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erel season; the other in September, at the be- yellow: the belly is white; but they vary much, ginning of the herring season, probably in pur- both in color and shape, particularly that of the suit of those fish. The hake is in England head. The side line is wide, broad, and straight esteemed a very coarse fish, and is seldom ad- till opposite the vent, when it bends towards the nitted to table either fresh or salted. When tail. Codlings are often taken of a yellow, cured it is known by the name of Poor John. orange, and even red color, while they reThese fish are from one and a half to nearly three main among the rocks; but on changing their feet; they are of a slender make, of a pale ash place assume the color of other codfish. The color on their backs, and of a dirty white on their jaws are of an equal length, and at the end of bellies.

the lower is a small beard ; the teeth are disposed G. minutus, the poor, is the smallest species in the palate as well as in the jaws. The cod is yet discovered, being little more than six inches found only in the northern seas; being, as Ronlong. On the chin is a small beard; the eyes deletius calls it, an ocean fish, and never met are covered with a loose membrane; on each with in the Mediterranean Sea. It affects cold side of the gill-covers and jaws there are nine climates and seems confined between the latipunctures. The color on the back is a light tudęs 66° and 50°; those caught north and south brown; on the belly a dirty white. It is taken of these degrees being either bad, or in small near Marseilles, and sometimes in such quan- numbers. The Greenland cod are small, and tities as to become a nuisance; for no other emaciated ; being very voracious, and suffering kinds of fish are takep during their season. It in those seas a scarcity of provision. Most other is esteemed good, but incapable of being salted species of this genus inhabit the cold seas, or or dried.

Belon says, that when it is dried in such as lie within regions that can just claim the the sun, it grows as hard as horn.

title of temperate. There is nevertheless a speG. molva, the ling, is usually from three to cies found near the Canary Islands, called cherfour feet long, but have been caught seven feet ny, which are said to be better than the Newlong. The body is very slender; the head Aat: foundland kind. The great rendezvous of the the upper jaw is longest ; the teeth in that jaw cod fish is on the banks of Newfoundland, and are small and very numerous; in the lower, few, the other sand-banks off the coasts of Cape Breslender, and sharp: on the cbin is a small beard. ton, Nova Scotia, and New England. See our They vary in color, some being of an olive hue article Fisheries. on the sides and back, others cinereous; the G. mustela, the five-bearded cod, very much belly white. The ventral fins are white: the resembles the lota. The beards on the upper dorsal and anal edged with white. The tail is jaw are four, viz. two at the very end of the nose, marked near the end with a transverse black bar, and two a little above them: on the end of the and tipped with white. Its English name ling lower jaw is a single one. The fish are of a is derived from its length, being a corruption of deep Olive brown, their belly whitish. They long. It abounds about the Scilly Isles, on the grow to the same size as the lota. coasts of Scarborough, Scotland, and Ireland, G. pollachius, the pollack, has the under jaw and forms a great branch of trade. It was con- longer than the upper; the head and body rise siderable, so long ago as the reign of Edward III. pretty high, as far as the first dorsal fin. The an act for regulating the price of lob, ling, and side line is incurvated, rising towards the middle cod, being made in the thirty-first year. In the of the back, then sinking and running straight to Yorkshire fens they are in perfection from the the tail; it is broad and of a brown color. The beginning of February to that of May, and some color of the back is dusky, sometimes inclining to the end of it. In June they spawn, deposit to green: the sides beneath the lateral line are ing their eggs in the soft oozy ground of the marked with lines of yellow; and the belly is mouth of the Tees. At that time the males se white. This species is common on many of our parate from the females, and resort to some rocky rocky coasts: during summer they are seen in ground near Flamborough Head, where the fish- great shoals frolicking on the surface of the ermen take great numbers without ever finding water, and flinging themselves into a thousand any of the female fish among them. While a ling forms. They will then bite at any thing that is in season its liver is very white, and abounds appears on the top of the waves, and are often with a fine flavored oil; but as soon as it goes taken with a goose feather fixed to the hook. out of season, the liver becomes as red as that They are very strong, being observed to keep of a bullock, and affords no oil. The same hap- their station at the feet of the rocks in the most pens to the cod and other fish in a certain degree, turbulent and rapid sea. They do not grow to but not so remarkably as in the ling. When in a very large size; the biggest seldom exceed six perfection, a very large quantity of oil may be or seven pounds, but some have been taken melted out of the liver by a slow fire; but if a near Scarborough, during winter, that weighed violent sudden heat be used for that purpose, nearly twenty-eight pounds. They are there called they yield very little. Vast quantities of ling leets. are salted for exportation as well as for home G. toricius, the torsk, tusk, or brismack, is a consumption. To be split, or cut for curing, it northern fish; and as yet not discovered lower must measure twenty-six inches or upwards froin than about the Orkneys, and even there it is the shoulder to the tail ; if less than that, it is not rather scarce. In the seas about Shetland, it reckoned a sizeable fish, and consequently not swarms, and forms (barrelled or dried) a consientitled to the bounty on exportation; such are derable article of commerce. The length is about called drizzles, and are in season all summer. twenty inches, the greatest depth four and a

