« ZurückWeiter »
The country between the sea and the Shannon live stock is sheep; some of the finest flocks in is well watered, and contains several beautiful the world,' says this writer. Potatoes are not lakes. Lough Corrib here extends about twenty here cultivated to so great an extent as in some miles in length, its greatest breadth being parts of Ireland; they plant them on oat stubble, eleven; but, in the middle, it is contracted to a or on lea that has been burned or manured, and narrow channel, which is crossed by a ferry at follow with wheat, bear or barley, or oats; which Knock. It yields a fresh water muscle, that grains often follow in this order. Paring and produces pearls, of which,' says Beaufort, “I burning the soil is common, and a great part of bave seen some very fine specimens. Next to the rent of some of the estates on the shore is the Shannon, the principal rivers are, the Black paid from kelp. Mr. Wakefield states, that the River, Suck, Clare, Galway, and Dunmore; the wages of common labor in Galway, in 1811, Black River, on the hounds of Mayo, is subter were 9d. a day; and, in hay and corn harvest, raneous for about three miles, and the Clare and 1s. 1d. The price of potatoes was 3 d. per the Moyne unite their waters under ground, stone; beef 5 d., and pork 31d. per lb.; oatalternately appearing and retiring from sight. meal 14s. per cwt.; milk 2d., and butter-milk Lough Reagh and Lough Coutra are fine pieces three farthings per quart; and herrings 5s. 3d. per of water; the latter, in particular, which is si- hundred. tuated near the borders of Clare, is much ad The linen manufacture is not considerable in mired for its combination of hills, woods, and Galway, but is the only kind of manufacture islands.
pursued to any extent. There is a considerThe Arran Isles, on the western coast, in- able salmon fishery at the town of Galway; and, cluded in this county, are rocky and pre- in the bay, herrings, lobsters, and crabs abound. cipitous near the shore, which, in many places, Of the latter, such as in Dublin would bring
into stupendous perpendicular cliffs. 7s. or 8s., may be often hought here for 6d., we They are called the South Arran Isles, to distin- are told, or even for less. The oysters found guish them from Arran Island, on the coast of at Pouldoody are much esteemed. The hardy Donegal. They formerly gave the title of earl inhabitants of the Arran Isles are at one season to the Butler family, which is extinct, but the of the year fishermen, and at another huse title is continued in that of Gore.
bandmen. The cavities and fissures on their There are several large estates in Galway, af- coast also being the resort of great numbers fording an income of from £5000 to £10,000 a- of sea-fowl, they are caught for their feathers, year: one of these is said to be the most exten- by men suspended by a rope from the summit sive in the British Isles, and stretches along of the precipices. The mutton of these islands the sea coast for seventy miles. In 1809 the is highly esteemed for its flavor. The principal rent of the green land averaged from a guinea curiosity of these isles is a circle composed of and a half to two guineas per acre, or about very large stones, piled up without cement, 22s. 9d. an English acre. A third, perhaps, of called Dun Angus, on a high cliff projecting into the land is let on partnership leases, at three lives the sea, in the island of Arranmore: in the same or twenty-one years,' to an indefinite number of island is said to have been an abbey, which was persons, sometimes eighteen or twenty, who are burnt early in the eleventh century. joint tenants, and entitled to the benefit of sur The county of Galway sends two members to vivorship. These people,' according to Mr. parliament, and the borough one; the landed Wakefeld, divide the land, and give portions property of the Roman Catholics returning the 17 their children, which consist of a fourth or members for the county. The freeholders amount fifth of what they call “a man's share;' that is, to 4000. In 1809 the Catholics in this county of the land which originally belonged to one were, to the Protestants, as forty or fifty to one. name in the lease. A certain portion of the In the western parts, there are districts of fifty whole farm, or take, as it is styled, is appropri- miles, perhaps, in extent, where there is neither ated for tillage, and this portion is then divided a church nor a single Protestant inhabitant. The into lots, perhaps twenty or thirty. These lots militia are nearly all Catholics; and ten Catho are again subdivided into fields, which are par- lics are called on the grand jury. The Protitioned into small lots, each partner obtaining testant population seems to be stationary; but, one or two ridges; but these ridges do not con- in several parishes, the increase of the Catholic, tinue in the hands of the same occupier longer in fifteen years before 1811, is stated to have than the time they are in tillage. The pasture been as five and a half to seven. is held in common; and the elders of the village of Galway, the services of the Catholic church are the legislators, who establish such regulations are performed by the priests in Irish. as may be judged proper for their community, Galway, a town of Ireland, and capital of and settle all disputes that arise among them, the foregoing county, is situated on a bay, shelTheir houses stand close to each other, and form tered by the isles of Arran, and having a safe what is here termed a village.' Galway, how- and deep harbour. Its population has been ever, has a fair proportion of resident proprie- conjecturally stated at about 15,000. It is the tors. The chief towns are Galway, Tuam, and only parliamentary borough. The harbour is Ballinasloe, where the greatest fairs in Ireland defended by a strong fort: the town is surrounded for cattle, sheep, and wool, are held in July and with strong walls, and contains several large and October.
