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liberty of taking or killing them is another fran- tutes inflict additional penalties to be recovered chise, or royalty, derived likewise from the either in a regular or summary way, by any of crown, and called free warren ; a word which, the king's subjects, from certain persons of insignifies preservation or custody: as the exclu- ferior rank, who may be found offending in this sive liberty of taking and killing fish in a public particular.

But it does not follow that persons stream or river is called a free fishery; of which, excused from these additional penalties are therehowever, no new franchise can at present before authorised to kill game. The circumstance granted by the express provision of magna of having £100 per annum, and the rest, are not charta, c. 16. The principal intention of grant properly qualifications but exemptions. And ing a man these franchises, or liberties, was in these persons so exempted from the penalties of order to protect the game, by giving him a sole the game statutes, are not only liable to actions and exclusive power of killing it himself, pro- of wrespass by the owners of the land; but also, vided he prevented other persons.

if they kill game within the limits of any royal man but he who has a chase or free warren, by franchise, they are liable to the actions of such grant from the crown, or prescription, which who may have the right of chase or free warren supposes one, can justify hunting or sporting therein. Upon the whole, it appears that the upon another man's soil; nor indeed, in thorough king, by, his prerogative, and such persons as strictness of common law, either hunting or have, under bis authority, the Royal FRANCHISE sporting at all. However new this doctrine may of Chase, Park, or Free WARREN (See these seem, it is a regular consequence from what has articles), are the only persons who may acquire been before delivered, that the sole right of any property, however fugitive and transitory

, taking and destroying game belongs exclusively in these animals feræ naturæ, while living; which to the king. This appears, as well from the is said to be vested in them propter privilegium. historical deduction here made, as because he And such persons as may thus lawfully hunt, may grant to his subjects an exclusive right of fish, or fowl, ratione privilegii, have only a quataking them; which he could not do, unless such lified property in these animals: it not being a right was first inherent in himself. And hence it absolute or permanent, but lasting only so long will follow, that no person whatever, but he who as the creatures remain within the limits of such has such derivative right from the crown, is by respective franchise or liberty, and ceasing the common law entitled to take or kill any beast of instant they voluntarily pass out of it. It is held chase, or other game whatsoever. It is true that, indeed, that if a man starts any game within his by the acquiescence of the crown, the frequent own grounds, and follows it into another's, and grants of free warren in ancient times, and the kills it there, the property remains in himself. introduction of new penalties of late by certain And this is grounded on reason and natural jusstatutes for preserving the game, this exclusive tice; for the property consists in the possession; prerogative of the king is little known or consi- which possession commences by the finding it dered ; every man that is exempted from these in his own liberty, and is continued by the immodern penalties looking upon himself as at li- mediate pursuit. And so, if berty to do what he pleases with the game: game in one man's chase or free warren, and whereas the contrary is strictly true, and that no hunts it into another liberty,

contiman, however well qualified he may vulgarly be nues in the owner of the chase or warren; this esteemed, has a right to encroach on the royal property arising from privilege, and not being prerogative by the killing of game, unless he can changed by the act of a mere stranger. Or if a show a particular grant of free warren, or a pre- man starts game on another's private grounds

, scription which presumes a grant; or some au- and kills it there, the property belongs to him thority under an act of parliament. As to the on whose grounds it was killed, because it was latter, there are but two instances wherein an also started there ; this property arising ratione express permission to kill game was ever given soli. Whereas if, after being started there

, it is by statute; the one by 1 Jac. I. cap. 27, altered killed in the grounds of a third person, the proby 9 Jac. I. cap. 11, and virtually repealed by perty belongs not to the owner of the first ground, 22 and 23 Car. II. cap. 25, which gave authority, because the property is local; nor yet to the so long as they remained in force, to the owners owner of the second, because it was not started of free warren, to lords of manors, and to all in his soil; but it vests in the person who started freeholders having £40 per annum in lands of and killed it, though guilty of a trespass against inheritance, or £80 for life or lives, or £400 per- both the owners. See Laws RESPECTING GAME. sonal estate (and their servants), to take par Games, in antiquity, were public diversions, tridges and pheasants upon their own, or their exhibited on solemn occasions. Such among the masters

