« ZurückWeiter »
frontiers; but the foreign troops entered on all Mamelukes, who had attached themselves to sides. While the west, where an insurrection the fortunes of Napoleon, expired under the had with much difficulty been excited, and the cruel hand of the Marseillais; while the Prosouth, aided by the king of Spain, were yielding testants were murdered at Nismes by some to the discipline of a few regiments, and to the wretches, who walked about boldly, encouraged power of patriotic confederations, Napoleon at by a chamber, which imposed silence on ArgenWaterloo lost his throne in a moment. Paris, son, their accuser. Enquiries pursued the miliwhere Fouché still was, capitulated; the repre- tary, and the amnesty was on the point of sentatives who, at the call of la Fayette, had becoming dreadful to France, if the ministry had renewed the declaration of rights, and enacted not opposed the chamber. Espionage and doeven at the cannon's mouth a free constitution, miciliary visits were for a long time the reprisals separated. Napoleon abdicating a second time, for some measures of a similar kind, adopted went to deliver himself up to the English, who during the hundred days. Fiery orators signalised imprisoned him in the midst of the ocean, at the themselves in the chamber by propositions, distance of near 5000 miles. The army retired little encouraging to the nation, or perhaps to beyond the Loire, to submit peaceably to its dis- the throne itself. In fine, the discontented state charge, and to sacrifice to the trauquillity of the of France, that had already manifested itself by country, even the irritated feelings of a disap- an insurrection in the Iserer, which had been painted hope. The allies proceeded to seize on severely repressed, warned the minister, that it and pillage a great part of France, and the king was time to stop this torrent, which grew more re-entered Paris on the 18th of July.
rapid the more it was confined. The foreign This disastrous epoch of the hundred days cabinets even showed a desire for this step. The was a very remarkable one. The spirit of liberty charter itself was threatened, and, to place things had roused itself in France, after a slumber of in safety, the ordinance of the 5th of September fifteen years; Napoleon was resisted; the army was renewed, and the chamber dissolved. and the National guards recollected the re-action A new assembly, elected under the influence of 1792 ; the citizens and soldiers began to ap- of a moderate policy, adopted, notwithstanding proach one another; the military again became the opposition of the aristocratic party, a law fur citizens; Napoleon was no longer their idol, he elections agreeable to the charter: this was the had been only a rallying point imposed by cir- chief requisite of the representative government. cumstances; they resolved, in fine, for the cause Prosecutions gradually ceased; the public spirit of their country, and of liberty, both of which revived; the ministry, without granting all that they had too much forgotten. Some few places was claimed, seemed at least to allow the people held out for a length of time, and an Austriar to hope. Other institutions, conformable with army, that was besieging Huningen, were as the charter, were promised; the administration tonished at being stopped in their course by an became more lenient, and mutual instruction invalid and a few veterans. The situation of the was encouraged and already made great proking, on the whole, was a critical one; he en- gress. Fifteen members, introduced into the tered his capital, preceded by irritated foreigners, chamber by the new law, strengthened the conwho exacted an enormous contribution, part of stitutional majority; salutary measures, with rewhich was paid on the spot by means of a gard to military promotion, were defended with forced loan; cannon was planted on his palace, talent by the conscientious minister, Gouvion and the greatest disorder prevailed in France. Saint Cyr; and the frontiers were delivered from The king proclaimed, on the 29th of June, that 100,000 foreigners, whose presence had given ali his government had perhaps been faulty in some its force to the re-action. Still, however, that respects, promised to add to the charter all the system of policy which, while it sought support guarantees which secure its execution, and on the right and the left, was finally influenced declared that the representative government rather by private interest, and the advantage of should be maintained. The rest belonged to a set of pensioners, than by public opinion, inbis ministers and to circumstances; the respon- sinuated itself slowly. Expenses swelled, notsibility of the former has been unnoticed in the withstanding extraordinary public burdens; but charter, but it ought not to escape the notice of the frank opposition avowed by the nation marked history.
