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terwards.-In our way to the lower fall, our guide each side of the isle of Arran, which is directly showed a cave of considerable size, near the river, opposite to its entrance. Its coasts, which are in where the freebooters used to shelter themselves general flat and sandy, are adorned with many in turbulent times. There was a way of escape elegant seats, and beautifully indented with bays. towards the water, should the main entry be dis- For time immemorial it has been noted for its covered. Our next object was the lower fall. herring fishery. When we came to the rude pillars, before-men FYŽABAD (the City of Abundance), also tioned, we left the road, and went down the side called Bungala, is situated in the Dewah prosince of the hill. The descent to the point of view is of Oude, Hindostan, and is said to owe its origin difficult, but we were amply repaid for our trou- to the nabob Sufder Jung having, about the year ble. The following beautiful description of 1740, erected some temporary houses in a garden this fall was written by Burns as he was standing near this place. His son Shuja Addowleh, after by it :

the battle of Buxar, removed his residence hitber,

and gave orders for erecting a palace and other Among the heathy hills and ragged woods, buildings. The court following his example, the The roaring Fyers pours his mossy foods;

city rose in a few years; but as the greater numeTill full he dashes on the rocky mounds,

ber of the houses were slightly built, and had only Where thro'a shapeless beach his stream resounds.

tiled roofs, many of them fell to decay soon after As high in air the bursting torrents flow,

the nabob Assup Addowleh had transferred the As deep recoiling surges foam below, Prone down the rock the whitening sheet descends,

capital to Lucknow. This is, however, stiil a Aad viewless echo's ear, astonished rends,

considerable city, and was the constant residence Dim-seen, thro' rising mists and careless showers,

of the mother and grandmother of the last-menThe hoary cavern, wide surrounding, lowers,

tioned nabob. It contains some handsome tombs Still thro' the gap the struggling river toils, belonging to the reigning family : and its gardens And still, below, the horrid caldron boils.

are celebrated. The palace of Shuja Addowle

is said to have coutained 1000 women at the title FYNE, Loch, a large inlet of the sea in Ar- of his death, and fifty of his children. Being gyleshire, about thirty-two miles in length, and asked at one time how many he had of the latter, from twelve to three, or at an average, four or he was obliged to refer to a confidential servant five in breadth. It receives and returns a tide on before he could give an answer.

G.

G is the seventh letter and the fifth consonant vented the figure of the G; as we are assured by of our alphabet. In the alphabets of all the Terentius Scaurus. The C served very well for oriental languages, the Hebrew, Phenician, G; it being the third letter of the Latin alphabet, Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, and even as the ror y was of the Greek. The G is found the Greek, it is the third letter. The Hebrews instead of C on several medals: and M. Beger call it ghinel or gimel, i.e. camel, because it re- produces a medal of the Familia Ogulnia, where sembles the neck of that animal; and it bears Gar is read instead of Car, which is on those of the same appellation in the Samaritan, Phenician, M. Patin. But the Cis more frequently seen oa Chaldee: in the Syriac it is called gamel, in medals instead of G; as Aucustalis Caliafcna Arabic güm, and in Greek gamma. The gamma Cartacinensis, &c. for Augustalis, &c. (r) of the Greeks is evidently the gimel (1) of that the pronunciation of those words was altered, the Hebrews or Samaritans. The chief differ- but only that the G was ignorantly or neglience between the gamma and gimel consists in gently cut by the workmen: as is the case in this, that the one is turned to the right, and the divers inscriptions of the eastern empire ; where other to the left, according to the different man auc, aucc, auccc, are often found for aug, &c. ners of writing and reading which obtained The northern nations frequently changed the G among those nations; though Salmasius, on into Vor W; as in Gallus, Wallus; Gallia, Wallia, Solinus, attempted to prove that the G was de- Vallia, &c. the French change the W of the rived from the Greek kappa. It is clear that northern nations, and the V consonant, into G; the Latins borrowed their form of this letter as, Willielmes, William, into Guillaume; Wulfrom the Greeks; the Latin G being only a varia- philas into Gulphilas; Vasco into Gascon, &c. tion of the Greek gamma, l'; as might easily be The modern G takes its form from that of the proved by an examination of the forms of this Latins. It is a mute, and cannot be sounded at letter, which may be met with in the Greek and all without the help of a vowel. Its hard sound Latin MSS. through which it has passed from r is formed by the reflexion of the air against the to G. Diomed, lib. ii. cap. De Litera, calls G palate, made by the tongue as the air passes out a new letter. His reason is, that the Romans of the throat; which Martianus expresses thus, had not introduced it before the first Punic war: G spiritus cum palato. G often sounds hard as appears from the rostral coluinn erected by before i, as give, &c., and sometimes before i, C. Duilius, on which we every where find a C as get, &c. It is also hard in derivatives from instead of G. It was Sp. Carvilius who first words ending in gas singing, stronger, &c., and distinguished between these two letters, and in- generally, before er, at the end of words, as