' free warren, inheritance, or freehold; the Greeks were the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, other by 5 Anne cap. 14, which empowers lords Nemean, &c. games; and, among the Romans, and ladies of manors to appoint game-keepers, the Apollinarian, Circensian, Capitoline, &e. to kill game for the use of such lord or lady, games. See APOLLINARIAN, Olympic, Pro which with some alteration still subsists, and THIAN. plainly supposes such power not to have been

Games, Modern, are usually distinguished In them before. The truth of the matter is, that into those of exercise and address

, and those of these game laws do indeed qualify nobody, ex- hazard. To the first belong chess, tennis

, bilcept in the instance of a gamekeeper, to kill liards, &c.; and to the latter those performed game: but only to save the trouble and formal with cards, or dice, as back-gammon, ombre

, process of an action by the person injured, who picquet, whist, &c. See Back-GAMMON, CARDS perhaps too might re nit the offence, these sta- Dice, GAMING, &c.

a stranger starts

the property

GAMELIA, in Grecian antiquity, a nuptial laws will be of little avail: because the same feast, or rather sacrifice, held in the ancient false sense of honor that prompts a man to sacriGreek families on the day before a marriage; so fice himself, will deter him from appealing to called, from a custom they had of shaving them the magistrate. Yet it is proper that laws should selves on this occasion, and presenting their hair be, and be known publicly, that gentlemen may to some deity to whom they had particular obli- consider what penalties they wilfully incur, gations.

and what a confidence they repose in sharpers ; GAMELION, in the ancient chronology, was who, if successful in play, are certain to be paid the eighth month of the Athenian year, con with honor, or, if unsuccessful, have it in their taining twenty-nine days, and answering to the power to be still greater gainers by informing. end of January and beginning of February. It GAMING, CHANCE IN. Hazard, or chance, is was thus called, as being, in the opinion of the a matter of mathematical consideration, because Athenians, the most proper season of the year it admits of more and less. Gamesters either for marriage.

set out upon an equality of chance, or are supGaming, the art of playing or practising any posed to do so. This equality may be altered game, particularly those of hazard; as cards, in the course of the game, by the greater good dice, tables, &c. "Gaming has at all times been fortune or address of one of the gamesters, considered as of pernicious consequence to the whereby he comes to have a better chance, so commonwealth; and is therefore severely prohi- that his share in the stakes is proportionably bited by law. It is esteemed a practice intended better than at first. This more and less runs to supply, or retrieve, the expenses occasioned through all the ratios between equality and inby luxury; it being a kind of tacit confession, finite difference, or from an infinitely little difthat the company therein engaged do, in general, ference till it come to an infinitely great one, exceed the bounds of their respective fortunes; whereby the game is determined. The whole and therefore they cast lots to determine upon game, therefore, with regard to the issue of it, whom the ruin shall at present fall, that the rest is a chance of the proportion the two shares bear may be saved a little longer. But, taken in any to each other. The probability of an event is Jight, it is an offence of the most alarming nature; greater or less, according to the number of tending, by necessary consequence, to promote chances by which it may happen, compared public idleness, thefi, and debauchery, among with all the chances by which it may either ihose of a lower class; and, among persons of a happen or fail. M. de Moivre, in a treatise de superior rank, it has frequently been attended Mensurâ Sortis, has computed the variety of with the sudden ruin and desolation of ancient chances in several cases that occur in gaming, and opulent families, and abandoned prostitution the laws of which may be understood by what of every principle of honor and virtue, and too follows. Suppose p the number of cases in often has ended in suicide. To restrain this which an event may happen, and , the number of pernicious vice among the inferior sort of people, cases wherein it may not happen, both sides have the statute 33 Henry VIII. cap. 9, was made; the degree of probability, which is to each other which prohibits to all but gentlemen, the games р to 9.

If two gamesters, A and B, engage of tennis, tables, cards, dice, bowls, and other on this footing, that, if the cases p happen, A unlawful diversions there specified, unless in the shall win; but if q happen, B shall win, and the time of Christmas, under pecuniary pains and imprisonment. And the same law, and also the stake be a; the chance of A will be pa, and