G. morhua, the common cod, is cinereous on half; the head is small; the upper jaw a little the back and sides, and commonly spotted with longer than the lower; both jaws furnished with

trany small teeth; on the chin is a small single of M. D. In 1759 he went to Leyden, where he beard : from the head to the dorsal fin is a deep was particularly attentive to the botanical lecfurrow. The color of the head is dusky: the tures, and about the same time applied himself back and sides yellow; belly white; edges of the to vegetable anatomy; in the prosecution of dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, white, the other which he went to England, and gained the parts dusky; the pectoral fins brown.

friendship of some of the most eminent men of GAELIC LANGUAGE, the language of the an- the age." Here he communicated some interestcient and modern Highlanders of Scotland. See ing papers to the Philosophical Transactions, the HIGHLANDERS It is esteemed the most ancient principal of which is a Memoir on the Fructifas well as the purest dialect of the Celtic, now cation and Propagation of Confervæ, &c., and spoken. It has all the marks of an original lan- was admitted F.R.S. In 1768 he went to Peguage. Most of its words are expressive of sometersburg, where he was appointed professor of property or quality in the objects which they botany and natural history; a place which he denote. This, with the variety of its sounds filled with the greatest credit, and explored the (many of which, especially those that express whole Ukraine for botanical discoveries; but he the soft and mournful passions, are peculiar to returned to his native place in 1770. In 1778 it), renders it highly adapted for poetry. It was he again visited London, for the purpose of the language of the Scottish court, till the reign making drawings and descriptions of fruits, to of Malcolm Canmore, and was even spoken so illustrate the great work in which he was then late as that of Robert Bruce, particularly in a engaged, his Carpology, the first volume of which parliament held by him at Ardchattan. Its al- he dedicated to Sir Joseph Banks. He died in phabet consists of eighteen letters, of which five 1791, leaving many valuable MSS. are vowels. Those who understand it,' says GAETA, a town, promontory, and gulf of NzDr. James Robertson, of Callander,“ know its ples, in the Terra di Lavoro. The town lies along energy and power; the ease with which it is the shore, from the centre of the bay to the point compounded; the boldness of its figures; and of the promontory, and is a bishop's see; it conits tenderness in expressing the finest feelings of tains a cathedral and nine churches. The cathedral the human heart. But its genius and constitu- is finely proportioned and well lighted, but not tion, the structure of its nouns and verbs, and large. Opposite the great portal is an antique the affinity it has to some other languages are column, marked with the names of the winds in not so much attended to. These point at a very Greek and Latin, and the font is a fine antique remote era, and seem to deduce its origin from of white marble, with bas reliefs. The streets a very high antiquity. The verbs have only are well built, and paved: and the environs er. three tenses, which is the simplest and most na- tremely picturesque. The tomb of Mioutius tural division of time. The persons of each tense Plaucus, now a battlemented tower called Torre are distinguished, by adding pronominal particles d'Orlando, stands on a bold eminence in the to each person. The third person singular of narrow neck that unites the promontory or penineach verb has genders, or admits of a masculine sula of Gaeta to the continent. Buonaparte conand feminine particle affixed. The moods are ferred the title of duke of Gaeta on Gaudir his the indicative, imperative, and infinitive. The finance minister in 1809. Population 15,000. subjunctive differs from the indicative only by It is forty miles north-west of Naples. the addition of one syllable to the verb, and a GÆTULI, the people of Gætulia, were among conjunction before it. The imperative has only the earliest inhabitants of Africa. They were the second person in both numbers. The infini- distinguished by different epithets; as Nigti, tive is often used as a substantive noun, expres- Autololæ, Daræ, and Baniuræ.–Pliny. They sive of the abstract signification of the verb. were a rough, unpolished, rovmg people, living There is only one conjugation and one declen- on venison and the spontaneous productions of sion. The cases of the nouns are marked by the earth, and resting in the first places in which different particles, or by a 'change of the last night surprised them. vowel. The degrees or comparison are formed GAFF, n. s. 2. Fr.gaffe, a harpoon, or large by placing certain syllables before the adjective; GAFF'ER, n. s. Shook; Sax. zefere, compaand the superlative frequently by a repetition of nion, says Dr. Johnson after Junius: others that the positive.' These and other peculiarities of it is a corruption of Sax. gæwfather, or gefa'der: the Gaelic language are illustrated by Dr. Ro. a word of respect now obsolete, and used only bertson in Sir J. Sinclair's Statistical Account of in 'contempt or ridicule. Scotland, vol. xi. p. 611-619, to which we refer For gaffer Treadwell told us by the bye, the reader.

