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LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 1888.

would bave no existence were they not bled [? bred] for

the use of food. The other question, however, proposed CONTENTS.-N° 140.

by Shelley, whether the savage and dirty scenes of NOTES :-Forster and Shelley, 161 — Finnish Folk-tales, 162– brutalize the heart of man, and prepare him for still

butchery connected with eating of animal food does not Bpanish Armada-"Setting the Thames on fire"-Miss Foote-The Surgeon's Comment,' 166.

more ferocious crimes, is one of much higher importance.

The subject is worthy of the most attentive examination QUERIES :-Hall-Mark Generosi : Armigeri - Scarpines- of moralists and legislators. Xenocrates was right, that

Amsterdam Coffee-House-"Cousin " for Niece"-Edward temperence and example are the foundations of morality."
Williams-Rewe=Rowed-Opodeldoc--Blake and St. Albyn, -Ibid., p. 248.
167—"Adverbs weaken all the line"-Dame Dorothy Hall -
Allusion by Lord Carnarvon-Wm. Leslie Hamilton Celtic

In his ‘Recueil de ma Vie' (Bruxelles, 1837),
and Euskarian Languages—" Friar's lanthorn"-Scotch Coal there is the following passage :-
-Broadside-Litany of St. Dominic, 168 - Perjury-Court
Rolls of Little Compton-David Seton, M.P.-Heraldic-

"I am not singular,' said Shelley to me one day, • Vers de Société'--Breaker, 169.

walking by Newgate, ‘in disbelieving in Christianity; I

am only singular in confessing it. Do you think if men REPLIES: Riddles on Trees, 169 — The Lincolnshire really believed in the doctrines of the Sermon on the

Poacher'- Arms Wanted - Curious Superstition, 170 -
Extract from Parish Register, Charles Martel-Kite-High- something from a dwelling-house to keep a family of

Mount they would hang their fellow creatures for stealing land Claymore-Bishop Lloyd, 171-Lowestoft-RubbingHeathens, 172-Norfolk song-Order of the Southern Cross children from starving, or send a soul to bowl for ever in - O'Connell's Diary'- Royal Offerings, 173 – Nynd the regions of the damned, according to their professed Knighted after Death-Robinson Cruso—"A hair of the belief, merely for forging a draft; or would attend bull. dog that bit you," 174 - Bell Legend - Portraits in Town baitinge, cockfights, and brothels of young women and Country Magazine'-Railway Tickets - Inscription on seduced away from the comforts of their homes, and now the Grave of L. E. L.-* A mort"=much.--Dickens and working their own perdition here and hereafter, in order Martin" Mad as a hatter," 176-Russia : "Black, White, and Red" - Reference Wanted" It is not every lady of to gratify those, clerical or lay it matters not, who, with Genoa," &c., 177-King James's Lords - Lent-Mr. Glad-fiendish bypocrisy, preach the gospel of peace with the stone's Accent - Dr. Bury - Etymology of Whist, 178– dagger of the assassin in their hand, and roll like swine Authors Wanted, 179.

in sensual infamy, while they profess to mortify the

flesh and to do to others as they would that others NOTES ON BOOKS :-Halkett and Laing's Dictionary of should do to them? What has been the object of the Anonymous Literature'-Bullen's . Peele -'Sunlight.'

crusades of old, in times of ascetic Christianity, but the Notices to Correspondents, &c.

plunder of Oriental riches; and what is modern mer. chandise in the west but the traffic in human blood; the Christian scourging the negroes at his work, and

canting about carrying his own cross on his back? No; Aotes.

let me hide my head from the world in honest infidelity,

and dwelling amidst the beauties of Nature still hope DR. THOMAS FORSTER AND SHELLEY. that there may be a God of justice !'”—P. 95. The numerous writings of Dr. Thomas Forster,