P +9 statute 23 Geo. II. cap. 14, inflict pecuniary penalties upon the master of any public house, that of B ; consequently, if they sell the wherein servants are permitted to game, as well

p+9 as upon servants themselves who are found expectancies, they should have that for them gaming there. But this is not the principal respectively. If A and B play with a single die, ground of complaint; it is the gaming in high on this condition, that if A throw two or more life that demands the attention of the magistrate;

aces at eight throws, he shall win; otherwise B a passion to which every valuable consideration shall win; what is the ratio of their chances ? is sacrificed, and which we seem to bave inherited Since there is but one case wherein an ace may from our ancestors, the ancient Germans; whom turn up, and five wherein it may not, let uci, Tacitus describes to have been bewitched with and b=5. And again, since there are eight throws the spirit of play to a most exorbitant degree of the die, let n=8; and you will have a +bn-b* • They addict themselves,' says he, “to dice -naba— 1, to bn + naba— 1 : that is, the chance of (which is wonderful) when sober, and as a se- A will be that of B as 663,991 to 10,156,525, or rious employment; with such a mad desire of nearly as 2 to 3. A and B are engaged at single winning or losing, that, when stripped of every quoits; and after playing some time, A wants 4 of thing else, they will stake at last their liberty, being up, and B 6; bui B is so much the better and their very selves. The loser goes into a vo- gamester, that his chance against A upon a single luntary slavery; and, though younger and throw would be as 3 to 2; what is the ratio of stronger than his 'antagonist, suffers himself to their chances ? Since A wants 4, and B 6, the game be bound and sold. And this perseverance in will be ended at nine throws; therefore, raise a+b so bad a cause they call the point of honor; ea to the ninth power, and it will be a' +9a8b+36 est in re prav pervicacia, ipsi fidem vocant.' a’bb+84a*b* +126 a*b*+126uobo, to 84 a’l®+36 One would almost be tempted to think Tacitus gab7+ato +bo: call a 3, and b 2, and you will was describing a modern Englishman. When nave ihe ratio of chances in numbers, viz. 1,759,077 men are thus intoxicated with so frantic a spirit, to 194,048. A and B play at single quoits, and A

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is the best gamester, so that he can give B 2 in 3: no more: since the probability of throwing it the what is the ratio of their chances at a single throw? first time is $, and of missing it the other three Suppose the chances as s to 1, and raise 2+1 to times, is **$, it follows, that the probability its cube, which will be z* +382 +3 3+1. Now, of throwing it the first time, and missing it wire since A could give B 2 out of 3, A might under- other three successive tiines, is įxxx ; take to win the throws running; consequently because it is possible to hit every throw as well the chances in this case will be as 23 to 3z2+ as the first, it follows, that the probability of 32+1. Hence z=3z* +32+1; or 2z_** +382 throwing it once in four throws, and missing it —3z+1. And therefore xv2=2+1; and, con

the other three, is

4x

1:9=; which being

subtracted from 1, there will remain for the sequently, 7-3 2-1. The chances, therefore, are probability of throwing it once, and no more, a

four times. Therefore, if one undertake to thos o 2 – 1, and 1, respectively. Again, suppose an ace once, and no more, in four times, he has I have two wagers depending, in the first of 500 to 796 the worst of the lay, or 5 to 8, very which I have 3 to 2 the best of the lay, and in the near. Suppose two events are such, that one of second, 7 to 4; what is the probability I win them has twice as many chances to come up as both wagers ? 1. The probability of winning the the other: what is the probability that the erenit, first is 3, that is the number of chances I have to which has the greater number of chances to come win divided by the number of all the chances : up, does not happen twice before the other hapthe probability of winning the second is 71: there- pens once, which is the case of flinging 7 with fore, multiplying these two fractions together, the two dice before 4 once? Since the number of product will be l}, which is the probability of chances is as 2 to 1, the probability of the first winning both wagers

. Now, this fraction being happening before the second is 3, but the proba subtracted from 1, the remainder is }, which is bility of its happening twice be.ore it is bat the probability I do not win both wagers: there- jx š or g: therefore it is 5 to 4, seven does not fore the odds against me are 34 to 21. 2. If I come up twice before four once. But, if it would know what the probability is of winning were demanded, what must be the proportion the first, and losing the second, I argue thus: of the facilities of the coming up of tưs the probability of winning the first is 3, the proba- events, to make that which has the most bility of losing the second is therefore multiply- chances come up twice, before the other coms ing by A, the product !! will be the probability of once? The answer is, 12 to 5 very nearly: my winning the first, and losing the second; which whence it follows, that the probability of throwbeing subtracted from 1, there will remain}, which ing the first before the second is 4, and the pro is the probability I do not win the first, and at the bability of throwing it twice is #x#, or same time lose the second. 3. If I would know therefore the probability of not doing it is : what the probability is of winning the second, therefore the odds against it are as 145 to 141, and at the same time losing the first, I say thus : which comes very near an equality. Suppose The probability of winning the second is 31; the there is a heap of thirteen red cards, and another probability of losing the first is : therefore, mul- heap of thirteen black cards, what is the probabitiplying these two fractions together, the productlity that, taking one card at a venture out of

