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they answer fumingly, that they are ashamed to defile The heat will fume away most of the scent. their pens with making answer to such idle questions.
Mortimer. Hooker. The fumes of drink discompose and stupify the Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs ; brains of a man overcharged with it. South Being purged, a fire sparkling in lover's eyes.
Fumigations, often repeated, are very beucócial. Shakspeare.
Arithrwel. Tie up the libertine in a field of feasts,
The first fresh dawn then waked the gladdened Keep his brain fuming. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. When Duncan is asleep, his two chamberlains
Of uncorrupted man, nor blushed to see Will I with wine and wassel so convince,
The sluggard sleep beneath its sacred beam;
For their light slumbers gentle fumed away.
Thomson It were good to try the taking of fumes by pipes, as
Yet there will still be bards; though fame is smoke, they do in tobacco, or other things, to dry and com
Its fumes are frankincense to human thought! fort. Bacon.
Byron. Don Juan Peato's great year would have some effect, not in
FUMIGATION, in medicine. By the subtile renewing the state of like individuals ; for tbat is the fume of those that conceive the celestial bodies have fumes produced by burning certain substances, more accurate influence upon these things below than much benefit or prejudice may be produced, they have, but in gross.
Id. according to the nature of the case, and the conTo lay aside all that may seem to have a shew of stitution on which the effects are to be exerted; fumes and fancies, and to speak solids, a war with as is evident from the palsies produced among Spain is a mighty work.
Id. metal-gilders, workers in lead-mines, &c.; and We have
also from the benefits received in many cases No anger in our eyes, no storm, no lightning :
when the air is impregnated with salutary mateOur heat is spent and fumed away in vapor, rials. Catarrhs and colds, for instance, are reBefore our hands be at work.
lieved by fumes received with the breath; by
Ben Jonson's Catiline. Those that serve for hot countries they used at first asthma; and even ulcers in the lungs bave been
the same means expectoration is assisted in the to fume, by hanging them upon long sticks one by one, relieved by this method. This is still more and drying them with the smoke of a soft fire.
Carew. strongly exemplified by a practice of curing Their prayers passed
ulcers, and exciting the general action of quickDimensionless through heavenly doors; then clad silver in the system, by enclosing the naked body With incense, where the golden altar fumed
of the patient in a box fitted to receive the fumes By the great intercessor, came in sight
of quicksilver, raised by sprinkling cinnabar upon Before their father's throne. Milton's Paradise Lost.
a red hot iron, or, what is still better, the hydrarA crass and fumid exhalation is caused from the gyrus præcipitatus cinereus of the Pharmacopæia, combat of the sulphur and iron with the acid and which, not emitting any sulphureous vapors, nitrous spirits of aquafortis.
proves less inconvenient to the patient. Mr.
Pearson made a considerable number of experiWhose constant cups lay fuming to his brain,
ments with a view to examine into the comparzAnd always boil in each extended vein. Roscommon Power, like new wine, does your weak brain sur
tive efficacy of this treatment and the common prize,
friction. He found that by fumigating the And its mad fumes in your discourses rise ;
gums became turgid and tender very quickly, But time these yielding vapours will remove : and the local appearances were sooner removed Mean while I'll taste the sober joys of love.
than by the other method; but it sooner brougbt
Dryden. on debility, rapid and premature salivation, and, Plunged in sloth we lie, and snore supine, of course, could not be steadily continued. This As filled with fumes of undigested wine.
gentleman therefore concludes, that where checkWhen he knew his rival freed and gone,
ing the progress of the disease suddenly is an lle swells with wrath; he makes outrageous moan :
object of great moment, or where the body is so He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground,
covered with venereal ulcers that there scarcely The hollow tower with clamours ring around. Id.
remains a surface large enough to absorb the Thus fighting fires awhile themselves consume;
ointment, the vapor of mercury will be advanBut straight, like Turks, forced on to win or die, They first lay tender bridges of their fume,
tageous. The vapor of mercury is also singularly And o'er the breach in unctuous vapours fily.
efficacious when applied to venereal ulcers, fungi, Id.
and excrescences; but this plan requires an equal From dice and wine the youth retired to rest, And puffed the fimy god from out his breast :
quantity of mercury to be given internally, as if Ev'n then he dreamt of drink and lucky play:
the local application itself were not a mercurial More lucky had it lasted 'till the day.