finger. G is mute before n, as gnash, sign. riously used, for a rent, custom, service, &c, Gh has the sound of hard G in the beginning of Where it was a payment for rent, those who paid a word, as ghostly; sometimes at the end it is it were termed Gablatores. Formerly, when quite silent, as though. But at the end of many mentioned without any addition, gabel signified other words Gh has the sound of f, as laugh, the tax on salt, though afterwards it was applied rough, tough, &c. In music, G is the character to all other taxes. or mark of the treble cleff; and from its being GABINIAN Laws, in Roman antiquity, laws placed at the head, or marking the first sound in instituted upon several occasions by persons of Guido's scale, the whole scale took the name the name of Gabinius : 1. Gabinius lex de CoGamut. IV. As a numeral, G was anciently mitiis by Gabinius the tribune, A.U.C. 614; reused to denote 400; and with a dash over it quiring that in the public assemblies for electing thus G for 40,000.

magistrates, the votes should be given by tables, GAB, v.n.

Mr. Todd observes and not vivâ voce: 2. De Comitiis, which made it GABBLE, v. n. & 1. s. of this word that it is a capital punishment to convene any clandestine

GABBLER, n. s. one of the most ancient assembly, agreeably to the old law of the twelve in our own language, and found in many others tables : 3. De Militiâ, by A. Gabinius the triwith much the same meaning: Old Fr. gaber, to bune, A.U.C. 685. It granted Pompey the laugh at, from gab, mockery: Goth. begabba ; lce. power of carrying on the war against the pirates gabba: the same from gabb, a mocker; Sax. gab- during three years, and of obliging all "kings, ban, to trifle ; to joke; to talk a mere jargon : governors, and states, to supply him with all the Ital. gabbare, to mock; Pers. ghab, a foolish or necessaries he wanted, over all the Mediterranean bitter expression. The European word is to be Sea, and in the maritime provinces as far as 400 traced, perhaps, to the Celt.gob, a beak; Irish, stadia from the sea : 4. De Usurâ by Aul. Gabinius gob, a beak, or mouth: whence gab, for the the tribune, A.U.C. 685; ordaining that no action mouth: and hence gabble. To make an indis- should be granted for the recovery of any money tinct noise, or talk loudly without meaning; to borrowed upon small interest to be lent upon prate, or chatter.

larger. This was a usual practice at Rome, I am no labbe,

which obtained the name of versuram facere : Ne though I say it I n'am not lefe to gabbe

5. Against fornication. Say what thou wolt, I shal it never telle.

GĂBINUS Cinctus, in Roman antiquity, a Chaucer. The Milleres Tale. particular way of tucking the gown, by drawing I gabbe not so have I joy and bliss.

it forwards on the breast, and tying it into a Id. The Nonnes Preestes Tale. knot; as the people of Gabii did at a solemn When thou couldest not, savage,

sacrifice, on the sudden attack of an enemy, in Shew thine own meaning, but wouldest gabble like

order to be fitter for action. In this manner the A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes

consul used to declare war, to sacrifice, and burn With words that made them known? Shakspeare. Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to

the spoils of the enemy; and then he was said gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make

to be præcinctus.

GABION, n. s. Fr. A wicker basket filled an alehouse of my lady's house?

Id. Twelfth Night.

with earth to make a fortification or entrenchNot to know what we speak one to another, so we

ment. seem to know, is to know straight our purpose : His battery was defended all along with gabions, clough's language, gabble enough and good enough. and casks filled with sand.

Knolles.
Id. All'. Well that Ends Well.
Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud

Gabions, in fortifica-
Among the builders; each to other calls,
Not understood.

