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“speech," “high life,” “ dogcart,” “jockey,” bably due to the fact that Kirk and State were " tandem," "club," " meeting," &c.; but these then at variance about the jurisdiction in such words are still essentially foreign. A propos of causes—the Kirk claiming that “ because the conthis I transcribe the following from the Standard, junctione of marriages pertaynes to the ministrie, the leading English newspaper in Buenos Aires : the cause of adherents [adherence) and divorce

“ Unless something is done to prevent it, Argentine ments aucht also to pertaine to them, as naturallie Spanish will run a serious risk of degenerating into annexit thereto "* while the Regent and Privy something very like pigeon English. Up to the present Council maintained that the ecclesiastical jurisdicwe have the words Meeting, Lunch, 'Sanvich, Sport tion here had been—as Blackstone says the inter(pronounced Esport), the barbarism Sportivo,

and lastly vention of the priest in the marriage contract the villainously corrupt verb Regatear, supposed to ex. press Boat-racing.* Surely something ought to be done itself was in England—“merely juris positivi, and to put a stop to such wholesale slaughtering of the not juris naturalis aut divinis." Again, in the innocente."

First Book of Discipline (1560), there is no May I finally, with all deference, protest against mention of desertion, but (chap. xiii. 6): “Marsuch a misnomer as the “La Plata” being applied riage once lawfully contracted may not be dispresumably to the Argentine Confederation, and solved at man's pleasure, as our Master Christ that in ' N. & Q., professedly a journal for literary Jesus doth witnes, unlesse adulterie be commen? La Plata is the name of an estuary in the mitted,” &c. At the same time it is worth observcontinent of South America. It is further the ing that in some divorce causes tried before the name of a city, the capital of the province of Buenos Church courts during the period from the ReforAires. Said province is one of the fourteen con- mation till 1564, when the Commissary Court of federate states bearing the collective name of the Edinburgh was erected by royal charter, desertion Argentine Republic. The national capital is the was coupled with adultery as ground for claiming federal city of Buenos Aires, where sit the Houses divorce. And in cases of scandal prior to 1647, of Senators and Deputies. The other countries our records show that Presbyteries and Kirk connected with the River Plate are (1) Uruguay, Sessions bad constantly to deal with a prevalent or the Banda Oriental, capital Monte Video, and belief among spouses that desertion, equally with (2) Paraguay, capital Asuncion. Until 1810'these adultery, of itself dissolved the marriage bond. I three countries formed the vice-royalty of “Rio know of no case, however, in which the Church de la Plata.” I would almost apologize in proffering court gave effect to this contention, and there this information, which should be an insult to every can be no doubt that it is in order to correct this educated Englishman.

H. GIBSON. popular error that the Westminster Confession

has, immediately following the quotation I have Divorce (7th S. v. 507). — The doctrine of the given: “Wherein a public and orderly course of Church of Scotland on this subject is authorita proceeding is to be observed, and the persons contively expressed in the Westminster Confession cerned in it not left to their own wills and discreof Faith, where (chap. xxiv. § 6) we read, “yet tion in their own case.

WILL. FINDLAY. nothing but adultery, or such wilful desertion as The Manse, Saline, Fife. can no way be remedied by the Church or civil

ENQUIRER will find the doctrine of the Presmagistrate, is cause sufficient of dissolving the byterian Church on the subject of divorce fully bond of marriage.”+ The Westminster Confession stated and supported on Scriptural grounds in the was approved by the Kirk in 1647, and by Parlia- Westminster Confession of Faith, chap. xxiv. ment in 1649, and has been common law in Scot- paragraphs 5 and 6. In the latter paragraph he land for the last two hundred years. Its generous will also find an answer to his second query. treatment of the injured spouse, however, does

W. GILMORE. not appear to have been sanctioned by the Kirk

112, Gower Street, W.C. prior to 1647. Up till that date the doctrine of the Roman Church seems to have prevailed. The In the Confession of Faith, approved by “ the Second Book of Discipline (1581) mentions no General Assemblie of the Kirk of Scotland,” " sufficient grounds” of divorce; but that is pro- printed in London, 1651, I find under chap. xxiv.,

Of Marriage and Divorce,' par. v. (1): “In the With regard to Regatear, it is needless to state that case of adultery after marriage, it is lawfull for the Standard has got out of its depth. The verb is the innocent party to sue out a divorce (m). And perfectly Spanish, and correctly applied to boat-racing, after divorce to marry another, as if the offending and was used in that sense when Regatta was still a foreign word in the English language. Prof. SKEAT party were dead ().” The marginal notes are alludes to the verb under the head of "Regatta," and derives it from re, again, and catar (captare), to taste, try, * Peterkin's "Booke of the Universal Kirk of Scot&c. It is sometimes found spelt recatear (Lanemendi), in land,' Edin., 1839 (Assembly, 1570), p. 124. its sense to haggle.

