecary,

‘MEASURE FOR MEASURE,' III. i. (7th S. v. 181, There is thy gold; worse poison to men's souls,

382). —There is no scene ii. to Act V. of The Doing more murders in this loathsome world,

Comedy of Errors' in the Globe edition, but I Than these poor compounds that thou mayest not sell. presume that MR. CARLETON refers to the last IV. iii. 86:

speech of the abbess, which is thus given by The boy is fair

Messrs. Clark and Wright :-
Of female favour, and bestows himself

Thirty-three years have I but gone in travail
#Like a ripe sister.

Of you, my sons; and till this present hour The Globe suspects “ripe," and with reason. I My heavy burthen ne'er delivered. cannot believe Shakespeare ever pepped the word. Surely this makes better sense than either“ aro" or “Ripe” might be an opithet applicable to a dame “is," whatever the Folio bas. Would it be imper

'fair, fat, and forty,” but not to Rosalind. The tinent to ask MR. CARLETON for an instance of context suggests to me what I believe to be the burden as a plural? The abbess, in this same play, proper word:

in a previous speech (V. i. 343), uses it as a sin. The boy is fair, gular noun.

C. C. B. Cf female favour, and bestows bimself

Like a right sister. 1. e., he is so feminine in look and bearing that he Watkiss LLOYD (my old acquaintance, though. of

'HENRY V., Act IV. (7th S. vi. 84).-MR seems rightly or truly Celia's sister rather than her so many years ago that he will bardly recognize brother. Ripe and right are not so dissimilar in the fact) writes respecting Theobald's suggested sound that the one cannot have been mistaken for emendation in the fourth act of Shakespeare's the other.

'Henry V.,' Then, mean and gentle all," &c. V. üïi. 104:

(inter alia, respecting which I agree with him) All purity, all trial, all observance.

that he (Theobald) was

wrong in the notion-in of the many substitutions for the manifestly mis- whicb, strange to say, Dyce concurs—that the poet

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could address bis audience with the distinction of Hasson or hassing, a vertical gutter between mean and gentle” and so insult half of them. water-rings in a shaft. Evidently from hass, the

I think it a mistake to suppose that the audience throat, which is common in place-names to denote Shakespeare addressed would have felt or imagined a narrow pass. such a distinction to have implied any insult or Joug or jugg, an iron collar put round the neck even disparagement at all. Nowadays, when every of disobedient miners in old times. The jougs need man is a gentleman, or at the very least a gent, an no comment. When I was a child going to church audience would probably resent such a form of for the first time I well remember being threatened address. But in Shakespeare's day a man knew with the “gorgets" if I did not sit still. But not himself to be (socially) what he was, and had no even the oldest inhabitant could tell me wbat the pretence to be anything else. Men were" gentle" or "gorgets” were; and it was not till long after

simple"=" mean.” The fact was indisputable, wards that I discovered that "jougs" and " gorand there was no offence in stating it; no more gets were the same, and that in my native parish offence than is felt in the present day (though how the name of the thing had outlived the memory of it may be fifty years hence is questionable) in the it. case of an orator who addresses his audience as Kain coal, produce of the mine as, or towards, "My lords and gentlemen.”

T. A, T. payment of rent. Kain was a Celtic exaction

dating from pre-feudal times, a species of tribute

paid in kind from the produce of the soil to the SCOTCH MINING TERMS.

laird. Such payments, for example, in cheese and 'A Glossary of Scotch Mining Terms, compiled poultry, known as cane cheese"

and cane by James Barrowman, mining engineer, secretary fowls,” were common. Naturally enougb, in to the Mining Institute of Scotland (Hamilton, W. mining districts the “ was sometimes paid Naismith, 1886), contains many curious and sug- in coal. Poultry was, however, the commonest gestive words, of which I have noted and anno- medium in all districts, and is frequently stipulated tated a few. Technical language has many sources. for in old charters and leases. A modified form Part of it consists of old words, in the common of the practice survives. Recently I examined the vocabulary of an earlier generation, but now titles of a Lanarkshire property, in which a comastricted to a special class and used in a special muted allowapuu fur “buury

