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the blessing of the rose, and the carrying of it in known authoress of thirty or forty years ago "; but the left hand of the Pontiff to S. Croce in Geru. I must respectfully demur to the theory that the salemme, on the fourth Sunday in Lent, so that he word was invented by that lady, for I remember it might have his right hand free to bless the people as a bit of common slang at school, alas ! quite as he went, and of his holding it continually in his that number of years ago, and more. Nor was it hand during the Mass, except at the moment of the even then clothed with any prestige of novelty, but elevation of the Host, and finally of his giving it was employed freely and frankly in the threats of to the Prefect of Rome, when that officer held mutual violence which were not uncommon among his stirrup at his return, at great length.

us at that tender age.

JULIAN MARSHALL. Cartari gives the same particulars at even

I do not know when Miss Sinclair put up her greater length, adding that if the Pope preached at S. Croce, he held the rose in his hand during the board, but the word was in common use all over sermon, and, showing it to the people, commenced England more than " forty years ago." See also his discourse by observations on the blossoming, the old parody on the ‘Babes in the Wood': the redness, and the odour of the rose." There is

You scrag Jane, while I no word of the “ Possesso ” in all this, nor can I

Spifficate Johnny.

D. find that the Rosa d'Oro ever was connected with that ceremony in any way.

Of course all the Altar Flowers (7th S. iv. 387, 476; v. 291, world knows that the present practice of the Holy 437). —I would observe that the decoration of See is to send the Rosa d'Orn as a present to some altars with flowers is of far earlier date than Chrisone of the sovereigns of Europe. I am not able tianity. See Virgil, 'Ecl.,' viii. 64; 'Æo.,' to say at what time exactly the practice of giving i. 417; iii. 25; Horace, 'IV. Od.,' xi. 6. That it to the Prefect of Rome was abandoned in favour flowers were placed on tombs is clear from of the modern usage. But I find in Cartari a few Sophocles, 'Electra,' l. 896. not uninteresting notices of variations in the

E. WALFORD, M.A. ancient practice. Quoting Domenico Magni's 7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 'Notizia dei Vocaboli Ecclesiastici e dei Riti Sacri,' he mentions that Şixtus IV., with reference to big As any positive date of the use of any metallic pen

STEEL Pens (7th S. v. 285, 397, 496; vi. 57). — own name, blessed a golden oak branch instead of a rose, and presented it to the Cathedral of Savona, (or literally MDCCXVII.). It is in a silver

case, six

may be interesting, I have one of the year 1717 his native place. Innocent III. sent four golden inches long and one quarter of an inch in diameter

, rings adorned with gems, instead of the golden which unscrews into two parts. One of these bas rose, to Richard I. of England. Eugenius IV. sent the rose to Henry of England at a time previous

a piece of solid plumbago and the other a silver pen to the regular adoption of the modern practice.

(of the barrel shape) one inch and a half long and To sum up: Leo XI. died a natural death, after dently made from a piece of sheet silver. The

with a slit seven-eighths of an inch long, evitwenty-seven days papacy. It is true that for a time he was popularly supposed to have been complete holder slips into two silver loops or clasps, poisoned by a rose presented to him on the occasion and fastens an almanac and diary, which has a fine of bis “ Possesso." The roses sculptured on his autograph “F. S. de Roos." The title-page has:tomb and the inscription "Sic florui” were placed

“ Nieuw Geinventeerde Koopmans Comptoir en there in reference to his favourite device and Schrij!. Almanach, op het Jaar onzes Heeren Jesu

Christi MDCCXVII. Na de Nieuwe Styl...... Door Jan motto, and had no reference either to the Golden Albertsz. van Dam. t'Amsterdam. By d'Eere van Albert Rose or to his death by poisoning. Lastly, the Magnus, ten Huyse van Cornelis Danckerts, op den Rosa d'Oro has no connexion whatever with the Nieuwandyk in den Atlas. Met Privilegie."

Este. pontifical ceremony of the “Possesso."