† Some curious reports of such causes are to be found † The Scripture referred to is Matt. xix. 8, 9, and in the Kirk Session Records of St. Andrews (15591 Cor. vii, 15.

1563), printed in • Maitland Club Miscell.,' vol. iii.

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(1) Mat. j. 19, 20.” “(m) Mat. v. 31, 32." land. On the top are two symbols of the sun " () Mat. xix. 9; Rom. vii, 2, 3.”

and one of the moon, around which are a number ALFRED CH, JONAS. of figures of animals, probably representing conSwansea.

stellations, some of which agree with their present The only authentic publication of the Pres- names, whilst others are more difficult to under

stand. byterian Church on this matter is chap. xxiv. of

A good engraving of them is given in the Confession of Faith. Article vi. chap. xxiv. the second volume of Prof. Rawlinson's Five

Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World.' reads as follows:“Although the corruptions of man be such as is apt their representation on the stone is to signify

The most probable meaning I can suggest for to study arguments unduly to put asunder those whom God hath joyned together in marriage : yet nothing

but that the grant of land was to be perpetual, and adultery or such wilful desertion as can no way be last as long as the sun, moon, and stars should remedied by the Church or Civil Magistrate, is cause endure. But why the symbol for the sun should sufficient for dissolving the bond of Marriage, wherein a be given twice I cannot even conjecture. publick and ordinary course of proceeding is to be ob

W. T. Lynx. served, and the persons concerned in it not left to their own wills and discretion in their own case.”

Blackheath, In the appended notes the Scriptural references OLD THEATRICAL PRINT (7th S. vi. 69).—Comare stated. Should your correspondent wish mencing from the left as we see them, the subjects further information, I will endeavour to supply it in the print described, 'The Theatrical Steel Yard, by letter.

WILLIAM FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I. 1750,' are in the following order : Mrs. Cibber, 20, Harcourt Street, Dublin.

Barry, Quinn, Mrs. Bellamy, Rich, Woodward,

and last (the man cheering), David Garrick. CHURCH STEEPLES (7th S. v. 226, 393, 514; vi.

ANDREW W. TOER. 77).–There is a rather remarkable vane on the The Leadenhall Press, E.C. tower of the parish church of Hendon, Middlesex. It is in the form of the cognizance of St. John, the

THE FIRST CANT DICTIONARY (7th S. v. 148). — flag-bearing lamb. It is said to measure six feet According to the “Bibliography of Slang and Cant" from the feet of the lamb to the top of the flag. on p. 300 of the Slang Dictionary' (London, I have not actually measured it, but have compared 1865), Harman's 'Caveat,' &c., the first edition of it with the stature of a man standing on the roof which appeared in 1566, contains the earliest dicof the tower, and should say that these dimensions tionary of the cant language.

A. FELS. were nearly correct. Its origin and age are not

Hamburg. known, but the Knights of St. John held consider

TRINKETS (7th S. vi. 27).-According to Miège able property in the parish. E. T. EVANS.

(1701) and Bailey (1733) the meaning of trinkets 68, Fellows Road, N.W.

is “toys, gew-gaws,” and also the highest sail of a ANCIENT Views of the Zodiac (7th S. v. 406; ship. Fenning's 'Dictionary' (1761) gives “ toys; vi. 53). — In answer to a letter which I addressed Johnson's

(1785) "1. Toys; ornaments of dress ;

a showy ornament worn chiefly by women "; and to Prof. Max Müller on this subject, he writes (under date Oxford, July 28), "The modern superfluities of decoration. 2. Things of no great date of the zodiacal representations found in value," &c., with the remark, “ This Skinner deIndia is now admitted by all Sanskrit scholars.” trinchetto Italian, a topsail. I rather imagine it

rives somewhat harshly from trinquet French, My inquiry had special reference to the representation from Verdepettah, given in the Philo corrupted from tricket, some petty finery or decora


J. F. MĂNSERGH, sophical Transactions for 1772, which in several

Liverpool. respects gave me the impression of being certainly not more ancient than the Christian era, and I BROOKE OF ASTLEY (7th S. iv. 87; vi. 43). &m glad to find my view confirmed by so high -James Finlayson's 'Genealogy of the Brooke an authority.