} is the probability I win the second, and also each heap, I shall take out the two aces. The lose the first

. 4. If I would know what the pro- probability of taking the ace out of the first heap bability is of losing both wagers, I say, the is 1}, the probability of taking the ace out of the probability of losing the first is 3, and the pro- second heap is th; therefore the probability of bability of losing the second ti therefore the taking out both aces is 1 x isda, which being probability of losing them both is : which, being subtracted from 1, there will remain 198; there subtracted from 1, there remains ! : therefore, fore the odds against me are 168 to 1. In cases the odds of losing both wagers is 47 to 8. This where the events depend on one another, the reasoning is applicable to the happening or fail- manner of arguing is somewhat altered. Thus, ing of any events that may fall under considera- suppose that out of one single heap of thirteen tion. Thus if I would know what the probability cards of one color, I should undertake to take is of missing an ace four times together with a out first the ace; and, secondly, the two : thouza die, this I consider as the failing of four differ- the probability of taking out the ace be p, and

Now the probability of missing the the probability of taking out the two be likewise first is g, the second is also , the third g, and the is: yet, the ace being supposed as taken out al. fourth ž; therefore the probability of missing ready, there will remain only twelve cards in the it four times together is sx:x{x{=}; which heap, which will make the probability of taking being subtracted from 1, there will remain is for out the two to be th; therefore the probability of the probability of throwing it once or oftener in taking out the ace, and then the two, will be four times; therefore the odds of throwing an ***s. In this last question the two events have ace in four times, is 671 to 625. But if the a dependence on each other; which consists in flinging of an ace was undertaken in three times, this, that one of the events being supposed as the probability of missing it three times would be having happened, the probability of the other's **&+=472; which being subtracted from 1, happening is thereby altered. But the case is there will remain it for the probability of throw- not so in the two heaps of cards. If the events ing it once or oftener in three times : therefore in question be n in number, and be such as bave the odds against throwing it in three times are 125 the same number a of chances hy which they to 91. Again, suppose we would know the proba- may happen, and likewise the same number b of bility of throwing an ace once in four times, and chances by which they may fail, raise a+b to the

ent events.

a +019

or

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power n. And if A and B play together, on condition swifter than the punishment of the law, which that if either one or more of the events in question only hunts them from one device to another. happen, A shall win, and Blose, the probability of The statute 13 Geo. II. c. 19, to prevent the mulA's winning will be la + bla— bm

tiplicity of horse-races, another fund of gaming, ; and that of B's directs that no plates or matches under £50 value

shall be run, under penalty of £200 to be paid b*

by the owner of each horse running, and £100 winning will be a +0]; for when a +b is actual- by such as advertise the plate. By statute 18 ly raised to the power n, the only term in which Geo. II. c. 34, the stature of 9 Ann. is further ená does not occur is the last bn : therefore all the forced, and some deficiencies supplied : the for. terms but the last are favorable to A. Thus if feitures of that act may now be recovered in a n=3, raising a+b to the cube a® +3a+b+3ab", court of equity; and, moreover, if any man be +b3all the terms but bwill be favorable to A; and convicted, upon information or indictment, of therefore the probability of A's winning will be winning or losing any sitting of £10 or 120 +34'5+3ab, a+ 6p2–63

within twenty-four hours, he shall forfeit five

times the sum. Thus careful has the legislature a+61

78; and the proba- been to prevent this destructive vice: woich may bility of B's winning will be

show that our laws against gaining are not so deBut if A atop

ficient, as ourselves and our magistrates in putand B play on condition, that if either two ting those laws in execution. or more of the events in question happen, A shall

GAM'MER, n.s. Uncertain as to its etymowin; but in case one only happen, or none, Blogy; probably from Fr. grand mère, a term apshall win; the probability of A's winning will be plied to old women, corresponding to gaffer, a+blunabp-1-bp

says Dr. Johnson; it is simply its feminine. for the only two terms in GAM'MON, n. s. Fr. jambon; Ital. gambone, n+b1

the buttock of a hog salted and dried. A term which aa does not occur are the two last, viz. used in the game called back-gammon. nabp—' and bp.