regular streets; the houses are generally of stone The cattle here are long-horned, and fully and well built. The parish church is a large equal, in the opinion of Mr. Wakefield, to any and beautiful gothic structure; it has also an n England. But the most valuable part of the exchange, an hospital, a charter-house, and
In the county
an extensive barrack for foot soldiers. It is go- establishments on it: of which the principal is verned by a mayor, sheriffs, and recorder. Gal- Fort James, on an island ten leagues above the way has been considered as one of the strongest entrance; and at which the depth of the river is towns in Ireland, and held out a considerable not less than five fathoms. This island is only time against general Ginkle, who invested and 200 yards long and fifty broad; it was originally took it after the battle of Aghrim; since which fortified by the English, but being taken by the time the bastions have been suffered to go to French, in 1688, they destroyed the works, and decay. Several religious houses were in this it has never been found necessary to restor neighbourhood, but the ruins were entirely de- them. The second establishment is Jillifree, or, molished in 1652, to prevent Cromwell from the right bank opposite Fort James; it is in an turning them into fortifications. The salmon and healthy situation, and the neighbouring country is herring-fisheries are carried on here with great extremely fertile. On the left, or south bank of spirit, and employ several hundred boats: it the river, are Vintain, two leagues above Jillihas a considerable trade in making and export- free; Tancrowal, twelve leagues further; Jouing kelp, and the linen manufactures have, of kakonda, six day's navigation above Vintain. late, been much improved. It is 108 miles The French factory of Albreda is a league below south-west of Dublin.
Jillifree. The river Bintan empties itself into GAMA (Vasco de), a Portuguese admiral, the Gambia on the left bank, a league abore celebrated for his discovery of the passage to the Fort James, and is navigable for large boats, at East Indies, by the Cape of Good Hope, was all seasons, to the village of Bintan, chiefly inbom at Synes; and, in 1497, was sent to the habited by African Portuguese, who are de Indies by king Emanuel; he returned in 1502, scribed as having good houses and a neat church. and sailed thither again with thirteen vessels The territory along the banks of the Gambia is richly laden. He was made viceroy of the In- divided among a multitude of petty sovereigndies by king John III, and died at Cochin on ties, among which, that of Boor Salum is a the 24th of December, 1525. Stephen and principal one. The northern bank is chiefly Christopher de Gama, his sons, were also vice- inhabited by the Taloffs and Mandingoes; the roys of the Indies, and celebrated in history. southern by the Feloops. GAMBADE', n. s. , Italian, gamba, a leg. GAMBIA is also the name of an island in the
GAMBA'DO, n. s. Spatterdashes, or boots river Bunch, which falls into the Sierra Leone worn upon the legs above the shoe.
from the south; on which the French attempted The pettifogger ambles to her in his gambadoes once
a settlement in 1784. a week.
Dennis's Letters. GAMBIER'S ISLANDS, several high islands of GAMBIA, a river of Western Africa, for- the South Pacific Ocean, lying in 23° 12 S. jah, merly supposed to be one of the branches by 135° 0' W. long., occupying a space six leagues which the Niger emptied its waters into the long, surrounded by a coral reef, and appearing ocean; an opinion which has been completely to be well inhabited. They were discovered by refuted by Mr. Park. Its sources have never captain Wilson, of the missionary ship Duff, in been actually visited; but they are ascertained May, 1797. The inhabitants opposed all ato exist among that range of lofty mountains tempts to land. The principal island is high, which form the eastern frontier of Foota Jallo. and the reef by which they are surrounded In the higher parts of its course it is called the shelters all of them from the billows of the Ba Deema.