these abuses, and expressed their wants. The chamber of 1815, called the Unsearch The aristocratic party, which appeared to have ables, was nominated by the yet incomplete assumed, in their parliamentary tactics, the lanelectoral colleges, and the knights of St. Louis, guage of the liberals, and implored in vain by who were united to it. It seemed as if it gave their secret notices for the aid of a foreign power, the signal for a re-action of the most furious foresaw that they would soon be reduced in the passions. The tribunals, the military commis- chamber to the rank they held in the nation; sions, and the provostal courts, shed the blood of they therefore stirred up opposition to the eleca great number of persons, accused of political toral law. The chamber of peers, which ull then crimes. Denunciators, partly some of the old had excited little notice, received the proposition Jacobins, filled the places of the former func- for modifying this law-a proposition which a tionaries, and the standing commissions were re- ministry, appointed at this crisis, rejected; and newed. The impunity of assassination organised, sixty new peers were created to displace the in the south, a set of royalists called green-men, majority. The ministry resting on public opinion, who made the country tremble. Brune killed a satisfactory law on the freedom of the press himself at Avignon; Ramel, sent in the name of was adopted, and the journals became free. Soon, the king, was assassinated; some unfortunate however, an injudicious discussion on the re
calling of the banished, and some disturbance, death of Napoleon. A few years before, this that had occurred in the law school, broke the event would have convulsed the world : at this unanimity which prevailed between the ministry period it only produced the effect of the resoundand the liberal majority. Some persons, un- ing of the far distant, but still formidable storm. doubtedly with the best intentions, contemplated The new election in 1821, reinforced the right the alteration of the law of elections, until the side of the chamber, already so numerous. At ministers, St. Cyr, Dessoles, and Louis, refusing the opening of the session, the majority overto take part in this business, retired (1820) with threw the ministers to whom it was indebted for popularity for their only reward. The Spanish the law, and some of the presidents, under whose revolution, which then broke out, and the re- direction it had been chosen. A minister, whom jection of a deputy legally elected, again exas- they deemed more decided, had been named. perated the new schism.
The ex-ministers, according to custom, retreated Suddenly a prince of the royal family, the to the chamber of peers, or received appointDuke de Berri, fell beneath the knife of a fana- ments as ministers of state. A very severe and tical assassin; and a sad presentiment seized on restrictive law now passed, with regard to the all upright minds, to whom the experience of the press, subjecting authors to the judgment of a past is not useless, and who well know, how jury, and a new law on the publication of newspower can form a party for its support from a papers took the place of the censorship. A bloody robe. Two laws immediately suspended budget of more than 900,000,000, or much above individual liberty, and the liberty of the press. any that had been proposed in times when the A minister who, notwithstanding the new attack kingdom was at its greatest height of power, on the law of election, preserved a popularity passed without difficulty, supported by the mathat he owed to the remembrance of the 5th of jority of the right side: while still the left conSeptember, M. Decaze, was overthrown. His tinued to render itself worthy of its popularity, successors, with the majority of five voices (their and of the national gratitude, by its devoted own) passed a law, which establishes two kinds conduct, its fine talents, and its indefatigable of elections, and gives the richest electors the zeal in defending the general interests. right of voting twice. Some outrages committed Louis XVIII. died in 1824. Our review of on the deputies, who refused their consent to this the factions and changes of modern French law, occasioned reprisals and numerous mobs; history has been perhaps already continued too on which several days after, the cavalry made a far-the events are hardly cooled from the crucharge and dispersed them. Soon (1821) the cible in which they have taken their apparent ministry brought before the court of peers a great form. It will suffice to say that this prince was number of military men, accused of a formidable truly a Frenchman: that at least in his second conspiracy. In this proceeding were seen, though short exile he learned much, and that among others, some of those men, known by the France has resumed and retained a power of name of exciting agents, who have done much teaching her future kings more.