Milton's Paradise Lost.

tions, are baskets made Which made some think, when he did gabble,

of ozier twigs, of a cyThe' had heard three labourers of Babel. Hudibras,

lindrical form, six feet Flocks of fowl, that when the tempest roar,

high, and four wide ; With their boarse gabbling seek the silent shore. which, being filled with

Dryden. earth, serve as a shelter
Such a rout, and such a rabble,

from the enemy's fire. Ran to hear Jack pudding gabble. Swift. See diagram :

GABARDINE. Span, gabardina ; Ital. gavardina. A coarse frock; any mean dress.

GABLE, n. s. Fr. gable ; Welsh and Belg.
You call me misbeliever cut-throat dog, gaval ; Swed. gafwel; Teut. gabel, gibel. The
And spit upon my Jewish gabardine. Shakspeare. sloping roof at the end of a building.
The knight did straight submit,

Take care that all your brick-work be covered with
And laid his weapons at her feet :
Next he disrobed his gabardine,

the tilting, according to the new way of building,

without gable ends, wbich are very heavy, and very And with it did himself resign. Hudibras.

apt to let the water into the brick-work. GABEL, n. s. Sax. zafel; Fr. gabelle ; Ital.

Mortimer's Husbandry. gabella. A tribute; an excise; a tax.

Gable, or GABLE-END, of a house, is the The gabels of Naples are very high on oil, wine, upright triangular end from the cornice or eaves and tobacco.

Addison on Italy.

to the top of the house. Gabel. Lat. cabella, gabium, gablagium, GABON, a river of Western Africa, flowing and vectigal, has the same signification among through a country of this name, and opening the ancient English writers, that gabelle had in with a considerable estuary between Cape France, before the revolution. It has been va- Lopez Gonsalvo and Benin. In its mouth are

[graphic]

a number of small islands called the Pongos. of the poorer prisoners, till the viceroy, who Vessels frequently stop here to take in water, was a good-tempered man, gave up the contest, which is better than at Cape Lopez. The articles and set her at liberty. One expedient to ecsure of trade are ivory, wax, and honey; but the her best efforts was found to be, piacing a fanatives are licentivus in their manners, and very vorite admirer in a conspicuous part of the difficult and tedious palavering. Here also are theatre, when she would generally address ber conveniences for repajring and refitting of ships. airs to him. Gabrielli amassed great wealth,

GABRES, GEBRES, GUEBRES, or Gueber. although by no means mercenary, being enriched See GHEBER.

as well by her boundless success, as by the GABRIEL, 50992, Heb. i. e, the strength of bounty of the emperor of Germany, who was God, one of the angels. There are a few events, much attached to her. He at length, however, in which this exalted being was concerned re- banished her from Vienna, on account of the corded in Scripture. He was sent to the pro- continual broils occasioned by her influence. phet Daniel, to explain to him the vision of the The time of her decease is not recorded. ram and goat, and the mystery of the seventy GAD, n. s. Sax. gad; Goth. and Swed. godd; weeks; to Zecharias, to declare to him the fu- Isl. gaddcur, a cluh, or wedge. · A wedge or inture birth of John the Baptist; and, six months got of steel : it is also used for a stile or graver. after, to the Virgin Mary, at Nazareth, to warn

I will go get a leaf of brass, her of the birth of Jesus Christ. The Mahom- And with a gad of steel will write these words. medans call him thc faithful spirit; and the

Shakareare,

Plemish steel is brought down the Rhine to Dort, Persians, the peacock of heaven." In the second chapter of the Koran, it is said, that whosnever therefore called Flemish steel, and sometimes gad

and other parts, some in bars, and some in gaco; 20. is an enemy to Gabriel shall be confounded. It

steel.

Mozon's Mechanical Erereva. was Gabriel, Mahomet pretended, who brought

GAD, 0. n.

Derived by Skinner from the revelations which he published; and who

Gadder, n. S. gadfly; by Junius from conducted him to heaven mounted upon the GADDINGLY, adv. S Welsh, gadaw, to forsade; animal Borak.

GaDLING, n. s. by others thought to be GABRIELITES, in ecclesiastical history, a

Gadfly, n. s. sect of Anabaptists that appeared in Pomerania, word agaan, to go.

the preterite of the od

Minsheu says à Belg. gach, in 1530; so named from Gabriel Scherling, who, to journey; or Belg. gaden, to please. To ramble after having been for some time tolerated in that about; to rove loosely, or wildly: one that russ country, was obliged to remove, and died in Po- abroad without object or business : gadily, a dy land.

that by stinging cattle causes them to rua madly GABRIELLI (Caterina), a celebrated and about; the breese. accomplished Italian singer of the last century, was born at Rome, 1730. She was a pupil of

A drunken woman, and a gadder abroad, canseth Porpora and Metastasio, and, from the circum- great anger, and she will not cover her own shape.