Excessive sorrow.is exceeding dry. GAERTNER, an eminent naturalist, born at

Gay's Pastara Calu, in Suabia, in 1732. His father was phy Gaff, a sort of boom or bole, frequently used sician to the duke of Wirtemberg, and Joseph, in small ships, to extend the upper edge of the being destined for the church, received his edu- mizen; and always employed for the same purcation and studied theology at the University of pose on those sails, whose foremast edges are Tubingen ; but, discovering a strong inclination joined to the mast' by hoops, or lacings, and to natural history and mathematics, he changed which are usually extended by a boom below, his profession, and applied to medicine. From Such are the main sails of all sloops, brigs, and Tubingen he removed to Gottingen, where he schooners. attended the lectures of llaller. He afterwards GAFFAREL (James), a learned French divine, travelled throngh various parts of Europe, and, born at Mannes in Provence, about 1606. He on his return to his own country, took the degree acquired great skill in the oriental languages, and

in the cabbalistic and occult sciences, which he

A moiety competent
Was gaged by our king.

Id. exposed and ridiculed. Cardinal Richelieu made him his librarian, and sent him into Italy to col

But since it was decreed, auspicious king, lect the best books and MSS. He published a

In Britain's right that thou should'st wed the main, work called Curiositez Inouiés, i. e. Unheard

Heaven, as a gage, would cast some previous thing,

And therefore doomed that Lawson should be slain. of Curiosities. He died in 1681, aged eighty,

Dryden. leaving an unfinished account of the caves, grot In any truth, that gets not possession of our minds toes, vaults, catacombs, and mines, he had met by self-evidence or demonstration, the arguments the with in thirty years' travels.

gain it assent, are the vouchers and gage of its probaGAFFLES, n. s. Sax. gafelucas, spears. bility.

Locke. Artificial spurs put on fighting cocks: a steel

I am made the cautionary pledge, contrivance to bend cross-bows.

The gage and hostage of your keeping it.

Southern. The gaffle of a cross-bow. Sherwood. GAFSA, a southern town of Tunis, anciently

One judges, as the weather dictatės, right

The poem is at noon, and wrong at night; Caspa, bordering on the Bled el Jereede. It

Another judges by a surer gage, formed one of the fortresses of Numidia, and is

An author's principles or parentage. Young. situated on a rising ground, surrounded with

Gage is also used for a challenge to combat. plantations of olives, almonds, pistachios, &c. These plantations are supplied with water from See Cartel. It was a pledge which the accuser two fountains, one in the citadel, and the other

or challenger cast on the ground, and the other

took in ,

up as accepting the challenge; being usu nected, great labor appears to have been employ- ally a glove, gauntlet, chaperoon, or the likg.