Families,' privately printed at Manchester in 1869, Many of the ideas put forth in Miss_Rolles- gives a pedigree of Brooke of Astley Hall, comton's Mazzaroth' can only mislead. The 80- mencing with Sir Peter Brooke, of Astley and called Denderah zodiac (it is figured also in the Mere, who died at Astley Hall in 1685. His * Penny Cyclopædia' and in Mr. Lockyer's 'Star- second son, Richard, succeeded to Astley, and gazing ') is not a zodiac, and is certainly not more married Margaret Charnock, by whom he had (1) ancient than the time of the Ptolemies.

Peter, his heir ; (2) William, of London, woollen Undoubtedly the oldest existing representation merchant ; (3) Robert, of Knutsford ; (4) Thomas, of constellations (some of which are zodiacal) is of Gray's Inn and Chorley; and (5) Margaret. that on the Babylonian black stone in the British The fourth son, Thomas, heads the pedigree of Museum. The lower part of this stone is covered Brooke of Wilmslow and Prestbury. He married, by a cuneiform inscription containing & grant of Dec. 23, 1679, Ann Williamson, and had eight

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children, from the second of whom descends Mr. In classical learning he had few, if any, superiors, and Edward Brooke, of Pabo, Conway. If, as MR. the use he made if it was admirable. Though much of HARWOOD says, Margaret Charnock's parents were only come to light after he had become engaged in ecclesi

the new knowledge regarding Greek and Roman life had not married till 1649, her son could not be the astical work, he seems to have kept abreast with every same person as the Thomas Brooke, of Gray's Inn, fresh discovery. It is a matter of controversy among who married Ann Williamson in 1679, and so adepts in that special branch of study whether the Finlayson's pedigree breaks down. Finlayson's interpretation

he put on the leading facts of the history

of the early Church was true or false. Those who follow reputation as a genealogist was by no means high; the traditional teaching, and those who have accepted his pedigrees have usually weak places in them, the theories put forward by certain German and French where he bas assumed a connexion it would be teachers and their English copyiste, tell us that here he impossible to prove,

ERNEST Axon.. was in absolute darkness. The fragments of information 66, Murray Street, Higher Broughton.

we possess are so few, and the dust of battle is at present

80 stifling, that none but experts ought to venture to give AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (6th S. viii. an opinion. 419).

That which makes the present volume 80 charming

is the picture of domestic happiness it presents. A Death distant? No, alas ! he's ever with us, &c.

calumny is abroad that highly intellectual men, espe. This quotation is a portion of the motto in “The Abbot,'cially those who have a marked tinge of poetry and chap. xxxiii. The lines quoted are from the poem or the combativeness in their nature, are usually not a success. play of “The Spanish Father,' the author of which is not in their domestic relations. We believe this to be a more given by Sir Walter Scott.

FREDK. RULE. falsehood, invented by the stupid, who are jealous of all (7th S. v. 449, 518; vi. 58.)

those who turn their intellects to good account. How

ever it may be with the many, these pages show that in Woe comes with manhood, as light comes with day.

bis relations to all the members of his household and There is a parallel thought with the above in Sir Walter family Bishop Wordsworth was a model that it would be Scott's historical romance “The Abbot,' chap. ix. Mag. well for weaker souls to try to imitate. dalen Græme thus bids good-morrow to her grandson

We have read this volume with more pleasure than Roland : “And thou hast started thus early from thy couch to catch the first breath of the dawn? But it is

we can describe. Not only is it a life of a wise and good not well, my Roland. Enjoy slumber while thou canst, have come to page during the last seventy years which

man; it also presents a picture of many things which the time is not far behind when the waking eye must be will have its value for the social historian of the future. thy portion as well as mine."