main ocean, so that the sea around is calm. The Gambia empties itself by a mouth three They present a barren appearance, but the valleagues wide, between the Birds' Island on the leys seemed covered with trees. Duff's Vour north and Cape St. Mary on the south; is navi- tains are two lofty mountains, visible here at gable for vessels of 300 tons, sixty leagues; and, the distance of fourteen or fifteen leagues, and for those of 150 tons, 250 leagues; or to Barra- are in long. 225° Oʻ E., lat. 23° 12' S. conda, to which distance the tide is felt in the GAMBIER's Isles are also several small islands dry season from December to June. From June on the south coast of New Holland, at the 10 September the ascent is impossible, from the mouth of Spencer's Gulf. Wedge Island, the rapidity of the current, and in these months it largest, is in long. 136° 29' E., lat. 35° 11' S. also overflows and inundates the low country on GAMÖBLER, n.s. A cant word for game its banks, which latter are generally covered GAM'Bling, part. S ster: a knare, whose pracwith mangroves. Its waters are at all times tice it is to invite the unwary, to game and cheal muddy: it abounds in fish, but is. infested with them, crocodiles. The Nippopotamus also inhabits it. She had an inward abhorrence of gambling. At Barraconda it is crossed by a bank of rocks;
Leoker-os Ixi. above which the obstructions increase in all di
GAMBOGE', n. s. Pret. from Camboria, rections.
whence it first came. A resinous gum, used in There are two channels into the river; the medicine and painting. northernmost, or grand channel, is between the Gamboge is a concreted vegetable juice, partly of a Birds' Island and a bank named Banguion; it gummy, partly of a resinous nature, heavy, of a bright is two leagues wide, with six and seven fathoms. yellow colour, and scarce any smell. It is traagbi The southern, or little channel, is between the from America and the East Indies, particularly from
Hill same bank and Cape St. Mary, and has only Cambaja, or Cambogia. eight or nine feet depth.
GAMBOGE is a concrete vegetable juice, partly The trade of the Gambia belonging almost of a gummy, and partly of resinous nature exclusively to Great Britain, she has several It is chiefly broughi to us in large cakes or "
itom Cambaja in the East Indies. The best sort took the degree of Master of Arts at Christis of a deep yellow or orange color, breaks shin- church, Oxford, and was afterwards presented ing and free from dross: it has no smell. It by archbishop Secker to the living of Stanton immediately communicates a bright golden color Harcourt; but he resigned this preferment in to spirit of wine, which almost entirely dis- 1748, having become a convert to the opinions solves it. Geoffroy says, except the sixth part. of Zinzendorf
, an account of whose life and chaAlkaline salts enable water to act upon this sub racter he now published. In 1754 he was constance powerfully as a menstruum: the solution secrated a prelate of this ancient episcopal church, is somewhat transparent, of a deep blood-red in which situation he displayed much activity color, and passes the filtre : the dulcified spirit until his death, which took place at his native of sal ammoniac readily and entirely dissolves town in 1771. While at Oxford he published it, and takes up a considerable quantity; and in 1740 a sacred drama, on the martyrdom of this solution mixes either with water or spirit, St. Ignatius, and in 1742 superintended an ediwithout growing turbid. As a pigment, it makes tion of the Greek Testament printed at the Claa beautiful yellow, which is much used by the rendon press. At a subsequent period of his painters. Dr. Lewis says, that it makes a beau- life he assisted in translating Crantz's History of tiful and durable citron yellow stain upon mar- Greenland, and was the author of Maxims and ble, whether rubbed in substance on the hot Theological Ideas; a volume of Sermons on stone, or applied in form of a spirituous tincture. the second article of the Church of England, &c. When it is applied on cold marble, the stone GAMBREL, n.s. Ital. gamba, gambarella, the must afterwards be heated, to make the color leg of a horse. penetrate. As a medicine, gamboge evacuates What can be more admirable than for the principles powerfully both ways; some condemn it as act of the fibres of a tendon to be so mixed as to make it ing with too great violence, and occasioning a soft body, and yet to have the strength of iron ? as dangerous hypercatharses. Geoffroy seems fond appears by the weight which the tendon, lying on a of it, and informs us, that he has frequently given horse's gambrel, doth then command, when he rears from two to four grains, without its proving at
up with a man upon his back.