Eccles. xxvi. 8. stance of her father having been a cook, she These bowes two held swete loking ; icquired in her earlier years the epithet of La That ne seemed like no godling; Cuochetina. Wherever she visited, she excited And ten brode arrowes held be there the greatest admiration of her talents. In Russia, Of whiche five in his honde were. she remained three years, and ranked high at

Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. court. Visiting England, in 1775, she appeared How now, my headstrong, where have you beca at the king's theatre during that and the follow

gadding? ing year, and is said to have exhibited fewer of-Where have learnt me to repent.

Shakopeurd her capricious freaks here than abroad, from Envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets,

Bacon salutary fear lest an English audience should and doth not keep home. break her bones.

The ly called the gadfly breedeth of somewhat tha: Brydone gives a curious instance of one of swimmeth upon the top of the water, and is nisi

about ponds.

Bacon's Natural History. her whims during her stay at the court of Pa The lesser devils arose with ghastly rore, lermo. The viceroy had honored her, it ap- And thronged forth about the world to gad; pears, with an invitation to a party, which she Each land they filled, river, stream, and sbore. accepted, but not arriving at the appointed hour,

Fairfas. the dinner was put back, and a messenger des Gad not abroad at every quest and call patched to her residence, who found her reading of an untrained hope or passion; in bed. She rose and accompanied him, apo- To court each place or fortune that doth fall, logising to the company, which consisted of a Is wantonness in contemplation. Hordert. great number of noble persons, on the ground

Thee, shepherd, thee the woods and desart caves that she had forgotten the engagement. This with wild thyme and the gadding vine o'ergrown,

Aud all their echo's moan.

Viitor offended the viceroy; but when, on coming to the opera, no persuasion could induce her to A fierce loud buzzing breeze; their stings drar

blood, sing a note above her breath, he threatened her with punishment. She was now, however, only And drive the cattle gadding through the wood.

Dryder the more obstinate, and returned for answer,

She wreaks her anger on her rival's head; that his excellency "might indeed make her cry, With furies frights her from her native home, but he never should make her to sing.' On this And drives her gadding, round the world to roam. she was committed to prison; and remained in confinement twelve days, during which she gave There's an ox lost, and this coxcomb runs a gadding magnificent entertainments, and paid the debts after wild fow'

L'Estrength

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the ore.

No wonder their thoughts should be perpetually Erythia, according to Pliny. Geryon, whom shifting from what disgusts them, and seek better Hercules killed, is said to have resided in it. entertainment in more pleasing objects, after which Hercules Gaditanus had there a celebrated they will unavoidably be gadding.

Lucke.

temple, in wbich all his labors were engraved. Light fly his slumbers, if perchance a fight This island was considered as the western exOf angry gadflies fasten on the herd. Thomson.

tremity of the habitable world, and as such was Gad, 72, i. e. a troop, one of the twelve alluded to by the poets. Juvenal says, patriarchs, the son of Jacob of Zilpah, and pro Omnibus in terris quæ sunt à Gadibus usque genitor of the tribe of the Gadites.

Auroram et Gangem pauci dignoscere possunt ‘Gad, in ancient geography, a district of Vera bona, atque illis multum diversa, remota Transjordan Palestine, situated between Gilead Erroris nebula.

Sat, X. and the kingdom of Bashan on the north, and

Horace also, that of the Amorites to the south, having the Jordan to the west, and bounded by various

Latiùs regnis avidam domando

Spiritum, quàm si Libyam remotis nations on the east, so called from the tribe of

Gadibus jungas, et uterque Pænus that name.

Serviat uni.

Lib. ii. od. 2. Gad, a prophet who attended David during his persecution by Saul, and gave hiru various GADIACZ, a town in the government of admonitions afterwards. He wrote a history of Pultava, Russia, containing 2300 inhabitants. David's life, which is lost.

150 miles south-east of Czernigow. Gad, among miners, a small punch of iron, GADOU, a country of Western Africa, with a long wooden handle, used to break up having Brooko Fooladoo to the north, Konkodoo

One of the miners holds this in his to the east, and Jallonhadoo to the south. It is hand, directing the point to a proper place, while crossed by streams, which descend from the the other drives it into the vein, by striking it mountains of Manding, and form the Senegal. with a sledge hammer.