Id. My fumigation is to Venus just
FUM'ET, n. s. The dung of the deer. The souls of roses, and red coral's dust :
FUMETTE, n. s. Fr. A word introduced by And, last, to make my fumigation good,
cooks, and the pupils of cooks, for the smell of 'Tis mixt with sparrows' brains and pigeons' blood. meat.
A haunch of venison made her sweat, She fumed the temples with an odorous flame,
Unless it had the right fumette.
Swift And oft before the sacred altars came, To pray for him who was an empty name. Id.
FUMIGATOR, in surgery, an instrument used Woud thou preserve thy famished family for injecting tobacco-smoke into the anos of With fragrant time the city fumigate,
dr ed persons, with a view to excite the irAnd break the waxen walls to save the state. Id. ritability of the muscles. The best kind is ne
made by W. Willurgby, the bowl of which is of A day or two ye shul han digestives
, and fumetere.
Chaucer. The Nonnes Preestes Tole.
Why, he was met even now,
FUMONE, a town of Italy, in the Campagna
FUN, n. s. A low cant word. Sport; high
rage; but extremely dangerous in the winter,
rugged lava, disagreeable to the feet. Several The fuming liquor of Libavius is made by small streams, descending from the mountains, amalgamating tin with half its weight of mercury, run through the town into the bay; but, as the triturating this amalgam with an equal weight of inhabitants throw all their ordure into them, they corrosive muriate of mercury, and distilling by a
add little to the cleanliness of the streets. The
a similar chapel at Rome. The population is
Funchal is defended, as we have said, by four
bay, immediately under a steep hill; 2. St. Cadet's fuming liquor is prepared by distilling Lorenzo, in which is the government house ; 3. equal parts of acetate of potash and arsenious Peak Castle, on a hill north-west of the town, acid, and receiving the product into glass bodies, half a mile from the shore, and of difficult access kept cool hy a mixture of ice and salt. The on the south, but commanded by another bill; liquor produced, emits a very dense, heavy, this is, however, the chief fortification, the walls fetid, noxious vapor, and inflames spontaneously being very high, but without a ditch, and not in the open air.
mounting above twelve guns; 4. The Loo Rock, FUMITER, n.s. A plant.
on which is a fort with numerous cannon, en
barbette, and surrounded by a weak parapet. Whatever warms the heart, or fills the head, This rock, the name of which is properly Ilheo,
As the mind opens, and its functions spread, the island, is distant from a rocky point of the Imagination plies her dangerous art, bay 120 fathoms, and this narrow channel is 768
And pours it all upon the peccant part. Pope. fathoms deep; the small craft belonging to the things than there is between a representing com
There is hardly a greater difference between to 'island, in winter, lie under this rock, with a rope fast to it; but, on the first appearance of bad
moner in the function of his publick calling, and the same person in compon life.
Seift. weather, the people quit them and leave them to
I have sworn to die their fate. 200 paces west of the town is a work In full exertion of the functions, which 100 paces long, with three small bastions, and a My country called me here to exercise, redoubt towards the sea, washed by the waves. According to my honour and my conscience The beach is also defended by a long low wall I cannot break my oath. with cannon at intervals, but which could be of
Byron. The Two Foscari. very little effect in preventing the landing of Function, in the animal economy, is by phytroops, did not the surf assist it.
sicians divided into vital, animal, and natural. The plantations in the neighbourhood are FUNCTIONS, ANIMAL. The animal functions adorned with a great number of country houses, perform the motion of the body by the action of churches, and monasteries, which, from their the muscles; and this action consists chiefly in elevated site, and in contrast with the white the shortening the fleshy fibres, which is called houses of the town, produce a striking and pleas- contraction, the principal agents of wbich are the ing effect.
arteries and nerves distributed in the fleshy fibres. The trade of this port consists almost entirely All parts of the body have their own functions, in exporting the wine of the island, which is
or actions, peculiar to themselves. Life consists principally consumed in the British dominions in the exercise of these functions, and health in and dependencies; and they export the Madeira the free and ready exercise of them. not only to Britain, but to the East and West FUNCTIONS, Natural, are such as the creature Indies. Ships touching here may obtain water, cannot subsist any considerable time without; as wine, fruits, and vegetables; but fresh meat and the digestion of the aliment, and its conversion poultry are high, and cannot be obtained without into blood. permission of the governor.