Grew. all emetic; and that from four to eight grains it GAME, n. s. & v. n. Saxon, gaman, from both vomits and purges, without violence; that GAME'COCK, n. s. Goth. gamm, a tipler ; its operation is soon over; and that if given in GAME'-EGG, n. s.
gaman, a jest. The a liquid form, and sufficiently diluted, it stands GAME'KEEPER, n. s. radical, game, whence not in need of any corrector; that in the form GAME'som E, adj. all the rest are derived, of a bolus or pill, it is most apt to prove emetic, Game'sOMENESS, n.s. implies simply sport, but very rarely has this effect if joined with mer GAME'SOMELY, adv. and this idea enters into curius dulcis.' He nevertheless cautions against Game'ster, n.s. all the compounds, as its use where the patient cannot easily bear vo- gamecock, the bird which is bred to fight; gamemiting. It has been used in dropsy with cream egg, that from which the birds are bred; gameof tartar or jalap, or both, to quicken their ope- keeper, a person who takes care of the birds and ration. It is also recommended by some to the animals which are kept for sport. The other extent of fifteen grains, with an equal quantity derivatives are expressive of varicus acts, and of vegetable alkali, in cases of the tape-worm. manners connected with the original meaning : This dose is ordered in the morning; and, if the gamester is a person who is engaged at play, worm is not expelled in two or three hours, it whether viciously, or otherwise; a merry, frolicis repeated even to the third time with safety and some person ; used also in a licentious sense. efficacy. It is asserted that it has been given to
Beryn wan the first, the seconde, and the third,this extent even in delicate habits. This is said
And at the fourth game, in the ches amid, to be the remedy alluded to by Baron Van
The burgeyse was ymated. Swieten, which was employed by Dr. Herens
Chaucer. The Merchantes Second Tale. chward.
Take up also GAM'BOL, v. n. & n. s. Fr. gambiller. To
The coper teine, (not knowing thilke preest.) dance, leap, or skip; the act of dancing or leap And hid it; and him hente by the brest,ing: a frolic; a wild prank. From gamb—in And to him spake, and thus said in his game. Fr. jambe, the leg, literally leaping into the air.
The Chanones Yemannes Tale. "Tis not madness
Then on her head they set a garland green, That I have uttered; bring me to the test,
And crowned her 'twixt earnest and 'twixt game. And I the matter will record, which madness
Spenser. Would gambol from. Shakspeare. Hamlet.
l'he games are done, and Cæsar is returning.
If about this hour he make his way,
l'nder the colour of his usual game,
He shall here find his friends with horse and men, Gambolled on heaths, and danced on every green. To set him free from his captivity.
She's impudent, my lord,
We have had pastimes here, and pleasing game. And heavy whales in awkward measures play.
Your're a merry gamester, GAMBOLD (John), a modern bishop of the My lord Sandys.
Id. Henry VIII. Moravian church, was born at Haverfordwest in A man may think, if he will, that two eyes see no the early part of the last centuryIn 1734 he more than oue ; or that a gamester seeth always more
than a looker-on : but, when all is done, the help of Game, in law, signifies birds, or prey, taken good counsel is that which settath business strait. or killed by fowling or hunting. The property
of such animals feræ naturæ as are known under A gamester, the greater master he is in bis art, the the denomination of game, with the right of purworse man be is.
suing, taking, and destroying them, is vested in When we observe the ball, how to and fro
the king alone, and from him derived to such of The gumesters force it; we may ponder thus
his subjects as have received the grants of a That whilst we live we shall be played with so, And that the world will make her game of us.
chase, a park, or a free warren. By the law of
George Withers. nature, indeed, every man, from the prince to What meanes this countrey-peasant skipping here the peasant, has an equal right of pursuing, and Through prickling thistles with such gamsom cheere taking to his own use, all such creatures as are And plucking off their tops as though for posies feræ naturæ, and therefore the property of noHe gathered violets or toothlesse roses.
Id. body, but liable to be seized by the first acceMilo, when entering the Olympick game, pant. But it follows, says Blackstone, from the With a huge ox upon his shoulders came.
very end and constitution of society, that this
Denham. natural right, as well as many others belonging Do they not seek occasion of new quarrels, to man as an individual, may be restrained by On my refusal, to distress me more ;
positive laws enacted for reasons of state, or for Or make a game of my calamities ?
the supposed benefit of the community. This
restriction may be either with respect to the What arms to use, or nets to frame Wild beasts to combat, or to tame,
place in which this right may, or may not be With all the mysteries of that
exercised; with respect to the animals that are
game. This seems to be the present game of that crown,
the subjects of this right; or with respect to the and that they will begin no other 'till they see an end persons allowed or forbidden to exercise it. And, of this.