See BATTLE. ed. The citadel, is now a poor modern build

Gace, among letter founders, a piece of box, ing; but the walls of many of the houses exhibit altars, granite pillars, entablatures, &c. It is or other hard wood, variously notched : used to 140 miles S. S. W. of Tunis.

adjust the dimensions, slopes, &c., of the differ

ent sorts of letters. GAG, v. n. & n. s. Belg. gaghel, the palate ;

'Gage, in joinery, an instrument made to strike or (Belg.) kau wegge, a jaw-wedge.—Thomson. To stop the mouth, and prevent utterance, whilst a line truly parallel to the straight side of any it allows breathing: the instrument with which board or piece of stuff

. Its chief use is for gaging this is done.

of tenons, to fit into mortises; and for gaging

It is made of He's out of his guard already ; unless you laugh stuff of an equal thickness. and minister occasion to him, he is gagged.

an oval piece of wood, fitted upon a square stick, Shakspeare. Twelfth Night. to slide up and down stiffly thereon, and with a Some, when the kids their dams too deeply drain,

tooth, at the end of the staff, to score, to strike a With gags and muzzles their soft mouths restrain. line upon the stuff at any distance, according to

Drydeno the distance of the oval from it. Your woman would have run up stairs before me; Gage, in the sea language. When one ship is but I have secured her below with a gag in her chaps. to the windward of another, she is said to have the

Id.

weather-gage of her. They likewise call the There foamed rebellious logick, gagged and bound. number of feet that a vessel sinks in the water,

Pope. GAGE, n. s. & v.a. Fr.

the ship's gage; this they find by driving a nail a pledge; se

gage, curity. The past participle of Sax. zægeian, to beside the rudder till the nail catch hol

into a pike near the end, and putting it down close up,' says Mr. Tooke, 'gage-bound, that by, it: then as many feet as the pike is under water which one is bound to fulfil certain engagements: is called the ship’s gage. Rule or measure, especially of liquids, hence it is used as expressive of engagements and obli

Gage, Bucket Sea, an instrument contrived gations, to which pledges and securities are coolness and saltness of the sea, at different

by Dr. Hales to find the different degrees of annexed: to take the contents of vessels of liquid, depths. It consists of a common household pail to form an estimate.

or bucket, with two heads; which have each a They from their mother's breasts poor orphans rend, round hole in the middle, about four inches in diaNor without gages to the needy lend. Sandys.

meter, covered with square valves opening upHe, when the shamed shield of slain Sansfoy He spyed, with that same fairy champion's page,

wards; and, that they may both open and shut He to him leapt; and that same envious gage

together, there is a small iron rod fixed to the Of victor's glory from bim snatcht away.

upper part of the lower valve, and the other end Faerie Queent. to the lower side of the upper valve. So that as There I throw my gage,

the bucket descends with its sinking weight into Disclaiming here the kindred of a king, the sea, both the valves may open by the force And lay aside my high blood's royalty. of the water, which thus has a free passage

Shakopcare. througn the bucket. But, when the bucket is There is my gage, the manual seal of death,

drawn up, then both the valves are shut by the That marks thce out for hell.

Id.

force of the water at the upper part of the bucket; My chief care

so that the bucket is drawn up full of the lowest Is to come fairly off from the great debts

sea water to which it has descended. When the Wherein my time, something too prodigal Hath left me gaged.

Id.

bucket is drawn up, the mercurial thermometer We shall see your bearing.

fixed in it is examined; but great care must be -Nay, but I bar to-night : you shall not gage me

taken to observe the degree at which the mercury By what we do to-night.

d. stands, before the lower part of the thermometer

is taken out of the water in the bucket, lest it be length of ten inches is not sufficient for fathomaffected by the different temperature of the air. ing depths at sea, since that, when all the air in To keep the bucket in a right position, there are such a length of tube is compressed into half an four cords fixed to it, reaching about three feet inch, the depth of water is no more than 634 fett, below it; to which the sinking weight is fixed. which is not half a quarter of a mile. If, to te Dr. Hook also constructed an instrument for the medy this, we make use of a tube fifty inches same purpose for a representation of which see long, which for strength may be a musket barrel, plate Gages, fig. 1. This consists of a square and suppose the air compressed into 100dth part of wooden bucket C, whose bottoms are so con- half an inch; then by saying, as 1 : 99:: 400: trived, that as the weight A sinks, the iron B, to 39,600 inches, or 3300 feet; even this is but little which the bucket C is fastened by two handles more than half a mile, or 2640 feet. But since it is D, D, on the end of which are the moveable bot- reasonable to suppose the cavities of the sea bear toms or valves E, E, and thereby draws down the some proportion to the mountainous parts of the bucket, the resistance of the water keeps up the land, some of which are more than three miles bucket in the posture C, whereby the water, above the earth's surface; therefore to explore whilst the bucket is descending, has a free pas- such great depths, the Dr. contrived a new sage through it; whereas, as soon as the bucket form for his sea gage, or rather for the rageis pulled upwards by the line F, the resistance tube in it, as follows: BCD F, fig. 3, is a bollow of the water to that motion beats the bucket metalline globe communicating on the top with downwards, and keeps it in the posture G, a long tube A B, whose capacity is a ninth part whereby the included water is kept from getting of that globe On the lower part, at D, it has out, and the anbient water kept from getting in. also a short tube D E, to stand in the mercury