FUNCTIONS, Vital, are those necessary to life, FUNCTION, n. s. Lat. functio, is properly and without wbich the individual cannot subsist; the act of discharging, or completing, an office, as the inotion of the heart, lungs, &c. or business, from Lat. fungor, viz. finem and ago, FUND, n. s. & v.a. Fr. fond; Lat. funda, a to put an end to, or bring to a conclusion. It is, bag. Stock; capital; that by which any expense in general acceptation, extended to the office it- is supported. Bank of money. To fund is to self, or to the thing undertaken. Thus it is not place money in the funds, either of a company, only the single act of an office, but the trade and
a corporation, or the public. occupation which the office implies': it signifies, He touches the passions more delicately than Orid, likewise, power and faculty, as applied to any and performs all this out of his own fund, without particular part of the body and the office it per- diving into the arts and sciences for a supply. Dryden forms, as well as to the intellectual powers and Part must be left, a fund when foes invade, their operations.
And part employed to roll the wat'ry tide.
As my estate has been hitherto either tost upon Follow your function; go, and batten on cold bits.
seas, or Auctuating in funds, it is now fixed in substantial acres.
Addison You have paid the heavens your function, and the
In preaching, no men succeed better than those who prisoner the very debt of your calling.
trust entirely to the stock or fund of their own reason, Id. Measure for Measure. Tears in his eyes, distraction in his aspect,
advanced indeed, but not overlaid by commerce with
books, A broken voice, and his wbole function suiting
Seit With forms to his conceit.
They have been at a vast expense of time, and
pains, and patience, to heap together, and to confra Nor was it any policy or obstinacy, or partiality of themselves in a set of wrong notions, which they lay affection either to the men or their function, which up in their minds as a fund of valuable knowledge. fixed me. King Charles.
Nasen. Nature seems In all her functions weary of herself :
Funds. Upon this extensive topic, after My race of glory run, and race of shame;
the various statistical tables, and other elemenAnd I shall shortly be with them that rest. tary matter relating to it, which will be found by
Milton. our readers in the articles BANK, ENGLAND, and They have several offices and prayers against fire, GREAT Britain, we do not propose to enter at tempests, and especially for the dead, in which func- much length. It is a topic for entire volumes, tions they use sacerdotal garments. Stilling
fleet. even of more ample extent than ours. The This double function of the goddess gives a consider- principles on which our funding system is cooable light and beauty to the ode which Horace bas structed and upheld, particularly by what is addressed to her.
called the sinking fund; the priucipal periods of Let not these indignities discourage us from asserting the just privileges and pre-eminence of our holy and the relative advantages and disadvantages of
the accumulation of our immense national debt; function and character.
The bodies of men, and other animals, are excel- that part of our public policy which has oriently well fitted for life and motion; and the several ginated and increased it, at the best mode of parts of them well adapted to their particular func. providing for the national expenditure, are the
Bentley's Sermons. chief subjects of our enquiry. These will be
introduced with some propriety by a definit.on It belongs to the chancellor of the exchequer of the principal terms of the discussion. to propose the terms of the loan in parliament;
As the term funds will describe any sum or and he generally makes a previous agreement suns of money appropriated to a particular with some wealthy bankers or merchants, who purpose, it includes, in popular language, both are willing to advance the money ou the terms the national debt and revenue; the stocks and proposed. The subscribers to the loan deposit every thing relating to their management; the a certain part of the sum subscribed, and are measures of Downing Street and Threadneedle bound to pay the rest by instalments or stated Street, as well as those of Capel Court. Tech- proportions, on appointed days, under pain of nically, the public debt and revenue are thus di- forfeiting what they have deposited. For this vided: the capitals of the several sums which the they are entitled, perhaps, not only to hold their government has borrowed of contractors and share in the capital, but to an annuity as we other individuals, from time to time, is called bave stated; but happily the right of receiving a stock; and the portions of the revenue appro- certain number of lottery-tickets is abolished. priated to pay the interest and management of They may sell their capital to one person, their the debt only, are called the funds; and, by this annuity to a second, at their own option. The appropriation of revenue, the debt is said to be value of all these interests together is called omfunded. The different funds were established on nium; and, in order to obtain a ready subscripdifferent occasions, and are not all committed to tion, it ought to amount to £102, or upwards, on the same managers; nor is the interest, or, in b100 of capital. This difference is called the the technical language, the dividends, payable £onus to the subscribers. in all of them at the same time. But the only The capital advanced to the public, in the material circumstance in which they differ from form of transferable stocks, and bearing interest each other, is the rate of interest on their ca- from taxes apportioned for that purpose, is called, pitals or stock; and, in this view, we have dif- as we have said, the funded debt. Besides, ferent funds, denominated the 3 per cents., the there is generally a considerable sum due by go4 per cents., &c.; from the respective rates of vernment which is not disposed of in that manner; their yearly interests. The creditor is also, in and, therefore, is distinguished by the appellasome cases, recompensed by a temporary an- tion of the unfunded debt. This may arise nuity, in addition to the interest of his stock; from any sort of national expense, for which no and his title to the annuity, like his title to the provision has been made, or for which the prostock, is authenticated by a record, transferable vision has proved insufficient. The chief branches at pleasure; and each annuity, whether it is for are, 1st, exchequer-bills : these are issued from life, or for a certain number of years, may be the exchequer, generally by appointment of cousidered as equivalent to a certain quantity of parliament, and sometimes without such appointstock.