Part consists of modern every-day words upon the lands. Over and above the money payspecialized or figuratively employed. It is not ment in chief for ground rent or feu duty there necessary for my purpose to touch upon other was payable 51. 188. Scots as the cash equivalent of sources, such as the adoption of foreign terms and seven capons and eight hens, besides a further sum the invention of compound terms from classic lan- as “knaveship" to an adjacent mill. Perquisites guages. My selections bear upon the two sources die hard. first referred to, and begin with some old words. Mash, a double-headed hammer for breaking The definitions are either quoted or condensed coals. Mash as a verb means “to pound small." from the 'Glossary,' but beyond the definitions From it a curious metaphor has given us a name Mr. Barrowman must not be held responsible :- for that product of this enlightened age known as

Air-gate, air course. Recalls the old sense of a “masher.” gate, a road.

Shangie, a ring of straw or hemp put round a Clack, the fixed or stationary valve of a pump. jumper to prevent the water in the bore-hole from This may be the same as clack, the clapper of a mill. squirting up. Shangie, defined by Jamieson as

Corf, a hutch or tram of wicker-work once used shackle that runs on the stake to which a cow is to carry coals. Scotch corf, a basket.

bound in the byre," has travelled from the byre to Dander, ashes. Seldom heard of now except the pit. from American humourists. “My dander ris," Steg, to stop or retard. Steg the cleek, to retard they say, meaning that the embers of their anger or stop the winding, to stop the work. Steg, assoglowed.

ciated with cleek, a hook, seems to indicate some Fang. A pump “loses the fang" when so much archaic mode of working. I do not remember the air passes the bucket that a vacuum cannot be word steg occurring elsewhere. made. Fang=grip had begun to acquire a figur- Sloup and thirl, system of mining known geneative meaning as early as the days of Edward the rally as "stoup and room," in which mineral is exConfessor, when Infangentheof had become a well. tracted in galleries, leaving pillars to support the known jurisdiction of landowners.

roof. To thirl is to drill or perforate. Who does not Harrie or herrie. To harrie pillars is to take remember the story old historians tell of Thirlwall what coal ean conveniently be got without syste- Castle, in Northumberland ? Here Fordun says matically removing the whole. Harry, to plunder, is the great Roman wall was broken through by the English. Herrie is the schoolboy's technicality Scots, for Thirlwall, he says, is just “Murus perin Scotland for robbing birds' nests.

foratus." Wyntown records the same circum

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stance and deduces the same conclusion (bk. v. the oath, and the woman's body disappeared in the 1. 3251);

rapidly rising masonry. After that the wall remained

solid as a rock," And yhit men callys it Thryl Wal. Stythe, the smell of spontaneous combustion ; It would be curious to know where this church is choke-damp. I am not familiar with this word.

situate, and how far this tradition prevailed in Tirr, to remove the covering soil from the rock Great Britain, and where further information may

F. M'C. in a quarry. An old Scotch word. My first thought be obtained on the subject.

Maryport. was that it might be connected with Celtic tir, earth, but its general sense indicates plainly its FIRST REVIEWS. — origin from a Teutonic verb meaning "to tear.”

“The origin of literary journals was the project of Trow, channel of wood for conveying water. Denis de Sallo, a counsellor in the parliament of Paris. Well-known Scotch word, represented in Eoglish In 1665 appeared his Journal des Scavans, which he by trough.

published in the name of his footman. This was 80 My concluding selections will consist mainly of successful that it was imitated throughout Europe, and more modern words.


translated into many languages. Yet the criticism of

Sallo was full of asperity and malignant wit, and thus Glasgow.

excited murmurs on all sides from authors, so that at (To be continued.)

the conclusion of his third volume Sallo was compelled

to cast down his biting pen. Sallo was followed by KIRK-GRIMS.—There is an interesting article on the Abbé Gallois, who was as insipidly mild as his prethis subject in the Cornhill Magazine for February, decessor was waspishly severe ; be confined himself to 1887. The writer—anonymous-traces the rise of extracts from the works which he noticed. Bayle, in