.-She will be fnischief in every period of the revolution, and free. who make the police an instrument of promoting Our intelligent readers will observe that the confusion. As to the legislative session, it pre- whole of the preceding History of France has sented only the continued triumph of a strong been recast, on the basis of the most esteemed majority, introduced into the chamber of depu- French authorities, for the present work: we have ties by the new law.
in some cases simply translated particular pasDuring this year the Neapolitan and Pied- sages, and exercised a supervisory montese nations, which had established among whole; conceiving that an intelligent and modethem the representative government, and the rate French historian would be able to give us constitution of the Cortes, were subdued and the fairest and best digested account of French chastised by the Austrians. It was also in the history. . year 1821, that the news reached Europe of the
France, Isle of, the name of an important thern part is level : its southern hilly and better province of France before the revolution. It adapted to pasturage. Its principal rivers are comprised Paris, and probably received its name the Saone, the Doubs, the Oignon, and the from being surrounded by the Seine, the Marne, Louve; along the banks of the first two are the Oise, the Aisne, and the Ourcq. It is in many iron works; and in the vicinity of Salins general level, fertile, and populous; but is now extensive salt works. Franche Comté has bedivided into the departments of the Aisne, Oise, longed to France since 1674, and was confirmed SEINE, Seine and Oise, and Seine and Marne, to that country by the peace of Nimeguen. Its which see.
capital town was Besançon. FRANCE, Isle of, or Mauritius, an island in FRANCHEMONT, or FRANCHIMONT, a town the Indian Ocean. See MAURITIUS.
and district of France, in the department of FRANCFORT. See FRANKFORT.
Ourte ; formerly a marquisate of Germany, in
from slavery or any onerous duty. Frankness;
generosity; district; extent of jurisdiction; to either there or at any other public places, as at make free; to keep free.
bridges, wharfs, or the like; which tolls must Certain, thought she, whom that this thing displese have a reasonable cause of commencement (as I rekke not for here I him assure
in consideration of repairs, or the like), else the To love him best of any creature
franchise is illegal and void : or lastly, to have Though he no more hadde than his sherte.
a forest, chase, park, warren, or fishery, endowed Lo, pitee runneth sore in gentil herte
with privileges or royalty. Usage may uphold Here may ye seen, how excellent franchise
a franchise without either record or creation, allo women is, whan they hem nawe avise.
lowance or confirmation; but it hath been adChaucer. The Merchantes Tale.
judged that grants of franchises, made before There are other privileges granted unto most of the the time of memory, ought to have allowance corporations, that they shall not be travelled forth of within the time of memory, in the king's bench; their own franchises. Spenser's State of Ireland.
or by some confirmation on record; and such I lose no honour
ancient grants shall be construed as the law In seeking to augment it; but still keep
was when they were made, and not as it hath My bosom franchised, and allegiance clear.
been since altered; but franchises granted within Shakspeare.
time of imemory are pleadable without any alThey granted them markets, and cther franchises, lowance c confirmation; and, if they have been and erected corporate towns among them.
allowed a confirmed, the franchises may be Davies on Ireland.
claimed force thereof, without showing the His gracious edict the same franchise yields charter. To all the wild increase of woods and fields.
Franchises may be forfeited and seized for Dryden.
mis-user, or non-user, and, when there are many FRANCHISE, is also used for an asylum or points, a mis-user of any one will make a forfeisanctuary, where people are secure of their per- ture of the whole. For contempt of the king's sons, &c. Churches and monasteries in Spain writ, in a county palatine, &c., the liberties may are franchises for criminals; so were they anci- be seized, and the offenders fined; and the temently in England, till they were abused to such poralities of a bishop have been adjudged to be a degree that there was a necessity for abolish- seized until he satisfied the king for such a coning the custom. One of the most remarkable tempt. capitulars made by Charlemagne in his palace FRANCIA (Francis), a celebrated Bolognese of Heristal, in 779, was that relating to the fran- painter, born in 1450." He was first a jeweller, chises of churches, by which he forbad any pro- afterwards a graver of coins and medals; and, vision to be carried to criminals retired into applying at last to painting, obtained great repuchurches for refuge.