The tract is mountainous, containing mines of GADAMIS, a town and territory of Northern gold, iron, and saltpetre. Africa, forming a species of oasis in the great GADUS, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes desert of Sahara. It is situated north-west belonging to the order of jugulares. The head from Fezzan, and south-west of Tripoli, and in is smooth; there are seven cylindrical rays in the road between these countries and Tom- the branchiostege membrane; the body is obbuctoo: but the caravan that passes rarely consists long, with deciduous scales; the whole fins are of more than 150 camels. It passes through covered with the common skin of fish; the rays Tuat or Souat, another oasis to the south-west. of the back fins are blunt, and those of the This territory is said to contain ninety-two vil- breast are sharp. There are twenty-three species, lages, and many Roman ruins. 300 miles south- principally distinguished by their cirri, and the west of Tripoli.

number of back fins. The most remarkable are GADARENORUM AGER, in ancient

geography, the country of the Gadarenes, called by G. barbatus, the pout, never growing to a Matthew the country of the Gergesenes ; a dis- large size, and seldom exceeding a foot in length. trict that lay between Gadara and Gergesa, other- It is distinguished from all others by its great wise called Gerosa, both which lay within the depth; one of the size above mentioned being Decapolis on the other side Jordan.

nearly four inches deep in the broadest part. The GADBURY (John), a noted professor of the back is very much arched, and cafinated; the wonderful revelations of astrology. He was a color of the fins and tail is black; at the bottom native of Oxfordshire, and bred a sailor; then of the pectoral fins is a black spot. The lateral he was the pupil and assistant of the famous line is white, broad, and crooked. The tail is Lilly. Being a Catholic, and on account of even at the end, and of a dusky color. The some ominous remarks in his Almanacks, he color of the body is white; but more obscure on was arrested during the commotions excited by the back than the belly, and tinged with yellow. the so-called Popish plots in Charles II. reign: It is called at Scarborough a kleg, and is a very but liberated ; and died, it is said, by ship- delicate fish. wreck on a voyage to Jamaica : but the dates G. carbonarius, the coal fish, is of a more neither of his life or death appear. He pub- elegant form than the cod, growing to the length lished A Discourse of the Nature and Effects of of two feet and a half, and weighing about Comets, Philosophically, Historically, and Astro- twenty-eight or thirty pounds at most. The head logically considered, 1665 : and Partridge, a is small; the under jaw a little longer than the professor of this art, gave the world in 1693, upper: the tail is broad and forked. They vary The Black Life of John Gadbury.

in color: some have their back, nose, dorsal fins, GADEBUSCH, a town of Mecklenburgh- and tail, of a deep black; the gill-covers silver Schwerin, on the Radegast, where the Swedes and black, the ventral and anal fins, and the defeated the Danes and Saxons, on the 20th of belly, white: others are dusky, others brown; December, 1712. Inhabitants 1500. It is but, in all, the lateral line is straight and white, fifteen miles south-west of Wismar, and sixteen and the lower parts, or the ventral and anal fins, W.N.W. of Schwerin.

white.

This species takes its name from the GADES, or Gadira, in ancient geography, black color that it sometimes assumes. Belon a small island in the Atlantic, on the panish calls it the colfisch, imagining that it was so coast, twenty-five miles from the Pillars of Her- named by the English, from its producing the cules. It was sometimes called Tartessus, and ichthyocolla: but Gesner gives the true etymo

these :

merous.

logy These fishes are common on most of our the shore, they caught nothing but dog fish, rocky and deep coasts, but particularly those of which shows how exactly these fish keep their the north of Scotland. They swarm about the limits. The best haddocks were sold at from Orkneys, where the fry are the greatest support 8d. to 1s. per score, and the smaller sort at 1d. of the poor.