There is also an instrument of this name in- and treacle. The air contained in the compounú vented by Dr. Hales and Dr. Desaguliers for find- gage-tube is compressed by the water as before; ing the depth of the sea; the description of which but the degree of compression, or height to which is this: AB, plate Gages fig. 2, is the gage bot- the treacle has been forced, cannot there be seer. tie, in which is cemented the gage-tube F f in the through the tube; therefore, to answer that end, brass cape at G. The upper end of the tube F a slender rod of metal or wood, with a knob on is hermetically sealed, and the open lower end f the top of the tube A B, will receive the mark of is immersed in mercury, marked C, on which the treacle and show it when taken out. If the swims a small thickness or surface of treacle. tube A B be fifty inches long, and of such a bore On the top of the bottle is screwed a tube of that every inch in length should be a cubic inch brass HG, pierced with several holes to admit the of air, and the contents of the globe and tube water into the bottle A B. The body. K is a together 500 cubic inches; then, when the air is weight hanging by its shanķ L, in a socket N, compressed within 100dth part of the whole, it is with a notch on one side at m, in which locks the evident the treacle will not approach nearer than catch l of the spring S, and passing through the five inches of the top of the tube,which will agree hole L, in the shank of the weight K, prevents its to the depth of 3300 feet of water as above. falling out when once hung on. On the top, in Twice this depth will compress the air into half the upper part of the brass tube at H, is fixed a that space nearly, viz. two inches and a half, which large empty ball, or full-blown bladder I, which correspond to 6600, which is a mile and a quarmust not be so large, but that the weight K may ter. Again, half that space, or one inch and a be able to sink the whole under water. The in- quarter, will show double the former depuh, viz. strument thus constructed is used in the follow- 13,200 feet, or two miles and a half; which ing manner :- The weight K being hung on, the is probably' very nearly the greatest depth of the gage is let fall into deep water, and sinks to the sea. bottom: the socket N is somewhat longer than GAGE, A SLIDING, tool used by mathematical the shank L; and therefore, after the weight K instrument-makers for measuring and setting off comes to the bottom, the gage will continue to distances. descend till the lower part of the socket strikes Gage, Tide, is the name of an instrument used against the weight; this gives liberty to the catch for determining the height of the tides by M. to fly out of the hole L, and let go the weight K; Bayly, in the course of a voyage towards the South when this is done, the ball or bladder I instantly Pole, &c., in the Resolution and Adventure, in buoys up the gage to the top of the water. While 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775. This instrument the gage is under water, the water having free consists of a glass tube, whose internal diameter access to the treacle and mercury in the bottle, was seven-tenths of an inch, lashed fast to a terwill by its pressure force it up into the tube Ff, feet rod, divided into feet, inches, and quarters : and the height to which it has been forced by this rod was fastened to a strong post fixed upthe greatest pressure, viz. that at the bottom, will right and firm in the water. At the lower end be shown by the mark in the tube which the of the tube was an exceedingly small aperture, treacle leaves behind it, and which is the only through which the water was admitted. In conuse of the treacle. This shows into what space sequence of this construction, the surface of the the whole air in the tube Ffis compressed; and water in the tube was so little affected by the consequently the height or depth of water which agitation of the sea, that its height was not alterby its weight produced that compression, which ed one-tenth of an inch, when the swell of the sea is the thing required. If the gage-tube F f be of was two feet. glass, a scale might be drawn on it with the point GAGE, WIND, an instrument for measuring time of a diamond, showing, by inspection, what height force of the wind upon any given surface. It the water stands above the bottom. But the was invented by Dr. Lind, who gives the folow

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