tation by his works, particularly by a painting FRANCHISE, and Liberty, in law, are used as of St. Sebastian, whom he had drawn bound to synonymous terms; for 'a royal privilege, or a tree, with his hands tied over his head. branch of the king's prerogative, subsisting in Hearing much of the works of Raffaelle he the hands of a subject.' Being therefore derived greatly desired to see some work of so celebrated from the crown, they must arise from the king's an artist; and Raffaelle, having painted a St. grant; or, in some cases, may be held by pre- Cecilia for the church of St. Giovanni del scription, which presupposes a grant. We shall Monte at Bologna, wrote to Francia, requesting briefly mention some of the principal kinds of him to see it properly fixed. The letter was franchise, premusing only, that they may be received with rapture; but when he came to exvested either in natural persons or bodies poli- amine the picture, the sight of so much perfection tic; in one man, or in many: but the same in design, grace, expression, and exquisite identical franchise, that has before been granted finishing, struck Francia with astonishment, and to one, cannot be bestowed on another, for that threw him into a state of melancholy; and the would prejudice the former grant. A county feeling of how much Raffaelle was superior to Palatine is a franchise vested in several persons. himself is said to have occasioned his death, in It is likewise a franchise for a number of per- 1518. sons to be incorporated and subsist as a body FRANCIS (Philip),D. D., an ingenious writer, politic; with a power to maintain perpetual of Irish extraction, his father being dean of a succession, and do other corporate acts: and cathedral in that kingdom. He was more dis each individual member of such corporation is tinguished as a translator than as an original also said to have a franchise. Other franchises writer. His versions of Horace and Demosare, to hold a court-leet; to have a manor or thenes have been justly valued; the former is lordship; or, at least, to have a lordship para- accompanied with learned and useful notes. He mount: to have waifs, estrays, treasure-trove, was also a considerable political writer: and is royal fish, forfeitures, and deodands: to bave a supposed to have been employed by the governcourt of one's own, or liberty of holding pleas ment; for which service he was appointed rector and trying causes ; to have cognisance of pleas; of Barrow in Suffolk, and chaplain of Chelsea which is still a greater liberty, being an exclusive hospital. He was also the author of two trageright, so that no other court shall try causes dies, Eugenia, and Constantia. He died at arising within that jurisdiction : to have a baili- Bath in March 1773, leaving a son, then one of wic, or liberty exempt from the sheriff of the the supreme council at Bengal. county ; wherein the grantee only, and his Francis (Sir (Philip), a celebrated whig officers, are to execute all processes: to have a politician of modern times, was the son of the fair or market; with the right of taking toll, last mentioned, and was born in Ireland in 1740.
He was educated partly by his father, and after- beginning of the eighteenth century, the whole wards at St. Paul's school; on leaving which Franciscan order was divided into two parties; he became a clerk in the secretary of state's the one called Spirituals, who embraced the office He went out to Portugal with the British severe discipline and absolute poverty of St. envoy in 1760; and on his return obtained a Francis; and the other, Brethren of the Comsituation in the war-office under lord Barrington. munity, who insisted on mitigating the austere He was dismissed, or relinquished the post, in injunctions of their founder. These wore long, consequence of a quarrel with that nobleman; loose, and good habits, with large hoods; the and in 1773 he went to the East Indies, when former were clad in a strait, coarse, and short he became a member of the Bengal council, and dress, pretending that this dress was enjoined by distinguished himself by his opposition to the St. Francis, and that no power on earth had a measures of governor Hastings, the violence of right to alter it. Neither the moderation of which at length occasioned a duel, in wł ich Mr. Clement V. nor the violence of John XXII. Hastings was wounded. In 1781 Mr. Francis could appease the tumult occasioned by these returned to England, and was chosen M. P. for two parties : however their rage subsided from the borough of Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight. A. D. 1329. In 1368 these two parties were In the house of commons he joined the oppo- formed into two large bodies, which still subsist, sition; and, on the impeachment of Mr. Has- comprehending the whole Franciscan order ; tings, actively supported his accuser: He came viz. the conventual brethren, and the brethren of into office with the whig administrat''?; where the observances or observation, from whom he was honored with the order of the bath. He sprung the Capuchins and Recollects. The died in 1818, having published several clever Franciscans are said to have coine over to England political pamphlets
, and to him has been some- in 1224, and to have had their first house at what plausibly assigned the credit of having Canterbury, and their second at London ; but written the famous Letters of Junius. See there is no certain account of their being here Junius.