The young begin to appear on the and even jd. per score. The large haddocks Yorkshire coast in the beginning of July, in vast quit the coast as soon as they go out of season, shoals, and are then about an inch and a half and leave behind great plenty of small ones. It long. In August they are from three to five is said that they visit the coasts of Hamburgh inches, and are taken in great numbers with the and Jutland in summer. It is no less remarkangling rod; they are esteemed very delicate; able than providential, that all kinds of fish (ex. but grow so coarse, when a year old, that few cept mackerel) which frequent the Yorkshire people eat them. Fish of that age are from coast, approach the shore, and, as it were, otier eight to fifteen inches long, and begin to have a themselves to us, generally remaining there as little blackness near the gills and on the back; long as they are in high season, and retire from this blackness increases as they grow older. The us when they become unfit for use. They do fry is known by different names in different not grow to a great bulk, one of fourteen pounds places: they are called at Scarborough parrs; being an uncommon size, but these are extremely and, when a year old, billets. About twenty coarse; the best weighing only from two to three years ago such a quantity of parrs visited that pounds. part, that for several weeks it was impossible to G. lota, the burbot, in its body has some redip a pail into the sea without taking some. semblance to an eel, only shorter and thicker; Though this fish is so little esteemed when fresh, and its motions also resemble those of that fish: it it is salted and dried for sale.

is besides very smooth, slippery, and sliny. The G. eglesinus, the haddock, has a long body; head is very ugly, being flat, and shaped like the upper part of a dusky brown color, and the that of a toad : the teeth are very small, but nubelly and lower part of the sides silvery: on the

On the end of the nose are two small back are three fins, resembling those of the com- beads; on the chin another. The color varies : mon cod fish; the lateral line is black; and the some are dusky, others are of a dirty green, ail is forked : the head slopes down to the spotted with black, and oftentimes with yello; nose; on the chin is a short beard ; and on each and the belly in some is white; but the real side beyond the gills is a large black spot. Su- colors are frequently concealed by the slime. perstition assigns this mark to the iinpression This species abounds in the lake of Geneva, and St. Peter left with his finger and thumb when he is also met with in the lakes Maggiore and Lutook the piece of silver out of the mouth of a gano. In Britain it is found in the Trent; but fish of this species, which has been continued to in greater plenty in the Witham, and the great the whole race of haddocks ever since that mi- east fen in Lincolnshire. It is a very delicale racle. Large haddocks begin to be in roe in the fish for the table, though of a disgusting appearmiddle of November, and continue so till the end ance when alive. It is very voracious, and preys of January; from that time till May they are on the fry and smaller fish. It does not often take very thin-tailed, and out of season. In Maybait, but is generally caught in weels. The they begin to recover; and the middling-sized largest taken in our waters weigh between two fish are then very good, and continue improving and three pounds, but abroad they are sometimes till the time of their perfection. The small ones found of double that weight. are extremely good from May till February, and G. merlangus, the whiting, is a fish of an elesome even in February, March, and April, viz. gant make: the upper jaw is the longest; the those which are not old enough to breed. The eyes are large, the nose is sharp : the teeth of the fishermen assert, that in rough weather haddocks upper jaw are long, and appear above the lower sink down into the sand and ooze in the bottom when closed. The color of the head and back of the sea, where they shelter themselves till the is a pale brown; the lateral line white, and storm is over; for in stormy weather they take crooked; the belly and sides are silvery, the last none, and those that are taken immediately after streaked lengthwise with yellow. These fish a storm have mud on their backs. In summer appear in vast shoals in spring, keeping at the they live on young herrings and other small fish; distance of about half a mile to that of three in winter on the stone-coated worms, a species miles from the shore. They are caught in vast of serpula, which the fishermen call haddock- numbers by the line, and afford excellent diver. meat. The grand shoal of haddocks comes pe- sion. They are the most delicate, as well as the riodically on the Yorkshire coast. It is remark- most wholesome, of any of the genus: but they able that they appeared in 1766 on the 10th of do not grow to a large size, the biggest not ef. December, and exactly on the same day in 1767: ceeding twenty inches ; and even that is rery these shoals extended from the shore nearly three uncommon, the usual length being ten or twelve; miles in breadth, and in length from Flambo- though, it is said, that whitings from four to eight rough Head to Tinmouth Castle, and perhaps pounds in weight have been taken in the deep much farther northwards. An idea may be given water at the edge of the Dogger Bank. of their numbers by the following fact: three G. merlucius, the hake, is found in vast abatfishermen, within the distance of a mile from dance on many of our coasts, and those of IreScarborough harbour, frequently loaded their land. There was formerly a stationary fishery boats with them twice a-day, taking each time of hake on the Nymph bank off Waterford, isabout a ton of fish; when they put down their mense quantities appearing there twice a-rear; lines beyond the distance of three miles from the first shoal coming in June, during the macs

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