Temple. in consequence of this authority, we find, that Mutual vouchers for our fame we stand,
the municipal laws of many nations have exerted And play the game into each other's hand. such power of restraint; have in general forbid
Dryden. den the entering on another man's grounds, for Some sportsmen, that were abroad upon game, any cause, without the owner's leave; hare esspied a company of bustards and cranes.
tended their protection to such part cular ant
L'Estrange. Gaming leaves no satisfaction behind it: it no way have invested the prerogative of hunting and
mals as are usually the objects of pursuit; and profits either body or mind.
They manage the dispute as fiercely as two game taking such animals in the sovereign of the state cocks in the pit.
I. only, and such as he shall authorise. Vady This
gamesome humour of children should rather be reasons have concurred for making these conencouraged, to keep up their spirits and improve their stitutions : as, 1. For the encouragement of strength and health, than curbed or restrained. 1. agriculture and improvement of lands, by giving
When I see a young profligate sqandering his for- every man an exclusive dominion over his own tune in bagnios, or at the gaming-table, I cannot help soil. 2. For the preservation of the several looking on him as hastening his own death, and in a species of these animals, which would soon be manner digging his own grave. Connoisseur. extirpated by a general liberty. 3. For preven
Thus boys hatch game-eggs under birds of prey, tion of idleness and dissipation in husbandmen, To make the fowl more furious for the fray. Garth. artificers, and others of lower rank; which would
Could we look into the mind of a common gamester, be the unavoidable consequence of universal we should see it full of nothing but trumps and mat
license. 4. For prevention of popular insurtadores : her slumbers are haunted with kings, queens, rections and resistance to the government, by and knaves.
Addison. disarming the hulk of the people : which last is Whose table wit, or modest merit share,
a reason oftener meant than avowed, by the Unelbowed by a gamester, pimp, or player. Pope. makers of forest or game laws. Nor, certainly,
Proud Nimrod first the bloody chace began, in these prohibitions is there any natural injusA mighty hunter, and his prey was man :
tice, as some have weakly enough supposed : Our haughty Norman boasts that barbarous name, since, as Puffendorf observes, the law does not And makes his trembling slaves the royal game. Id. hereby take from any man his present property, All the superfluous whims relate,
or what was already his own; but barely That fill a female gamester's pate;
abridges him of one means of acquiring a fuWhat agony of soul she feels
ture property, that of occupancy; which indeed To see a knave's inverted heels. Swift.
the law of nature would allow him, but of which Her youngest daughter is run away with a gamester, the laws of society bave in most instances very a man of great beauty, who in dressing and dancing justly and reasonably deprived him. Yet, howhas no superior.
Law. Avarice itself does not calculate strictly when it be, on the footing of reason, or justice, or civil
ever defensible these provisions in general may games.
Burke on Parliament. It will bear a doubt, if a gamester has any other that, in their present shape, they owe their im
policy, we must, notwithstanding, acknowledge, title to be called a man, except under the distinction of Hobbes, and upon claim to the charter of homo mediate original to slavery. It is not till after hominis lupus. As a human wolf I grant he has a
the irruption of the northern nations into the right in his wolfish prerogatives. Cumberland. Roman empire, that we read of anv other pro
A phantasy, which sometimes seizes warriors hibitions, than that natural one of pot sp Unless they are game as bull-dogs and fox-terriers. on any private grounds without the owner's leave
Byron. With regard to the rise and original of our pre
sent civil prohibitions, it will be found, that all king's forests. However, upon the Norman forest and game laws were introduced into conquest, a new doctrive took place; and the Europe at the same time, and by the same po- right of pursuing and taking all beasts of chase licy, that gave birth to the feudal system; when or venary, and such other animals as were acthose swarms of barbarians issued from their counted game, was then held to belong to the northern hive, and laid the foundation of most king, or to such only as were authorised under of the present kingdoms of Europe on the ruins him. And this, as well upon the principles of of the western empire. For when a conquering the feudal law, that the king is the ultimate progeneral came to settle the economy of a van- prietor of all the lands in the kingdom, they quished country, and to part it out among his being all held of him as the chief lord, or lord soldiers or feudatories, who were to render him paramount of the fee; and that, therefore, he military service for such donation ; it behoved has the right of the universal soil, to enter him, in order to secure his new acquisitions, to thereon, and to chase and take such creatures at keep the rustici or natives of