ment, when exigencies require. They bear inThe interest or dividend on the stock is paid terest from the time when issued, and are taken half-yearly; and the purchaser has the benefit of in by the bank of England, which promotes the interest due on the stock he buys, from the their circulation. 2d, navy-bills: the sums anlast term to the time of purchase. Therefore, nually granted for the navy have always fallen the prices of the stocks rise gradually, cæteris short of what that service required. To supply paribus, from term to term, and fall at the term that deficiency, the admiralty issues bills in paywhen the interest is paid. In comparing the ment of victuals, stores, and the like, which bear prices of the different stocks, it is necessary to interest six months after the time issued. The advert to the term when the last interest was debt of the navy, thus contracted, is dischargeo, paid; and, allowance being made for this cir- from time to time, by parliament. cumstance, the prices of all the government The interest on all the public debts was forstocks, which bear interest at the same rate, must merly paid at the exchequer; but, the bank being be nearly the same, as they all depend on the found a much more convenient place for this same security.
purpose, nearly the whole is now payable there, When a loan is proposed, such terms must be the company receiving a certain allowance from offered to the lenders as may render the trans- government for managing all business relative to action beneficial; and this is now regulated by the public funds. See our article Bank. the prices of the old stocks. If the stocks The nature of the sinking fund may be thus which bear interest at 4 per cent. sell at par, or explained :-By 3 Geo. I. c. 7, the surpluses of rather above, the government may expect to the three great national funds, the aggregate, geborrow money at that rate; but, if these stocks neral, and South Sea funds, over and above the are under par, the government must either grant interest and annuities charged upon them, are a higher interest
, or some other advantage to the directed to be carried together, and to attend the lenders, in compensation for the difference. disposition of parliament; and were denominated Lotteries have formerly been employed to facili- a sinking fund, because originally destined to sink tate the loan, by entitling the subscribers to a and lower the national debt. To this have been since certain number of tickets, for which no higher added many other entire duties granted in subseprice was charged than the exact value distri- quent years; and the annual interest of the sums buted in prizes. Sometimes an abatement of a borrowed on their respective credits is charged certain proportion of the capital has been grant- on, and payable out of, the produce of the sinking ed, and a lender entitled to hold £100 stock, fund. However, the nett surpluses and savings, though, in reality, he advanced no more, per- after all deductions paid, amount annually to a baps, than £95.