We have only detected one error, and that on a minute

local matter. Few of our readers, we trust, remember a Miscellaneous.

silly controversy raised by a clergyman refusing to per

mit the title “reverend” to be applied to a Wesleyan NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

minister upon the tombstone of his daughter. In con

nexion with this, Owston Ferry, in the Isle of Axholme, Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln, 180 885. By John Henry Overton and Elizabeth Wordsworth. Owston is one of the old parishes which has existed from

is spoken of. There is no such place as Owston Ferry. (Rivingtons.) It is proverbially difficult to write a satisfactory bio- known. Ferry, Kinnard's Ferry, or Kinal Ferry, is a

the beginning of things, so far as Lincolnshire history is graphy. The dangers which surround any one who sets hamlet in this parish, on the bank of the Trent. The himself such a task are much increased when the subject boundary between the two is known. It was a few years of it is a man whose chief demands on the memory of those who come after him have arisen from the part he ago, and we believe is still, marked by a stone. If, when took in theological movements and religious controversy. let, Owston with Ferry is the proper form. This error

speaking of Owston, it be necessary to mention the ham. Time is a healer, not of sorrows only, but of animosities. bas for some years past been common in newspapers, but We think kindly now of our political enemies of but a it is a pity that it should have found its way into a very few years ago, but religious hatred dies bard. The scholarly book, which will hereafter be quoted as an problems that encompass being are the same now as they

authority. were ten years or ten centuries ago, and many of us bate as fervently those of the past who have, according to our Paul's Principles of the History of Language. Transthinking, misinterpreted the flickering beams of light lated by H. A. Strong, LL.D.' (Sonnenschein & Co.) which intermittently flash from behind

DR. STRONG has done well in introducing Prof. Paul's The half uplifted curtain

Principien der Sprachgeschichte' to English readers, Of that mystery which hangs behind the creeds

since, though of books on language there is no lack, there as if they were personal enemies. Christopher Words- is nothing quite similar to this treatise in our language. worth was one who took an active part in nearly all the We may say at once that it is tough reading, being an great religious controversies of his time. With a gentle analytical and bighly pbilosophical investigation into the ness of character which reminded some of those who evolution and growth of language, its morphology and knew him best of the gentle saint of Assisi, he was also psychological development. The result is a pretty stiff a man of war; one who was never slack'in plunging combination of metaphysics and linguistics, the metainto the turmoil of battle in defence of any of those physics not unfrequently preponderating, principles around which the emotions of his nature had Prof. Paul holds that there is no science of culture entwined themselves. He was a High Churchman of a whose method can be brought to such a degree of permost advanced type, but it was the churchmanship of fection as that of the science of language, and the Laud and Andrewes, not that of the modern Tractarians, central idea of his book is to trace the development of who saw much to admire in the modern Latin Com language from the reciprocal influence which individuals munion. On all matters connected with the Papal exert upon each other. Of special value and interest is claims he was a Protestant of the most pronounced tint. chap. xxii., on “Mixture in Language,” and the important 160

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modifications, both in sense and form, that are produced MESSRS. WILLIS & SOTHERAN have issued a series of in words by analogy, whether real or imaginary. Akin their catalogues of second-hand books, constituting a to this is the process of “contamination" (as the author useful volume of reference for the collector and the terms it in chap. viii., using the word in the classical sense), bibliograpber. by which two synonymous forms of expression force them

Books received include An Introduction to the Science selves into consciousness simultaneously and give rise to a new form, which exhibits elements of both, just as, a F.C.s., with illustrations (iliffe & Son); The Emperor

and Practice of Photography, by Chapman Jones, F.I.C., child developes a likeness to each of its parents. This has been much lost sight of, and Prof. Paul does good Count Tolstoi's grim and powerful drama The Dominion twofold origination

of many
words and
forms of speech Frederick III, and the Crown Prince, by Joseph


with twelve illustrations (Scott); and a translation of service in putting it prominently forward. Students of folk-etymology will here find some interesting specimens of Darkness (Vizetelly), the performance of which was to add to their collections.

prohibited in Russia. Prof. Paul holds that creation in the department of

MR. WILLIAM CHAPPELL, F.S.A., died on the 20th inst., language has never wholly ceased, and he agrees with Mr.