T. A. T.

SNEAP (76 S. vi. 46).—This word is used in SWIFT TO STELLA (7th S. vi. 88).—W. P. is an Lincolnshire, and has been from very old time, as odd person not to understand “reason in roasting seen in the Lincolnshire clergyman's translation of eggs." Eggs used to be roasted in England in the Horace:days of peat or wood fires, and are still roasted in So perfyt and exact a scoulde all other countries. The reason ” in the roasting

that women mighte geue place, is shown in waiting for the drop of moisture which

Whose tatling tongues, had won a wispe,

to stande before theyr face. exudes from the first crack, on which instant re- The Persie see his foe so fell, moval is needed, to prevent ill-taste. D.

and how he did him snape

Thoughte impossible to resiste, SPIFLICATE (7th S. vi. 86).—I do not for a

ne wiste he how to scape. moment throw any doubt on MR. E. WALFORD's

Drant's Horace, 1567, M. vii. verso. good story of the use made of this word, in a notice It occurs in a note on Psalm xviii, in Matthew's lo trespassers, by Miss C. Sinclair, “the well- Bible, 1537: “Coales after the vse of the scripture


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signifie the sneapinges, the anger, or the indignacyon reach New England. Can an instance be given of of god."

R. R. a vessel bound for Philadelphia touching at any Boston, Lincolnshire.

New England port ?


Madison, Wis., U.S. STANDING UP AT THE LORD's PRAYER (7th S. v. 429 ; vi. 18).—This used to be the custom at St. WEST CAESTER (7th S. v. 469 ; vi. 32).—This Andrew's Church, in Aberdeen, when I was a name for Chester was used in the last century in clergyman of the Scottish Episcopal Church, in the 'History of England' published in the Uni1860. The congregation also stood when the deca- versal Magazine (see Sup., December, 1780), where logue was read in the book of Exodus, and again it is stated that in 1717, "in the Castle of Westat its repetition in Deuteronomy; also at the Chester, about two hundred prisoners taken at Trisagion in the Epistle for Trinity Sunday, and Preston were set free." J. F. MANSERGH. again at the summary of the moral law given by Liverpool. our Saviour as recorded by the Evangelists. It may be worth noting tbat the Communion

In Bailey's 'Dictionary' (1775) I find:Office of the Church of Scotland, dated March 30, in the Street in Durham, which lies to the East as this

Westchester, 80 called to distinguish it from Chester 1792, allows the minister to use the summary of does to the West. The Saxons called it Leaga Cearten, the law above mentioned in place of the decalogue. i.e., the Legion's Town, because a Roman (the 20th]

John PICKFORD, M.A. Legion quartered there. A Bishop's See.” Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

Hutchinson, in his 'History of Durham,' refers None of your contributors at the above references to “Chester in the west” as lying near the scene alludes to the corresponding custom at those schools of a desperate conflict between the English and where a portion of the Bible was read at morning the Northumbrian Danes, &c., occurring about prayers. When I was at Blackheath School masters 941 (vide vol. i. p. 83. Smollet likewise makes and boys always stood up when the Lord's Prayer mention of the furious battle “at West-chester”

R. E. N. was read as a part of the Scripture portion, and the in young Edmund's reign. custom was kept up till about 1867.


H. DELEVINGNE. Castle Hill, Berkhampstead,


S. v. 146, 416; vi. 55).-I know that Mr, T. E. PRIMROSE Path (7th S. v. 329, 390 ; vi. 49). – Kebbel was intimately acquainted with Lord BeaWhen the allegorical significance of the primrose consfield, and stayed with him at his place in Buckis under discussion, it may not be amiss to allude inghamshire, so I think that the readers of ‘N. & Q.' to its employment in quite a different sense from may accept without doubt his statement as to that Shakespeare's by Spenser in "The Shepheards statesman's favourite flower. Calender,' “Februarie," l. 166. The “Brere"

E. WALFORD, M.A. (the “ bragging," "foolish,” “ proude weede," which QUEEN ELEANOR CROSSES (7th S. vi. 29). thought so much of itself and so little of the Crucis will find in the paper by Mr. Hunter, of "goodly oako" it grew beside) speaks thus :- the Record Office, On the Death of Eleanor of

Ah, my soveraigne ! Lord of creatures all, Castile and the Honours paid to her Memory,'
Thou placer of plants both humble and tall,
Was not I planted of thine owne hand,

printed in vol. xxix, of Archeologia, much on the To be the primrose of all thy land;

point with respect to which he desires informaWith flow'ring blossomes to furnish the prime,

tion. And scarlot berries in Sommer time?