very considerable sum. For, as the interest on ,
the national debt has been at several times re be secured, and no deficiencies in the national duced by the consent of the proprietors, who revenues could affect it, but such must be sepahad their option either to lower their interest or rately provided for by parliament. The accube paid their principal, the savings from the ap- mulated compound interest on a million yearly, propriated revenues have been large. But, be- together with the annuities that would fall into fore any part of the aggregate fund (the surpluses that fund, would, he said, in twenty-eight years, whereof were one of the chief ingredients that amount to such a sum as would leave a surplus formed the sinking fund) could be applied to of £4,000,000 annually, to be applied, if necesdiminish the principal of the public debt, it was sary, to the exigencies of the state. In appointmortgaged by parliament to raise an annual sum ing the commissioners, he should, he said, for the maintenance of the king's household and endeavour to choose persons of such weight and the civil list. For this purpose, in the late reigns, character as corresponded with the importance of the produce of certain branches of the excise the commission they were to execute. The and customs, the post-office, the duty on wine- speaker of the house of commons, the chancellor licenses, the revenues of the remaining crowne of the exchequer, the master of the rolls, the golands, the profits arising from the courts of jus- vernor and deputy governor of the bank of tice (which articles include all the hereditary re- England, and the accountant-general of the high venues of the crown), and also a clear annuity court of chancery, were persons, who, from that of £120,000 in money, were settled on the king several situations, he should think highly props for life, for the support of his majesty's house to be of the number. hold, and the honor and dignity of the crown. To the principle of this bill no objection was And, as the amount of these several branches made, though several specious, but ill-founded was uncertain (though in the reign of Geo. II. ones were urged against the sufficiency of the they were computed to have sometimes raised mode which the chancellor of the excheqner had almost a million), if they did not arise annually adopted for the accomplish.nent of so great and to £800,000, the parliament engaged to inake up .so desirable an end. He had made it a clause the deficiency. But Geo. III. having, soon after in his bill, that the accumulating million should his accession, spontaneously signified his consent, never be applied but to the purchase of stock. that his own hereditary revenues might be so To this clause Mr. Fox ovjected, and moved that disposed of as might best conduce to the utility the commissioners therein named should be inand satisfaction of the public, and having graci- powered to accept so much of any future loan ously accepted a limited sum, the said hereditary as they should have cash belonging to the publie and other revenues are now carried into, and to pay for. This, he said, would relieve that made a part of, the aggregate fund; and the distress the country would otherwise be under, aggregate fund is charged with the payment of when, on account of a war, it might be necessary the whole annuity to the crown. The limited to raise a new loan : whenever that should be annuity accepted by his late majesty was at first the case, his opinion was, that the minister should £800,000, but it has been since augmented to not only raise taxes sufficiently productive to £900,000. The expenses themselves, being put pay the interest of the loan, but also sufficient to under the same 'care and management as the make good to the sinking fund whatsoever had other branches of the public patrimony, produce been taken from it. If, therefore, for instance, more, and are better collected than heretofore; at any future period a loan of £6,000,000 was and the public is a gainer of upwards of £100,000 proposed, and there was at that time £1,000,000 per annum by this transaction.
in the hands of the commissioners, in such case The sinking fund, though often called the last they should take £1,000,000 of the loan, and the resource of the nation, long, however, proved very bonus or douceur thereupon should be received inadequate to the purpose for which it was esta- by them for the public. Thus government would blished. Ministers fonnd pretences for diverting only have £5,000,000 to borrow instead of it into other channels; and the diminution of the £6,000,000, and from such a mode of proceeding, national debt proceeded slowly during the inter- he said, it was evident great benefit would arise vals of peace, whilst each succeeding war in- to the public. This clause was received by Mr. creased it with great rapidity. To remedy this Pitt with the strongest marks of approbation, as evil, and restore the public credit, to which the was likewise another moved by Mr. Pulteney, American war had given a considerable shock, enabling the commissioners named in the Mr. Pitt conceived a plan for diminishing the bill to continue purchasing stock for the public debt by a fund which should be rendered unalie- when it was above par, unless otherwise directed nable to any other purpose.
by parliament. With these additional clauses In the session of 1786 he moved that the an the bill was read a third time on the 15th of nual surplus of the revenue above the expendi- May, and carried up to the lords, where it also ture should be raised, hy additional taxes, from passed without meeting with any material oppo£900,000 to £1,000,000 sterling, and that certain sition, and afterwards received the royal assent. commissioners should be vested with the full The operation of this bill surpassed perhaps power of disposing of this sum in the purchase the minister's most sanguine expectation. The of stock for the public, in their own names. fund was ably managed,
and judiciously applied; These commissioners should receive the annual and in 1793 the commissioners had extinguished million by quarterly payments of £250,000, some millions of the public debt. The war, to be issued out of the exchequer before any however, in which the nation was that year 1 other money, except the interest of the national volved, made it necessary to borrow immense debt itself; by these provisions, the fund would additional sums.