till Henry VII. built two or three houses for Francis (St). the founder of the society of them. At the dissolution of the monasteries, the the Franciscans, was the son of a merchant of conventual Franciscans bad about fifty-five Assisi, in the province of Umbria. Having led houses, which were under seven wardenships; a dissolute life, he was reclaimed by a fit of viz. those of London, York, Cambridge, Bristol, sickness, and in 1208, hearing the passage Oxford, Newcastle, and Worcester. quoted, Matt. x. 9, 10. *Provide neither gold, FRANCISCO (St.), a capacious town and nor silver,' &c., he was led to consider a volun- harbour on the coast of Brasil, on the south tary and absolute poverty as the essence of the frontier of the province of St. Paul. The bay gospel, and to prescribe it as a sacred rule to has three fortified entrances, of which that to himself and those who followed him. See the south is the most frequented. The inhabiFRANCISCANS. He died in 1226.
tants in the neighbouring country, are chiefly FRANCISCANS, in ecclesiastical history, re- employed in cutting timber, and ship-building; ligious of the order of St. Francis, founded by in which many negroes are also employed. The him in 1209. This society, which appeared to town is situated on a small island at the entrance Innocent III. extremely adapted to the state of of the bay, in lat. 26° 153'. Behind it, is a the church; was solemnly approved and con- ridge of mountains, which rise to the height of firmed by Honorius III. in 1223. Francis, 4000 feet. Over this impassable barrier a road through an excessive humility, would not suffer is constructing, at an incredible expense, which the monks of his order to be called fratres, i. e. when it is finished will be of great importance brethren or friars, but fraterculi, i. e. little bre- to this port. thren, or friars minor, by which denomination Francisco Rio, a large river of Brasil, they still continue to be distinguished. They which has its rise in the province of Minas are also called gray friars, on account of the Geraes, between 200 and 210 of S. lat., in that color of their clothing, and Cordeliers, &c. low valley which is formed in the interior, The Franciscans and Dominicans were zealous beyond the first ridge of the Andes, which here and active friends to the papal hierarchy. In run in a direction nearly north and south. It 1287 Matthew of Aqua Sparta, being elected runs north for many miles, with an inclination general of the order, discouraged the ancient to the north-north-east, and then, turning east, discipline of the Franciscans, and indulged his after a course of about 800 miles it falls into monks in abandoning even the appearance of the Atlantic, in lat. 6° 55' S., and is the bounpoverty. This conduct raised the indignation of dary between Bahia and Pernambuco. the spiritual or austere Franciscans; so that from FRANCKLIN (Thomas), D.D., a miscella1290 schisms arose in an order that had been neous critic, and writer, was the son of a printer famous for its pretended disinterestedness and and bookseller of Covent Garden, where he was humility. Such was the enthusiastic frenzy of born in 1721. His father, who was printer of the Franciscans, that they impiously maintained, the Craftsman, devoted him to the church, and that St. Francis was a second Christ, in all re he was educated at Westminster school, and spects similar to the first; and that their insti- Trinity College, Cambridge. He afterwards tution and discipline were the true gospel of was an usher in the school in which he was eduJesus. Accordingly, Albizi, a Franciscan of cated, and in 1750 became Greek professor at Pisa, published a book in 1383, with the applause Cambridge. He first appeared as an author in of his order, entitled, The Book of the Confor a translation of The Epistles of Phalaris, 1749, mities of St. Francis with Jesus Christ! In the and of Cicero's tract De Natura Deorum
About the same time he published An Enquiry fruits; but the borders are full of woods and mto the Astronomy and Anatomy of the Anci- barren mountains. The majority of the people ents, reprinted in 1775, 8vo. In 1759 appeared are Lutherans ; but there are also many Calvinhis Sophocles, 2 vols. 4to. which is allowed to ists, Roman Catholics, and Jews. The Franks, be a fair and forcible translation of that great who conquered and gave name to France, came poet. This was followed by a Dissertation on from this province. See FRANCE. Nurembur; Ancient Tragedy: he is also supposed to have is the capital. aided Smollet in the Critical Review, and in the FRANEKER, FRANEQUER, or FRANKER, a translation of the works of Voltaire. In 1757 town of the Netherlands, in north Friesland. he received from Trinity College the livings of It has a castle, and many magnificent buildings, Ware and Thundridge in Hertfordshire, and and stands on the canai between Haarlem and published in 1765 a volume of popular Sermons Lewarden. There is also a university or Atheon the relative Duties. The next year he pro- næum, once famous for its learned professors ; duced at Drury-lane theatre the tragedy of the particularly Adrian Metius, George Pasor, Earl of Warwick, borrowed without acknow- Pierius Winsemus, &c. It lies nine miles west ledgment from the French of La Harpe; and of Lewarden, and five east of Harlingen. Po although in 1767 he was made one of the king's pulation 3400. chaplains, and in 1770 D. D., he paid a constant FRAʼNGIBLE, adj. lat. frango. Fragile; attention to the stage, by the occasional produc- brittle ; easily broken. tion of dramas, chiefly adapted from the French, Though it seems the solidest wood, if wrought beand on one occasion descended even to farce. fore it be well seasoned, it will shew itself very fram In 1776 he was presented to the living of Brasted gible.