1684, undertook his Nouvelles de la Republique des the widespread superstition that it is most unlucky Lettres. He possessed the happy art of presenting the to be the first to enter a new building or to cross reader with the main features of books which came over a newly-erected bridge to the fact that in very under review. It is said of him that he wreathed the remote times the foundations of any building were and in his later

volumes he forsook the path in which

rod of criticism with roses '; but yet he failed to satisfy, laid in blood. Something living was offered as a

he had set out. He gave to the world thirty-six small sacrifice, and traditions show that animals, and even volumes of criticism, the last published in 1687. The

mnrightand for the purpose of work was continued by Bernard, and afterwards with strengthening buildings with their blood. The more success by Basnage. Le Clerc was the contemceremony of laying bottles containing coins in the porary of Bayle

, and his antagonist. He gave to the foundation-stone of any building about to be Universelle et Historique, Choisie, and Ancienne et

world eighty-two volumes, comprising three Bibliothèques erected is a lingering form of the old sacrifice-Moderne. Gibbon referred to Le Clerc's volumes as an coins taking the place of animals as they in their inexhaustible sourca of amusement and instruction.' turn were substitutes for human victims.

Beausobre and L'Enfant wrote a Bibliothèque Germanique, In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and North Ger- from 1720 to 1740, in fifty volumes. The Bibliothèque many, some animal is traditionally associated with 1373 to 1747. It contains twenty-three volumes, pub

Britannique contains an account of English books from every church. This is the “Kirk Grim," the goblin lished at the Hague. The Journal Britannique exhibits apparition of the beast baried under the founda- a view of English literature from 1759 to 1755;. it tion-stone.

was edited by Dr. Matz, a foreign physician, residing The writer of the article in question gays that in in London. Our own early journals notice but few pubDevonshire two white sows yoked together by a 1749, and was the mother of our reviews."

lications. The original Monthly Review commenced in silver chain were the "Kirk Grims" of the church I am indebted to an old volume of the now defunct of his own parish; to another church belonged a Family Friend for the above, which may possibly black dog ; to a third a ghostly calf ; to a fourth interest some of the many readers of and contribu

; a white lamb. What churches are these ? In tors to 'N. & Q.,' and is worthy of rescue in its Yorkshire the “Kirk Grim” is said to be usually a huge black dog.


J. B. S.

Manchester. The following story is told of a church in England, though, unfortunately, the writer of the article INDIFFERENT.-It may be well to note the great alluded to is unable to name it :

change which in the course of two or three centuries "Three masons who were engaged in building this has come over the meanings of several words which church found on returning to their work each morning we have adopted from the Latin. Take, for that the portion of the wall which they had completed instance, the word named above. The Times on the previous day bad fallen during the night. The head mason informed his comrades one morning that he had Aug. 13, wrote :dreamt that their labours would continue to come to “We have no doubt whatever that Scottish judges and naught unless they vowed that day to immure in the juries will administer indifferent justice.” structure the first woman-wife or sister-that should He meant, of course, "impartial.” But a Glasgow arrive with the morning meal for one or other of them. They all took the oath ; and the last mason had hardly correspondent, supposing that he meant it in its been sworn before the head mason's own wife appeared modern sense of “poor and second rate,” called the on the scene, bringing her husband's breakfast. He kept Times to task. Whereupon another correspondent

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may further

quotes the following passage from Bishop Hooper's wich. By a Young Lady, daughter of the said Declaration of Christ and His Office':

Clergyman.” “ These two offices of Christ should never be out of It is to be gathered from the letter, which is in remembrance. They declare the infinite mercy of God rhyme, that ......, Esq., was a visitor at the house and likewise His indifferent justice unto all creatures, of his friend the clergyman, and, taking advantage without respect of persons."

of the reverend gentleman's attendance at divine If I mistake not, however, the words “may service, he abducted his host's only daughter, the indifferently minister justice” occur in the Prayer authoress of the epistle, who, by the way, was

nk of the Established Church, and ought to be motherless. The clergyman upon his return home city generally known. Mos in URBE. and finding his daughter gone (I will now quote

from the lines)'EastWARD Ho,' First Edition.—Two leaves of this edition, with the afterwards suppressed pas

Struck with the dismal news in wild despair

He ends a life he could no longer bear; sages, are inserted in Dyce's copy-now in the South

My conscience wounded, owns the horrid guilt, Kensington Museum-of the next edition, if it be And all the parricide in me is felt. really a next edition. These leaves, however, are insufficient to determine whether this was the case, On tbee he calls for vengeance from above, or whether, according to Collier's very likely conjec

And prays that Heaven his curses will approve;

Then in the anguish of bis wild despair ture, the unsold copies of the first edition had two

Renounces every hope and every fear; or more leaves cut away, the text of these re

No longer able to sustain the strife, printed, less the obnoxious passages, and the copies With furious haste he rushes out of life. thus altered reissued. On this last supposition, that

Nor even here must end the tragic scene; A, B, was but one edition of unaltered and altered What savage cruelty must govern men!