From an account before me of a paper read on Spenser, in his “Glosse" to this passage, gives the subject at Waltham in or about 1856, and The Primrose, the chiefe and worthiest. Does evidently based to some extent on Mr. Hunter's this refer to the primrose as the chief and worthiest researches, the following references to the builders of flowers ? I presume that historically primrose or designers of the crosses occur :is prime-rose=spring rose. Prime in the sense of

Lincoln.-Richard de Stow, occupied upon it for spring is quoted above. GEO. NEILSON.

three years (1291-3), William de Hibernia receiv. Glasgow.

ing twenty-two marks for making" the rod, capital,

and ring," and carriage of them to Lincoln ; also CONVICTS SHIPPED TO THE COLONIES (7th S. ii. Robert de Corf a small sum. 162, 476 ; iii. 58, 114, 193; iv. 72, 134, 395 ; v. Grantham, Stamford, Geddington.—No special 50, 195, 376, 457).—Elizabeth Canning was record, but the last two may be found engraved in sentenced, and given up to a merchant (as I vol. iii. of Vetusta Monumenta ' and vol. i. Britshowed in a former note), for transportation to ton’s ‘Architectural Antiquities.' New England ; yet, according to MR. HENDRIKS, Northampton, Stoney Stratford, Woburn, Dunshe was put on board a vessel bound for Phila- stable, St. Alban's.-All the work of the same delphia ; but if sent to that city she could hardly architect, John de Bello, or De la Bataille-with

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in one case a partner, John de Pabeham--the ham has been cleared up by the discovery of the statues by John de Ireland. The “rod, capital, ancient executorial rolls written and signed by and ring" at Stoney Stratford by Ralph de Chi- Queen Eleanor's executors, dated 1291-4. In these chester, and payment also made to John Battle, are the charges for erecting the crosses, with Wm. de Ireland, and Alexander le Imaginator, amounts of payments, names of workmen, &c. who is elsewhere called Alexander de Abyngdon, Petro Cavalini had nothing whatever to do with it. and the same persons were employed in conjunc- The name of William Torel occurs often ; probably tion with_Battle the architect to execute the he was the designer. The masons were Roger de statues at Dunstable and St. Alban's,

Crundale and Dominique de Leger (also called Waltham.-Dymenge de Legeri alias Nicholas Dominique de Reynes); the image-makers were Dymenge de Reyns, is prominently mentioned, William of Ireland and Alexander of Abingdon. possibly a foreigner, but three Englishmen, Roger The labour

for masonry cost 95l. ; for three statues de Crandale, Alexander le Imaginator, and Robert of Queen Eleanor 101., or 31. 6s. 8d. each. The de Corf (who supplied “the rod, capital, and ring"), terminal shaft cost a considerable sum, part of the were associated with him.

entry for which is gone. It was, no doubt, similar West Cheap.-Magister Michael de Canturia to the one erected on the cross at Northampton, was the contractor, and no other person mentioned which cost 261. for labour. The present terminal in connexion with it. It was more magnificent is a poor substitute for the richly carved virge, than any of the preceding, costing 300l.; but in anulus, and capite which once adorned it, but 1441 it was “rebuilt by John Hetherley, Mayor which was missing before the oldest illustration we of London, and several wealthy citizens by permis- possess. Probably it shared the fate of others, sion of King Henry VI.

which were demolished by the bigoted Puritans Charing.--Commenced by Master Richard de about 1643. Many of the beautiful heads of crosses Crandale, who died Michaelmas, 1293, while the thus demolished were hidden in walls and other work was in progress. It was finished under the places, and have since been found. Those of the direction of Roger de Crandale. Ralph de Chi-thirteenth and fourteenth century afford some idea chester and Alexander le Imaginator also appear of what the lost terminal of Waltham Cross was to have been paid for similar portions of the work like. (See Pooley's 'Stone Crosses of Somersetto that executed by them at other crosses. shire.')