Wedgwood in recognizing the onomatopoetic faculty at his residence, Upper Brook Street. He was born in as still active in evolving new words. In the use of 1810.. Apart from his · Popular Music of the Olden these elementary "sound-signg” he would even concede Time,' 2 vols., 1855–59, and his ' History of Music," the language to many beasts, as their conventional calls of publication of which began in 1874, he edited, wholly or warning or enticement represent a stage of development in part, many antiquarian works, including the Rox. through wbich human speech also must have passed. burghe Ballads,' now in the hands of the Rev. J. W. The book altogether is a suggestive one, and a worthy Ebsworth, Bishop Percy's folio MS. of Ballads and misprint not noticed in the Errata is“ tépyelv” (p. 153) during many years a contributor to · N. & Q., and his representative of the scientific school of philology. A Romances,' The Crown Garland of Golden Roses,"

D'Urfey's'. Pills to Purge Melancholy,' &c. He was for έγγειν.

stores of out-of-the-way erudition were constantly at our The Life of Mrs. Catherine Clive. By Percy Fitzgerald, service.

M.A., F.S.A. (Reader.)
To the series of “Lives of Actors," published by Mr.
Reader, Mr. Fitzgerald has added a biography of Kitty

Notices to Correspondents. Clive. His facile pen is well calculated to do justice to We must call special attention to the following notices : this sprightliest and most inspired of comedians, and the On all communications must be written the name and memoir is vivacious and agreeable. A reference to the address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but columns of N, & Q.' would have enabled the author to as a guarantee of good faith. expand and to rectify some portions of the information We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. he affords. Much new and valuable matter is now,

To securo insertion of communications correspondents however, for the first time supplied. Indefatigable in his researches into the history of the stage, Mr.

Fitzgerald must observe the following

rule. Let each note, query, bas dragged to light records that had escaped the painful signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to

or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the and diligent investigations of Genest. A part, accordingly, from the pleasure that is afforded by the sketch appear, Correspondents who repeat queries are requested

to head the second communication "Duplicate.” of a brilliant life passed in close association with men such as Garrick, Horace Walpole, Dr.Johnson, and others MR. D. D. GILDER, 118, Bazar Gate Street, Fort, of no less eminence, the memoir is valuable as an addition Bombay, India, writes as follows :-“Some time ago I to our knowledge of stage history during the brightest asked the meaning of the expressions 'Sussarara" and period of its records. An engraved portrait is prefixed to Tattering a kip. In reply to correspondents I was & volume that is sure to find a place in every dramatic referred to certain back numbers which, unfortunately, library.

I do not posse88. Will any of your numerous readers

who has the same kindly take the trouble to refer to The Universal Review, No. IV., contains a pleasant them, and send me a MS. copy of the same? Replies. article by the editor, ‘In Memoriam Frank Holl.' This may be sent direct to me, when they will be thankfully is accompanied by a drawing from life of the painter, acknowledged : “Sussarara,' 6th S. ix. 85, 132; * Tatter. by Renouard, and by reproductions of four of Holl's ing a kip,' 3rd S. viii, 483, 526 ; ix. 48; 5th S. viii. 508; illustrations to the novels of Trollope. A facsimile ix. 117, 275.” water-colour sketch, by Felix, of William Dorrington,

ARCHIBALD CARMICHAEL (“Carmichael Family of Clapthe cricketer, is given with Mr. Gale's pleasant • Half a perton Hall").— If you will send full address we will Century of Cricket.'. There is also a full-page repro- put you in communication with a contributor occupied duction of a head by Rossetti. Mr. James Gilbert, with researches similar to your own. A.R.A., writes on Couleur in Sculpture.' Mr. Henry James and Mr. Lewis Morris are also among the con

J. W. ALLISON.-Niggling appears in Cassell's ‘Dic. tributors.

tionary.' It is derived from nig, the source of niggardly,

and other words involving an idea of littleness. Parts VI. and VII, have been issued of The Cyclopædia CORRIGENDUM.-P. 137, col. 2, 1. 7 from bottom, for of Education (Sonnenschein & Co.). Among the sub- “ Palucius" read Patricius. jects treated at length are “ Pedagogy,"

Philology," “Pupil Teachers," and " The Reformation."


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The A NEW and cheaper edition has been issued by Messrs. Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and Griffith, Farran, Okeden & Welsh of Mr. Chaplin Ayr- Business Letters to “The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, ton's Child Life in Japan and Japanese Child Stories. Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. The quaint illustrations are preserved, and the volume is We beg leave to state that we decline to return comequally pleasing as a work of art and as a contribution munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to folk-lore,

to this rule we can make no exception,

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