the country, and his pleasure : as also upon another maxim of the all who were not his military tenants, in as low common law, that these animals are bona vaa condition as possible, and especially to pro- cantia, and, having no other owner, belong to hibit them the use of arms. Nothing could do the king by his prerogative. As, therefore, the this more effectually than the prohibition of former reason was held to vest in the king a right hunting and sporting, and therefore it was the to pursue and take them any where, the latter policy of the conqueror to reserve this right to was supposed to give the king, and such as he himself, and such on whom he should bestow it; should authorise, a sole and exclusive right. which were only his capital feudatories or greater This right, thus vested in the crown, was exerted barons. And, accordingly, we find, in the feudal with the utmost rigor, at and after the time of constitutions, one and the same law probibiting the Norman establishment; not only in the the rustici in general from carrying arms, and ancient forests, but in the new ones which the also proscribing the use of nets, snares, or othe conqueror made, hy laying together vast tracts engines for destroying the game. This exclusive of country, depopulated for that purpose, and privilege well suited the martial genius of the reserved solely for the king's royal diversion ; in iroops, who delighted in a sport, which in its which were exercised the most horrid tyrannies pursuit and slaughter bore some resemblance to and oppressions, under color of forest laws for war. "Vita omnis,' says Cæsar, speaking of the the sake of preserving the beasts of chase; to ancient Germans,' in venationibus atque in studiis kill any of which, within the limits of the forest, rei militaris consistit.' And Tacitus in like was as penal as the death of a man. And, in mannes observes, that'quoties bella non ineunt, pursuance of the same principle, king John laid multum venatibus, plus per otium trausigunt.' a total interdict upon the winged as well as the And, indeed, like some of their modern succes- four-footed creation; capturam avium per totam sors, they had no other amusement to entertain Angliam interdixit. The cruel and unsupporttheir vacant hours; they despising all arts as ef- able hardships, which these forest laws created feminate, and having no other learning than was to the subject, occasioned our ancestors to be as couched in such rude ditties as were sung at the zealous for their reformation, as for the relaxation solemn carousals, which succeeded these ancient of the feudal rigors and the other exactions inhuntings. It is remarkable, that in those na- troduced by the Norman family; and accordtions where the feudal policy remains the most ingly we find the immunities charta de foresta unaltered, the forest or game laws continue in as warmly contended for, and extorted from the their highest rigor. In France, before the re- king with as much difficulty, as those of magna volution, all game was properly the king's; and charta itself. By this charter, confirmed in parin some parts of Germany it was death for a liament, 9 Hen. III., many forests were dispeasant to be found hunting in the woods of the afforested, or stripped of their oppressive prinobility. With us in Britain, also, hunting has vileges, and regulations were made in the ever been esteemed a most princely diversion regimen of such as remained ; particularly killand exercise. The whole island was replenished ing the king's deer was made no longer a capital with all sorts of game in the times of the Bri- offence, but only punished by a fine, imprisontons; who lived in a wild and pastoral manner, ment, or abjuration of the realm. And by a without enclosing or improving their grounds; variety of subsequent statutes, together with the and derived much of their substance from the long acquiescence of the crown without exerting chase, which they all enjoyed in common. But the forest laws, this prerogative is now become when husbandry took place under the Saxon go- no longer a grievance to the subject. But as the vernment, and lands began to be cultivated, im- king reserved to himself the forest for his own proved, and enclosed, the beasts naturally fled exclusive diversion, so he granted out from time into the woody and desert tracts, which were to time other tracts of land to his subjects under called the forests; and, having never been dis- the names of chases or parks; or gave them posed of in the first distribution of lands, were license to make such in their own grounds; therefore held to belong to the crown. These which indeed are smaller forests in the hands of were filled with great plenty of game, which our a subject, but not governed by the forest laws; royal sportsmen reserved for their own diversion, and by the common law no person is at liberty on pain of pecuniary forfeiture for such as in- to take or kill any beasts of chase, but such as terfered with their sovereign. But every free- hath an ancient chase or park; unless they be holder had the full liberty of sporting upor. his also beasts of prey. As to all inferior species of own territories, provided he abstained from the game, called beasts and fowls of warren; the