Our tansies at Easter have reference to the bitter GAMING, LAWS AGAINST. By stat. 16 Car. II. herbs; though at the same time 'twas always the c. 7, if any person, by playing or betting, shall fashion for a man to have a gummon of bacon, to lose more than £100 at one time, he shall not be shew himself to be no Jew.

Selden. compellable to pay the same; and the winner Ask for what price thy venal tongue was sold : shall forfeit treble the value, one moiety to the A rusty gammon of some scven years old. Dryden. king, the other to the informer. The statute 9

The quick dice, Ann. c. 14, enacts, that all bonds and other se In thunder leaping from the box, awake curities, given for money won at play, or money

The sounding gamma

Thomson's Autumn. lent at the time to play withal, shall be utterly GAMMONING, among seamen, denotes se void: that all mortgages and incumbrances of veral turns of a rope taken round the bowsput, lands, made upon the same consideration, shall and reeved through holes in knees of the head, be and enure to the heir of the mortgager: that, for the greater security of the bowsprit

. if any person at one time loses £10 at play, he

GAMUT, n, s.

Ital. gana. The scale of may sue the winner, and recover it back by ac- musical notes. tion of debt at law; and, in case the loser does

Madam, before you touch the instrument, not, any other person may sue the winner for

To learn the order of my fingering, treble the sum so lost; and the plaintiff in either I must begin with rudiments of art, case may examine the defendant himself upon To teach you gamut in a briefer sort. Shakspeare. oath: and that in any of these suits no privilege When by tho gamut some musicians make of parliament shall be allowed. The statute far A perfect song, others will undertake, ther enacts, that if any person cheats at play, and By the same gamut changed to equal it :

Donne, at one time wins more than £10 or any valuable

Things simply good can never be unfit. thing, he may be indicted thereupon, and shall

Long has a race of herves filled the stage, forfeit five times the value, shall be deemed infa

That rant by note, and through the gamut rage;

In songs and airs express their martial fire, mous, and suffer such corporeal punishment as in

Combat in trills, and in a fugue expire. Addison. case of wilful perjury. By several statutes of the reign of king George II. all private lotteries by Gamut, GAMMUT, or GAN-UT. See Music. tickets, cards, or dice (particularly the games of

'GAN, for began, from 'gin for begin. faro, basset, ace of hearts, hazard, passage, rolly

The noble knight 'gan feel
His vital force to faint.

Spenser. polly, and all other games with dice, except backgammon), are prohibited under a penalty of £200 GANA, or Ghana, a city and state of Central for him that shall erect such lotteries, and £50 Africa, on the Niger. Our knowledge of it is a-time for the players. Public lotteries, unless derived almost wholly from the Arabian writers by authority of parliament, and all manner of in- of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, at which genious devices, under the denomination of sales period it was the çeatre of an extensive empire. or otherwise, which in the end are equivalent to It appears to have been founded by one of a lotteries, were before prohibited by a great variety Saracen dynasty, expelled from Egypt; and being of statutes under heavy pecuniary penalties. But a convenient emporium of trade with Northern particular descriptions will be ever lame and Africa, and in the vicinity of the gold mines or deficient, unless all games of mere chance are at Wangara, it soon rose to a high pitch of progonce prohibited; the invention of sharpers being perity. The vicinity is said to have been very

the goose.

fertile, and the pomp of the sovereign to have the Ganges, also rise on the southern side of that excited the admiration of all the surrounding chain of mountains. kingdoms. Gana is thought to have been the Thris river winds through the rugged country country described to Horneman under the name of Sirinagur, until at Hurdwar it finally escapes of Cano; and to be now an appendage of Cas- through an opening from the mountainous tract sina, and tributary with it, to Bornou. The and enters the plains of Bengal, after a course of maps place it 100 miles south-east of Cassina. 800 miles. The breadth and depth of the river

GANCH, v. a. Ital. ganciare, from gancio, a in its course through Bengal greatly vary, the hook; Fr. ganche. To drop from a high place former from three miles to half a mile, and in upon hooks by way of punishment; a practice some places it is fordable; but for 500 miles from in Turkey, to which Smith alludes in his Po- the sea, the depth in the channel is thirty feet, cockius.

when the river is lowest; the current in the dry Cohors catenis qua pia stridulis

season runs three miles an hour and five miles in Geinunt onusti, vel sude trans sinum

the wet. Luctantur actå, pendulive

At 300 miles from the sea the Ganges separates Sanguineis trepidaut in uncis.

