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tain in their turn; and some royalists rising in them to find employment for a multitude of the south organised themselves into companies persons, to whom insurrection had become a of assassins. The guillotine devoured those kind of profession, in which they had regularly who had fed it; vengeance continued the reign received high wages. They endeavoured to turn of terror, and yet the festival of Marat's apo- their attention to the mass of the people, who theosis continued to be observed. In the midst wished for repose, and to keep that middle of this confusion the powder magazine at Gre course so slippery in France, which, as it inclines nelle was blown up.
sometimes to the right and sometimes to the The Jacobins in 1795 made some further strug- left, has been called la bascule. The mandats gles for power : the Thermidorians opposed to softened a little the shock, that the repayment them the golden youth of Freron, an armed as- of the assignats occasioned. The royalist massociation of all those, who had to avenge some sacres in the south ceased by degrees: and La victim of the system of terror, and who sung the Vendée, where so many thousands of the French • awakening of the people.' On the 12th of Ger- had been buried, was pacified by the moderation minal an assemblage of the people, excited to and activity of Huche, a young hero, who knew violence by the famine, was dispersed, and how to negociate as well as to conquer. The seventeen Mountain men were arrested; Billaud administration was organised according to the and Collot were transported to Guiana. The principles of liberty; and the republic was no remainder of the Mountain, however, obtained more a vain word. The metric system equalised some advantage on the 1st of Prairial, by getting the weights and measures. The fine idea of possession of the hall of the Convention, where central schools, the focuses of instruction, free the deputy Feraud, who had been taken for and worthy of the age, was executed, while in Freron, was assassinated. Already had the ter- its external affairs the directory followed the rible Faubourg advanced in a column. The bold policy of the Convention; and bearing at Thermidorian committees were conquerors at last least the promise of liberty to the vanquished, it without striking a blow; the 31st of May was undertook the emancipation of Europe from cruelly avenged; and six Mountain men, doomed absolute power and the feudal system. In Gerto death, put an end to their own lives. A many Moreau triumphed by retiring, and renpeace was then concluded with the Vendéans, who dered himself illustrious by a retreat, interspersed formed the hope of an approaching restoration. with victories. If Corsica was again taken by
The Convention, who were enacting a new the English, an expedition, conducted by Humconstitution, decreed, that two-thirds of its mem- bert, intimidated that power in Ireland. Buobers should of right enter into the new legis- naparte now at the age of twenty-six, in his lative body. This measure, rejected by the brilliant campaign in Italy, took the Milanese electors of Paris, was the pretext for an insur- from the Austrians, and overturned the ancient rection. The sections, weary of the Convention, and glorious aristocracy of Venice. Marching and a few Vendéans marched against it on the directly towards terrified Vienna, he only slop13th of Vendemiaire in the year 3; it called the ped to sign the fundamental articles of the Jacobins to its assistance, when young Buona- treaty, which declared, at Campo-Formio, the parte saved it at the head of some troops. The superiority of France over her enemies; and Convention also triumphed without. Prussia founded in Italy two provisional republics. and Spain requested peace; Hoche retook the The remembrance of the conventional despolines; Jourdan recovered, at Watignies and at tism had occasioned a restraint of the executive Fleuris, that Flanders which a decree re-united power, that was accompanied with excessive disto France. Holland conquered by Pichegru in trust. It was feeble and poor: instead of dishis famous campaign on the ice, where some playing that royal magnificence which the French hussars took some vessels, was formed into the admire, while they are paying for it, it lived Batavian republic. But Pitt and England as upon nothing, and met, with a few light taxes, well as Austria, remained the enemies of France. the expenses of numerous armies. Foreigners It is said that Barrére being interrogated upon spent more money in France, to corrupt and the severe measures pursued by the famous com- divide it, than it had to subsist upon. The liberty mittee, replied, ' It repulsed the enemy, would of the press too was now more entire than it had you have done as much? This justification is ever been. The journals of the opposite parties definite, certainly, but it is fearful.
declaimed against the government at their plea
sure; and blame or ridicule was poured upon Sect. VIII.-BUONAPARTE'S ELEVATION.