His lifeless corse, with blood all over dy'd, copies, there were still editions C and D in 1605.

The Christian rites of burial is deny'd; But, as I have said, A and B may have been sepa- And, like the carcase of a dog, is thrust rate editions, and, having failed in my search, I Into a holo to mingle with the dust. would--that I may determine this point-gladly

And then, O shocking! to complete the woe, learn whether any copy containing the suppressed

A pointed stake must pierce bis body through. passages exists, and where.

I tako tu from the foregoing lines that ...., Esq., I have spoken of “suppressed passages” because, deserted his victim—in fact, the tone of the whole


I besides the known one, that against the Scots, 'Epistle' declares it—and I there is in the same speech a passage that was

assume that the deceased clergyman was awarded altered at the same time. In edition A it ran, the burial of a felo de se. I have made most ex. “[In Virginia) you may be a nobleman, and never haustive inquiry in this city for any record of the be a slave," an unpleasant hit at James's nobility. affair, but can trace nothing. Is it merely a Hence in B (the altered copies or the possible romance; or can any of your readers give the names second edition) “nobleman was altered to “any of the dramatis personæ, and afford me any further

Geo. C. PRATT. other officer"-any other, that is, than an alderman. details ?

It may be added that, except in misprints and in Grapes Hill, Norwich. the addition or otherwise of " and" or the like, the

SNOW IN JULY.texts of B, C, and D are identical, as, with the excep

"Snowballing in July is a decided novelty in England; tion of the two afterwards suppressed and altered but in the Lake district a few days ago (30th) snow fell so passages, was A. But editions A, B, and C, by heavily during the early morning that the men going to various means of compression, finished on : 4 verso, work at the smelt mills, Trent Head, engaged in a snowbut such was the run on the copies that edition D ball match worthy of January.”—Daily papers. was allowed to extend to 1 4 verso—that is, to one Snow enough to well cover the ground fell in many sheet more.

BR. NICHOLSON. parts of the Midland counties on the same morning.

R. W. HACKWOOD. PAMPHLET RELATING TO NORWICH.-In searching the catalogues of the British Museum, 8. v. POPULAR NOTIONS OF ECLIPSES. (See 7th s. ‘Norwicb,” I recently came across a quarto pam. vi. 125.)—It is not to be wondered at that in an phlet, London, 1750, designated,"T***** Ingrati- unscientific age even such a man as Evelyn should tude, an Epistle to ......, Esq." I read it througb, have had vague notions of an eclipse of the sun. and considered it sufficiently interesting to tran- Last year I was staying in a country house in scribe, and I shall be glad if you will allow me to Surrey where some of the young people who had ask one or two questions through 'N. & Q.' with just “finished their education " (!) were describing regard to the authoress of the epistle and fuller having got up early on August 19 and seen the details of the sad affair narrated, if it really be total eclipse of the sun. I said to them “I supfounded on fact, as alleged in the opening lines, pose you saw just a notch out of the sun." which run thus after ...., Esq., “occasioned by no," was the reply," it was a total eclipse.” “But," the late sad Catastrophe of a Clergyman at Nor- I said, "it wasn't a total eclipse in England;

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it was only a very small eclipse here.” “Well, we GLASGOW ANTIQUITIES.- In the arcbæological saw it, anyhow, and it looked very strange.” That collection in the Bishop's Castle at the Glasgow was all I could get out of them. Some time ago I Exhibition (No. 761) is a part of a crozier found in was watching a total eclipse of the moon, having at the “Tomb (so called) of St. Kentigern in the Cathemy side a young fellow who had just passed through dral about 1800.” It is known that this fragment one of our public schools. After gazing for some of crozier was dug out early in this century by time, he nsively asked, “But what is it that gets in William Bullock, the well-known naturalist and front of the moon ? "

B. W. S. collector, and that he also got from the tomb the

metal crook of the crozier and an episcopal ring.