Boyle. in Surrey. In 1780 Dr. Francklin published his FRA’NION, n. s. Sax. freon, a lover; a excellent translation of Lucian, in 2 vols. 4to. paramour; a boon companion. and died March 15th, 1784. Besides the works
First, by her side did sit the hold Sansloy, already mentioned, he was the author of a hu
Fit mate for such a mincing minion, morous piece entitled A Letter on Lecture Who in her looseness took exceeding joy, ships, An Ode on the Institution of the Royal Might not be found a frankes franion. Academy, and threa volumes of posthumous
Faerie Queen. Sermons.
FRANK, adj;. l. Fr. franc; Germ.fi ank; FRANCOIS, Cape, a town on the north FRANK'LY, adv. is coast of Hispaniola, and one of the principal FRANK'NESS, n. s. ) frech, bold, and frei, free. towns of the island. Its port is advantageously Liberal; generous; not niggardly; unreserved; situated on a cape at the edge of a large plain, free without restraint; without conditions ; sixty miles long and twelve broad. It is screened without payment. Frank is not, however, quite too much from the land wind by the mountains, synonymous with candid, free, open, and plain : and thus left exposed to the unmitigated heat of Frankness is a voluntary effusion of the mind the sun.
The plain on which it stands is well between equals: candor is a debt paid to watered and cultivated. Here are straight roads, justice from one independent being to another. forty feet broad, lined with hedges of lime and The frank, free, and open, all speak without lemon trees, intermixed with long avenues of constraint; but the frank man is not imperti other trees, and leading to plantations which rent like the free man, nor indiscreet like the produce a greater quantity of sugar than any open man. See Crabb. other spot of the same size in the world. The Thou hast it won ; for it is of frank gift, town once possessed several elegant public And he will care for all the rest to shift. buildings, such as the Jesuits' College, converted
Hubberde since the revolution into a government house;
Oh, were it but my life, the governor's house, the barracks, the arsenal,
I'd throw it down for your deliverance, the theatre, and two hospitals. The port is one
As frankly as a piz. of the most secure and convenient in the whole
Shakspeare. Meusure for Measure.
If ever any malice in your heart island. It is exposed to no wind but the north
Were hid against me, now forgive me frankly. east.
Id. Henry VIII. Cape François was founded in 1670, and was The ablest men that ever were, have had all ab burnt in 1793 by the people of color. It has
openness and frankness of dealing, and a name of cersuffered severely since the intestine commotions tainty and veracity.
Bacon. by which the island has been distracted. Pre The moister sorts of trees yield little moss, fortes viously it contained 8000 inhabitants, and was reason of the frank putting up of the sap into the the last town retained by the French in the boughs. island in 1803. It was called Cape Henry
He entered very frankly into those new designs,
Clarender. by Christophe. Long. 72° 16' W., lat. 196 which were contrived at court. 46' N.
The lords mounted their servants upon their oes FRANCONIA, a circle of the old German listed themselves, amounted to a body of two hundred
horses ; and they, with the volunteers, wbo franking Empire, bounded on the north by Meissen and
and fifty horse. Thuringia, on the south by Bavaria and Suabia,
When the Condé duke had some eclaircissement on the east by Bohemia and the Upper Pala- with the duke, in which he made all the protestatioas tinate, and on the west by the Lower, and the of his sincere affection, the other received his proceselectorate of Mentz; being eighty-eight miles tations with all contempt; and declared with a very from north to south, and ninety-five from east to unnecessary frankness, that he would have no friend. west. The middle is fertile in corn, wine, and ship with him.