Musæ Angl.

into two great branches, which in their course to GA'NDER, n. s. Sax. gandra. The male of the sea diverge from each other and form a delta,

whose base on the coast is 200 miles: and in As dcep drinketh the goose as the gunder. which there are nearly twenty openings; the whole

Cumden. of the delta towards the sea being composed of One gander will serve five geese,

Mortimer. low alluvion islands covered with wood named GANG, v. n. & n. s. Sax. gangan; Dutch Sundry, whence the tract is called the Sundergangen; Scot. gang, from Goth. ga, to go. To bunds. go, an old word used ludicrously. A tribe or

The western branch of the Ganges is agaio herd. The substantive is used in a contemp- subdivided into lesser branches, the two westerntuous sense.

most of which, named the Cossimbuzar and Jel. But let them gang alone,

linghee, unite again and take the name of Hoogly As they have brewed, so let them bear blame. or Hughly to the sea. See Hoogly.

Spenser. The latest account of the upper part of the 0, you panderly rascals ! there's a knot, a gang, Ganges is that given by captain Hodgson, of the a pack, a conspiracy against me. Shakspeare. tenth native infantry, who undertook to survey

As a gang of thieves were robbing a house, a mas it in 1807. On the 31st of May, he descended tiff fell a barking.

L'Estrange.

to the bed of the river, and saw the Ganges issue Admitted in among the gang,

from a very low arch at the foot of a vast bed of He acts and talks as they befriend him. Prior.

It was bounded on each side by rocks; Your flaunting beaus gang with their breasts open. but in the front, over the debouche, the mass

Arbuthnot.

was nearly perpendicular, and from the river to GANGES (GANGA, the River), called also the surface of the snow was 300 feet ; probably Padda and Burra Ganga, the Great River. the accumulation,' says he, of ages. It is in layAn important river of Hindostan, one of the ers of some feet thick, each seemingly the remains largest in Asia, formed by two streams which take of a fall of a separate year. From the bror of their rise in the mountains of Thibet. Some this curious wall of snow, and immediately doubts having arisen respecting the direction of above the outlet of the stream, large and heary these streams, the Bengal government, in 1808, icicles depend : they are formed by the freezing sent lieutenant Webb to survey the upper part of of the melted snow-water of the top of the bed; the river; and, from all the information he could for in the middle of the day the sun is powerful, obtain, he fixed the source on the south side of and the water produced by its action falls over the great Himalaya chain. All accounts, indeed, this place in cascade, but is frozen at night. The agreed in representing the origin of the Ganges Gango tri Brahmin who came with us, and wta as more remote than GANGOUTRI (which see), is only an illiterate mountaineer, observed, ita and stated that, while the course was in many he thought these icicles must be Mahádéva's places visible, in others it was covered with snow Hairs, whence, as he understood, it is wriand ice. The course of the Ganges and Alaca- ten in the Shástra, the Ganges flows. I mention nanda Rivers was followed, until the former be- this, thinking it a good idea : but the man bad came a shallow and almost stagnant pool, and never heard of such a place actually existing, the latter a small stream; and both having, nor had he or any other person, to his knowledge, addition to springs and rivulets, a considerable even been here. In modern times they may not. visible supply from the thawing of the snow. It but Hindoos of research may formerly have been is therefore concluded, from analogy, that the here; and if so, I cannot think of any place to sources of these rivers can be little, if at all, re which they might more aptly give the name of a moved from the station at which these remarks Cow's Mouth, than to this extraordinary de were collected. No doubt can remain, says bouché. The height of the arch of snow is only Mr. Hamilton, that the different branches of sufficient to let a stream flow under it. Blocks the river above Hurdwar take their rise on the of snow were falling about us, so there was little southern side of the Himalaya chain of snowy time to do more here than to measure the size of mountains; and it is presumable, that all the tri- the stream. Measured by a chain, the mean butary streams of the Ganges, including the breadth was twenty-seven feet,; the greates Sarjew or Goggrah, and the Jumna, whose most depth at that place being knee deep, or eighteen conspicuous fountain is at little distance from inches, but more generally a foot deep, and ra

snow.

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