This extract from the paper read at Waltham Waltham Cross was repaired slightly by the may also prove serviceable :

advice of Dr. Stukely, under the supervision of “Some of the admirers of works of art in past days the Society of Antiquaries of London, in 1721 and seem to have been unwilling to believe that works of 1757. About the year 1791 it was very dilapiextraordinary beauty could have been designed by dated, and the lord of the manor of Cheshunt, Sir Englishmen, they must turn to Italy. Hence Vertue G. Prescott, contemplated its removal to Theobald's and Walpole conjectured that the Eleanor crosses were designed by Peter Cavallini, a famous sculptor brought Park, near by-for better protection. Fortunately from Rome, either by the Abbot of Ware or the King this was never carried out. In 1833-4 Mr. W. B. himself, though this opinion was controverted by Clarke, architect, carried out a restoration of the Bromley, Pilkington, and Gough. The late lamented two upper stages, but used very unsuitable stone ; antiquary, Mr. John Britten, failed to obtain any in the old has outlived the new. The present work, formation on this subject, although the public records were searched for him by Mr. Lysons, the keeper. The being carried out under the supervision of Mr. later researches by Mr. Hunter' have, however, proved C. E. Ponting, architect, of Marlborough, and by that, with one exception, all the persons engaged in the Mr. Harry Hems, is to replace portions of the works were Englishmen, and it is only reasonable to sup- original, taken out by Mr. Clarke in 1833, where pose that they were also the designers. I must except found fit, and insert durable Ketton stonework in also one Irishman."


place of Mr. Clarke's Bath stone. The original P.S.-I find in the paper above referred to the meddled with in the present restoration.

1291-4 stone left in by Mr. Clarke will not be usually accepted statement that “wherever the

J. TYDEMAN. body of the queen rested in its way to interment the king afterwards caused a cross to be erected." Consult the Antiquary for this month, p. 27. A note, however, by the editor of the 'Annals of

HIC ET UBIQUE. England' states, These are not tokens of the affection of her husband, as usually supposed, but find the word bora in Dr. Murray's ' Dictionary.' It

EPITAPH (7th S. vi. 25).—MR. Pierpoint will were erected by her executors in compliance with is marked as not naturalized. Its derivation is not directions in her will.” Is this generally recognized free from difficulty. Mr. Robert H. Scott, in his now as the fact ?

' Elementary Meteorology,' says : “The Bora of In answer to Crux allow me to say that the dif- Trieste and Dalmatia is known as a furious northerly ference of opinion as to who designed and built the wind, at the former locality sweeping down off the very proportionate and artistic monument at Walt- high plateau of Carinthia.”—P. 292. AstaRTE.


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HUSSAR PELISSE (7th S. v. 287, 354, 398 ; vi. ally draw from Lancashire. Nevil, Earl of War16). — In 1458 Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary wick, is in the pedigree of the Birches, and was and Bohemia, formed a corps of light cavalry selected used as a Christian name, and being left aside by from among the nobles, one man from every twenty them was taken up by the Macreadys. Edward families. They seem to have been formidable Nevil Macready was a brother of W. C. Macready. troops, making long and rapid marches. Each In the Sunday Times of July 28 there was a chapter man wore a tiger's skin slung from his shoulders, on Macready, called ' Macrediana.' which he shifted from side to side according as

W. J. BIRCH. the wind blew. John CAURCHILL SIKES. 50, Agate Road, The Grove, Hammersmith, W.

DEATH OF CHARLES I. (7th S. vi. 9, 56).-In

the account of the last hours of Charles I. conThere is no regiment of British cavalry wearing tained in Kennet's 'History of England' (1719), the "empty sleeve jacket.” The officer referred to vol. iii. pp. 186-8, there is no mention of any by A. B. represented in the picture was probably friends with the king but Mr. Herbert and Dr. in the suite of one of the foreign princes present at Juxon, Bisbop of London. When summoned to the Jubilee celebration. ONESIPHORUS. proceed to Whitehall, CARADOC, OR CARACTACOS (7th S. v. 387; vi. where several Companies of Foot were drawn up, and

“the king pass'd through the Gardens into the Park, 13). —Cradock or Caradoc was the surname of the made a Guard on each side, the Bishop walking on the Lords Howden, a title now extinct; and I find that King's Right-hand, and Colonel Thomlinson (who had Debrett (I refer to the old and genuine edition) charge of him) on bis Left.” states" His Lordship’s family is of ancient Welsh When he was called to go on the scaffold "the origin, claiming descent from Caradoc and the Bishop and Mr. Herbert weeping fell upon their ancient princes of Wales." What truth was there knees.” On the scaffold the king, “taking off his in this claim? Sir Bernard Burke says nothing Cloak and George, delivered his George to the about it, carrying the pedigree no higher than the Bishop, saying, "Remember.'” “An order was first lord's father, who was Archbishop of Dublin authorise Mr. Herbert and Mr. Mildin 1772-8.