Can any one tell me what has become of these Queries.

articles ? They are not in the Catalogue of BulWe must request correspondents desiring information lock's collection, sold by himself in London in on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 1819, of which there is a copy in the British names and addresses to their queries, in order that the


J. O. M. answers may be addressed to them direct.

White ELEPÆANT – Who is the authority foD DICTIONARY DESIDERATA.-We want mention the proverbial story that the kings of Siam are of “Cheddar cheese” before 1721. There was a accustomed to present a white elephant to any Cheddar Club of dairy farmers in the preceding person whom they wish to ruin ? It does not century. We want cheek=impudence before 1840, seem likely to be founded on fact; but the uniand examples of cheeky, cheekiness before 1850; versal currency of the allusion to it suggests that it also of “to one's own cheek”=all to one's self, be- must have been told by some widely popular fore 1850, and “quite the cheese" before 1850. author.

H. BRADLEY. 'N. & Q.'(4th S. v. 342) touched on “Charley," the old city watcb, attributing the name to Charles

NOTE IN ROGERS'S 'ITALY.'-Some reader may J., who remodelled the body. Is there any con possibly be able to inform me what is the note on firmation of this guess ; and is the word 'to be the Transfiguration in the 18mo. edition of Rogers’s found before Vaux's 'Flash Dictionary' of 1812? Italy,' p. 366, referring to the line that begins Charger, war-horse, has been sent to us from “Then on that masterpiece." I can state as a Smollett and Gibbon. J. A. H. MURRAY, matter of certainty that the above editior is not in The Scriptorium, Oxford.

the Library of the British Museum, and I cannot find

the above note in any other edition that I have “ CONFESSOR OF THE HOUSEHOLD."-In Elmes's consulted.

J. P. MALLET. Topographical Dictionary of London' (Whittaker, 1831), I find, s.v. "Chapel Royal," among the 8.

Ross AND SUTHERLAND.-In the MS. “Cronicle clergy of the Chapel Rogal, St. James's, * The of the Earles of Rogs" at Dunrobin it is stated that Rev. Henry Fly, D.D., Confessor of the House- “Hucheon Ross marryed the Earle of Sutherland's hold.” Is there such a clerical dignitary attached Daug' callit Janet Sutherland, her moybeand to the royal household at present; and, if so, whom the Earle of Orkney's Daug? callit Ellen Sinclaire.” does he confess; and wher, and how ?

This statement agrees with the printed 'Balpagown G. A. Sala. Cronicle.' Who was this Earl of Sutherland, and

what is known of this daughter? A search was CHOIR.—Can any one furnish an example of kindly made for me at Dunrobid, but no trace of this word, so spelt, before the eighteenth century ? the marriage or of the lady could be found. Hugh It need not be said that later reprints afford no Rogs lived circa 1398–1450. In 1456 John of evidence. My earliest example of this modern Balpagown, his son, paid a debt to Alexander of spelling is a case in point. Ray, ('Wisdom of Sutherland, laird of Dunbeth. Was his mother of God in Creation,' pt. i., 1692) speaks of “a Quire this family, and not daughter of an Earl of Sutherof Planets.” In the fourth edition, 1704, I find land ?

F. N. R. this altered to “ Choire." I beg for direct replies.

C. B. MOUNT. NONSENSE VERSES. —Can any one tell me where 14, Norham Road, Oxford,

I could find some nonsense verses, repeated to me ORIGIN OF FUNERAL COSTOM.—The husband of many years ago, about a walk taken in London by

Nanny Nob and Sir Erasmus Shoot Eye ? a lady living in Lancashire recently died. As soon

H. W. Mayes. as his death became known a friend sent to the

West Gate, Southampton. widow a small sheaf of wheat, to be distributed among the relatives present at the funeral. Is PEGGE OR Pegg.—A branch of this familyanything known about the origin of this custom ? which has been somewhat widely scattered in Does it obtain extensively; and what is its mean- Derbyshire and parts of Staffordshire and Lei ing?

ALFONZO GARDINER. cestershire, and of which some pedigrees were Leede.

published in the Journal of the Derbyshire Archæo

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