His Philosophia Musarum' (Bruges, 1843) has the naturalist and Pythagorean, offer a tempting a dedication to Lewis Gompertz. In the course of field for the bibliographer, and some day I hope to it Mr. Forster says :deal with them. At present my object is merely “Vegetable food has been hinted at as the natural to call attention to his relations with the author of diet of man; while the destruction of animal life for 'Queen Mab.' There are several allusions to culinary and other domestic purposes has been condemned

as sinful. I am well aware that you entertain this Shelley in the numerous writings of Dr. Thomas opinion, and

I have no valid objection to it. For, firstly, I Forster.

believe vegetable diet to be best suited to our nature; “Percy Bysshe Shelley, the distinguished author of long habit alone having placed animal food among the Queen Mab and other Poems, lived wholly on the imaginary necessities of life. It has been objected to productions of agriculture, and tasted of nothing which this notion—that other animals who follow the instincts had possessed animal life. He used during our early of nature, prey on each other. This is true; but why, I intimacy and friendebip to argue with me that such diet ask, should man, whose improvement admittedly consists softened the ferocities of our nature and made us in the

cultivation of those faculties in which he excels, better men.”—Medicina Simplex,' 1832, p. 248.

or seems to excel, other animals, persist in a diet which

is found to corrupt his nature, while the means necessary In a foot-note he adds :

for procuring it harden the heart and prepare mankind “One of the most amiable of the good traits in Shelley's for every crime? This is, I am aware, to a superficial character, and one which counterbalanced some un- mind an objection to your opinion on this subject; but fortunate errors in the expression of his opinion was his it vanishes on a moment's reflection. Besides this the humanity. He never could bear taking away life for the same quantity of land will sustain more human beings on purpose of gluttony, and used to argue that the whole vegetable than it will on mixed diet. Moreover those history of the culinary art was stained with the annals who have tried both have found themselves healthier, of animal bloodshed. That men should never take away freer from low spirits, and less subject to painful diseases animal life for sport humanity obliged me to admit; but and premature death on a diet of vegetable substances. I have sometimes questioned whether the making man Such diet also clears the head, often cures cerebral an exception to the general analogies of nature through disorders, and is a guarantee against many of the most out which life is sustained by the destruction of life severe calamities with which human nature is afflicted. would in the end contribute to the quantum of animal Sacred history and all the ancient traditions of the East enjoyment. For pasture land is now covered with tame represent the permission to kill

and devour

flesh as being beasts, who enjoy for a time the boon of life, but who given to man in consequence of the ravages of the flood

He says:

or of some other equivalent disaster to which all the

For Christ his sake, wba lo’ed the puir, traditions testify. And it seems, therefore, that this

An help'd the sick an' wearie, permission must have been temporary, although men,

Hie to the dungeon, quit the muir, seduced by babit and gluttony, have continued it. Much

Curst purtye cau'd an' drearie.” has been said of late of the virtues of temperance with

A stranger wi' a beathen fame, regard to fermented liquors, and there can be no doubt

Wha spied her sorrin features, of the efficacy of these virtues; but I believe abstinence

Noo led her to his ingle, bame, from the flesh of animals to be a far more powerful

Aye free to a' puir creatures ; remedy against disease. Indeed, when a man has once accustomed himself to herbs he can rarely return to flesh

Here, in untutor'd Nature's fane, with safety. And though malaria and atmospherical varia

The lass got warm an' cheerie, tion are the principal exciting causes of disorders and their

An'e'en the dog ga'e half his bane varieties, I'am persuaded that the predisponent, over

To purtye cau'd an' drearie. which alone medicine has control, is more owing to

Troth I maun doff, thought I, the mask, repletion of animal food than to anything else, if we

Let faith nae mair be canting, except only mental anxiety and the abuse of the facultios.