E, WALFORD, M. A. may to bury the King's Body in the Royal Chapel 7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W.

of St. George.” After it had been taken to Windsor,

next Day came the Duke of Richmond, the MarMACREADY (7th S. vi. 7, 75).—The mother of

quess of Hartford, the Earls of Southampton and William Charles Macready was Christine Birch, Lindsay, and the Bishop of London" to inter it. daughter of a Mr. Birch and Christine Fry: She See also Celebrated Trials' (1825), vol. ii

. pp. was a first cousin of the Birches mentioned by MR. 83-86 ; and 'Time's Telescope for 1816,' pp. 6-10. Fry. I have heard from the Miss Skerrets that In "Anarchia Anglicana,' by Theodorus Veraz, Mrs. Macready was the daughter of a medical

printed 1649, it is stated :man in Lincolnshire, from whence all these Birches came; and she left her home and went upon the

“His Majesty coming upon the Scaffold, made a

Speech to the People; wbich could onely be heard by stage, and acted at Liverpool. Macready, there some few Souldiers and Schismaticks of the Faction who fore, was doubly by race born to the stage. He were suffered to possesse the Scaffold, and all parts neare was taken into the boarding-house of Mr. William it; and from their Pennes onely we have our informa(not Thomas) Birch, the first cousin of his mother. tions.”—P. 111. MR. FRY says,

One of Macready's uncles was a The other authorities say that he addressed his Col. John Edward Bircb." I have never heard of remarks principally to Tomlinson. him before ; but a Col. John Francis Birch, of the

J. F. MANSERGH. Royal Engineers, was brother of William Bircb, of Liverpool, Rugby School. There were other brothers—Thomas,

It might be added that the four friends who atWalter, Henry, George, Jonathan. Walter, Fellow tended

the king's burial at Windsor brought with of Magdalen, was the particular friend of Walter them Bishop Juxon, who had attended the king on Savage Landor

, and in his life by Forster there is the scaffold, but he was not permitted to read the a chapter on the Birch family. Landor and most burial service as he had intended." of the Birches were together at Rugby School.

R. W. HACKWOOD. Should MR. ARCHER or Mr. Fry require further information as to the family of Macready, I should ETRUSCAN CITY ON THE SITE OF ROME (7th S. think they might inquire of Jonathan Macready, vi. 28). --The latest, fullest, and best description physician, in London, who was named after Jona- of the Etruscan remains found in excavating Rome than Birch, especially mentioned in the 'Remi- is in Prof. J. H. Middleton's 'Ancient Rome in niscences' as the best man he ever knew. In a 1885,' with maps, plans, elevations, sections, and notice by the Times newspaper of Macready's references to authorities and the Transactions of 'Reminiscences' it is said his mother was a Birch, archæological societies, all of the greatest value a good Midland family. Birobos, however, genor- and interest. The geology of the site of Rome



and its vicinity is also original and instructive, thing for which gratitude is due. No man of letters of and the work is the very best I have ever seen on

our own time bas cut across so many deep convictions the topography and archæology of Rome.

and so many popular prejudices as it was Victor Hugo's

fortune to do. "We all of us, who have any feelings ESTE.

at all beyond delight in the exercise of mere animality,

have fervent beliefs on one side or the other concerning Miscellaneous.

many of those things which Victor Hugo spent his long

life in lauding or dragging through the fætid sewer NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

of his scorn. That he was one of the great world-poets Madame de Maintenon, By Emily Bowles. (Kegan in the dull, blurred outline

sketch of an English version,

no one who has made acquaintance with his orks, even Paul, Trench & Co.) THERE is no exhaustive life of Madame de Maintenon in will

. dare to deny. That he had any coherent conception English; and Miss Bowles would be the first to admit has evolved itself, is denied by most persons who do not

of living politics, any notion of the way in which society that her interesting and sympathetic book does not merit accept the revolution" as the

new gospel of humanity. such a title. In French there are several so-called lives, How it came to pass that one so wide-minded as he can but not one in the highest and best sense of the

word. have looked upon the extremely parrow fanatics who It is somewhat strange that "the most influential woman in French history," as Dr. Döllinger calls her, should the great French upheaval as anything more than tran

were responsible for the wild talk and wilder deeds of have no fitting literary monument raised in her honour. Doubtless it is to be accounted for partly by the crash of sient phenomena in the great drama of world history we the Revolution and the long chain of portents that bave been always puzzled to explain. Victor Hugo wrote heralded it, and partly from the fact that Madame de much concerning the history of the human race, but it Maintenon herself destroyed all possible written evi

was a subject he had never mastered in any one of its dence that she was the wife of Louis XIV. Miss Bowles almost infinite details. His books show this. To such a has written a book that, to the great majority of readers, man, a poet of a high order, with a vivid interest in the will be found full of new and striking matter. To those present and passionato ardour for the welfare of his who have not read the lately published volumes of M. fellow creatures--a Frenchman, too-it was natural that A. Geoffroy, and

the standard work by the Duc de the great revolution, so near at hand in the days of his Noailles, almost all the information in this little book will childhood, should cast a shadow out of all proportion

to be found fresh. Of course we must not be understood its historical importance. It is hard, however, to underto mean the common facts known by every schoolboy. carried on a life-long war against the punishment of

stand how one who hated cruelty of every kind, who No one can possibly judge of any of the circumstances death for even the most atrocious criminals, could look of the strange and wonderful woman who for many with affection on men who, whatever good intentions years caused purity to be respected in the most dissolute court in Europe, who has not some considerable know they may have had, showed a thirst for blood which ledge of the character of Louis XIV. It has been the equals the worst acts of the kings and priests whoso

deeds he loathed, fashion for some time to treat the memory of Louis with contempt. This is, we think, a trick of manner caught Victor Hugo, must have been aware that he was setting

Mr. Marzials, when he undertook to write this life of from Thackeray. That he was a great king and a man of no ordinary intellectual power is beyond all about a task of very great difficulty. He evidently doubt-selfish and vain, but, considering the way in entered on it with no light heart, but with careful prewhich he was brought up, who can wonder at it.

That paration, and a serious desire to tell the whole truth. On he openly lived with various mistresses and squandered some points we differ from him, but they are not queslarge sums of money on them is true. But he never for tions of fact so much as of literary criticism, If we could ono moment forgot that in him was vested the sovereign separate the plots of Hugo's prose stories from the lanpower, to be used for the well-being of France ; and in guage and the character drawing they would be well-nigh 80 far as he understood what was meant by it, he tried to perfect. We have, however, always felt that they are do the best for his country. There is no doubt that, from marred by presenting to our scrutiny a sad, terrible world, a religious point of view, Madame de Maintenon was

such as no human beings have bitherto been called upon fully justified in marrying him, without the registration to inhabit. Victor Hugo's present fame has been obscured ever taking place. It was a good marriage, both in canon far more by the rant of his admirers than by the invecand civil law, though never openly acknowledged, and tives of theological or political obscurantists. A calm from that time the wife seems to have bad but one aim in and bealthy estimate like that given us by Mr. Marzials life, and that was to ensure the king's salvation. Ambi- will do much good. We trust that it may find a French tion, comfort, ease, pleasure, even St. Cyr itself, bad to translator. Dispassionate estimates of this kind are give way to the ever watchful care with which she strove much wanted across the Channel, where politics

and relito make a godly and respectable life pleasant to her hus- gion cut across the literary hemisphere in a way they band. Most likely one of the things that first attracted never have done here. the king to her was ber habit of telling him very plainly the truth at all times. It is pleasant to see the loving

The Quarterly Review for July opens with a picture study Miss Bowles has made of this great and good of sunny France when the mad Valois kings ruled her, woman's character; and we can only hope that it may be and the conflict between Rome and the intant party of but the prelude to a greater and fuller life of one who reform was dividing courts and families. Amid those has been so much maligned,

contending forces Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of

France, stands out a prominent figure, commanding the Great Writers. — Life of Victor Hugo. By Frank T. respect even of those who differed from his theology, Marziale. (Scott.)

which is saying a great deal for the admiral. In the MR. Marzials has written sanely concerning Victor Reminiscences of the Coburg Family' we have an Hugo. This does not seem high praise, but those who article dealing with very modern history and with a have made acquaintance with the wild fury of many of reigning house which has, by means of its brains, ex. the great Frenchman's admirers and detractors will, we ercised an influence in European affairs entirely out of are certain, admit that sapity on such a subject is some all proportion to the size of its dominions. It is curious

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