Justice gies man a higher task, Wild animals are free from the diseases of domestic life

To aid the sick an' wanting. because :

Let Kirk and Aristocracy
Non Massica Bacchi

Join hands in palace cheery;
Munera nec illis epulæ nocuere repostæ,

There is nae hame in Christendie Frondibus et victu pascuntur simplicie berbæ ;

For purtye cau'd an' drearie. Pocula sunt fontes liquidi atque excercita cursu These are all the quotations that need now be Flumina nec somnos abrumpit cura salubres.

offered from the very miscellaneous writings of “While Newton was writing his · Principia ' he lived Thomas Maria Ignace Forster, who was equally on bread, potatoes, and water; the poet Byron declared that he never felt quite well except

on a vegetable diet. proud of his invention of the word "Phrenology Lawrence, our principal surgeon and physiologist, lived and of his friendship with Shelley, and who confor many years on it. Shelley never tasted animal food. tinued, after his reception into the Church of Rome, At the time I was acquainted with bim I knew many to hold some views that are not generally regarded whole families who were brought up on herbs and fruits, and who enjoyed the best health, exhibiting great as orthodox. It will be seen that, however much personal beauty. Dr. Lambe's case is well known from be differed from Shelley, he fully recognized the having originally a bad constitution he not only recovered, kindly and beautiful traits of his character. but got into sound health on a diet of this kind, and seems

WILLIAM E. A. Axon. likely to outlive all the physicians of his day. At Man.

66, Murray Street, Higher Broughton, Manchester. chester there exists a society of Christians who from conscientious motives refuse to eat flesh, and the members are remarkably healthy, and were comparatively free from the cholera and other epidemics.”—Pp. Xv-xvi.

FINNISH FOLK-TALES. I have corrected some obvious misprints in these

Seeing how much interest is taken in folkquotations.

lore, it may be of interest to many to read a series In his 'Piper's Wallet' (Bruges, 1846) there is a of stories as yet but little known. Many of the "Song from a l'rue Story,”to which the following note Finnish and Lapp stories I have translated have been is added : “The author of this original song is said taken down from the lips of the people by friends, to bove [sic for “have "] been Br. Forster, and and some as yet only exist in MS. A very interestthe stranger alluded to Mr. Shelley, the poet." ing set of beast tales from Finland is in my posThe song is to the tune of “Up in the morning session, and if the Editor can spare room will appear early," and reads as follows :

in these pages. The Magyar stories quoted here

after are chiefly from a work now in the press, Ane day while ganging lang the street, Atween the late an' earlie,

wherein a full account is given as to where they A lovely minstrel girl I met,

have been obtained. The translation is as nearly Alane an' greeting sairlie,

as possible literal, no attempt having been made The frost was hard, the snaw lay deep, to polish it in any way.

The weather wild an' blearie,
I thought that I maun also weep

THE WONDERFUL BIRCH.*
For purtye cau'd an' drearie.

There was once upon a time a man and his wife,

and they had a daughter. One day one of their A Christian coof yclep a lord

Came by, to prayers gaeing ; "Hizzy," quoth he, " ye 've slept abroad, * * Ihmeelinen Koiwu,' 'Suomen Kansan Satuja ja An' noo y'er lute are playing.

Tarinoita,' i. 59; also. Kummallinen Tammi,' The In the Gudo's name, I maun consign

Wonderful Oak,' and 'Kolmet Sisärykset,' The Three Vagrants to prison, hear ye;

Sisters,' in the same volume; also . Tubkamo' and 'Tuk'Tis the best place to rot an' pine,

kimo,' ib. Cf. 'Polnische Volksagen, "aus dem Pol. For purtye cau'd an' drearie.

nischen des K. W. Woycicki,” von F. H. Lowestam,

Berlin, 1839, vol, iii. No. 7, 'Die Eiche und der Schaaf “How dare ye sleep in open air,

pelz';' Märchensaal aller Völker für Jung und Alt,' That bae nae land to ring in?

von Dr. Kletke, Berlin, 1845, i. 149, . Finette Aschen. Or lilt in market, street, or fair,

brödel.' Mr. Quigstad, of Tromsö, tells me he bas a like Wha hae nae ha' to sing in,

story from Lyngen, and another he has from Swedish Lap

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