its acts, or its members
"In France people The most enlightened civilians of the Con- love the power which dazzles, and which has a vention, among whom was the learned and vir- lofty bearing; a republic is too citizen-like for tuous Daunou, modelled the representative them. The royalist party, organised by the system after that of the United States; two elec- numerous agents of the Bourbons, conspired at tive councils, one of the Five hundred and the Clichy, and endeavoured to make a monk of some other of the ancients, were to be re-elected every general. To the simple-hearted and credulous year by thirds. The executive power was confided Vendéans succeeded the Chouans ; nocturnal to five directors, elected by the councils, and re- insurgents, who infested the high roads. The newed by a fifth : the directory found, on their Anarchists made an attempt, at the camp of succession to an anarchical despotism, 30,000,000 Grenelle, to raise the Mountain party again; of assignats without value, some distrusts while the new election brought into the counand citations distracting the people, a civil cils a majority of royalists, who concealed, in some war and a foreign war. It became necessary for measure, their design of overturning the directory
Two of the directors themselves (Carnot was while the momentary confusion increased, a man one) were in this plot. The three others had was wanted to grasp the falling reins of power. their choice, either to commit the crime of vio- Buonaparte, informed of this state of things, did lating the constitution, or to suffer it to fall. not hesitate to leave the army in Egypt; where They violated it in order to defend it. Supported he also left Kleber, 'the just,' in a desperate by the army of Italy, from whence they had situation; but the opportunity was a fine one sent for Augereau, and by that of Hoche, they for him. His disembarkation surprised every seized, in military style, upon the legislative body: he was received with great pomp, although body, and fifty-one representatives, the two direc- his conduct in returning was, in the estimation of tors, and some journalists were condemned to cool and reflecting men, that of a coward and a transportation on the 18th of Fructidor. “Mer- rebel. Sieyes now took from the republican, lin and Francis de Neufchateau replaced the pro- Bernadotte, the post of minister of war. A conscribed directors.
spiracy was pretended; the councils were called General Buonaparte, who had rendered him together at St. Cloud, and Buonaparte put himself popular by his victories, received at Paris self at the head of the directory's guard in order that homage, which must have excited his am to overturn it. He gained over the ancients by bition, and which now brought it into action. promising to make them senators; but the reIt was already evident that he was aiming to sistance of the Five-hundred disconcerted him play the part of Cæsar, when he made the for a moment: he grew pale and hesitated in the directory adopt the project of an expedition as sight of the danger he had created for himself
, adventurous as the crusades; the army of Italy and which the president Lucien, his brother, was embarked at Toulon. In Europe the lofti- alone succeeded in turning aside by presence ness of the republican plenipotentiaries had of mind. They resumed their courage for him: embroiled France, a second time, with all her the grenadiers, with bayonets fixed, rushed in neighbours; the gold of England had united upon the national representatives and dispersed Russia and Austria in a coalition (1798); them. On the 18th of Brumaire (10th of NoSuwaroff was marching upon Italy, and the vember, 1799), Buonaparte became a usurper directory had sent Massena into Switzerland, to and Sieyes a dupe. humble the aristocratic despotism of Bern by Buonaparte now digested a constitution which protecting the democracy of the Pays de Vaud, was intended to deliver the power to a consul when the news reached them, that the French (that is to say, himself), assisted, for form's sake, fleet had been destroyed at Abo cir, while the by two under-consuls; and a mute legislative army was victorious by land. Nelson returned assembly passed the laws, under which a tributo Naples to enjoy his triumph, and hang the nate alone had the right of speaking. A public ablest men of the country at the instigation of the body, called the conservative senate, was paid to queen. A detachment of Frenchmen quickly approve of all that was done. • What shows, succeeded in chastising Rome and Naples, and say her own historians, ' how they make a jest of founded (1799) the Roman republic. Italy, every thing in France, is, that they still preserved however, was soon retaken from Moreau, and the name of a republic. Buonaparte, who had Joubert's army was reduced to great feebleness. already discovered the way of fascinating the The Austro-Russians and the army of the emi- nation by his enterprising disposition, his supegrants already were on their march towards France. rior talents, his prodigious fire, and his skilfui But the fortune of the day was again changed : charlatanism, met with more opposition in the Massena routed the allied army at Zurich. Italy army, where the republican spirit was still prewas reconquered, and new and flattering accounts served. He left that of Egypt to the English reached France of the expedition to Egypt. and the Turks; only some feeble remains of it Bruno, in the mean time, had beaten the English returned to France. A little while after he sent and the Russians in Holland, where he re-es- to St. Domingo, in order to repress the indepentablished the Batavian republic.
dence of the negroes, 40,000 of the old soldiers France triumphed, but some intriguing per- of the republic. The burning sky of the tropics sons were preparing a revolution by sowing the killed numbers of them; for Hayti knew how to seeds of trouble in the nation and the public defend the liberty of which she now shows bercouncils; the latter of which opposed or per- self worthy. The only trophy ever gained by verted all the measures of the directory. The France in this ruinous expedition was the black persecution and transporting of the priests ex- chief Toussaint Louverture, whom Buonaparte cited discontent, as also did the reduction of two- suffered to perish miserably in a strong fortress, thirds of the debt. Speculators, who had en- where he was immured. riched themselves by stock-jobbing; the royalists, Six months had hardly passed away since who wished to get into favor with the monarchy, Buonaparte became consul when he unexpectexpecting its restoration; the contractors, who edly passed the St. Bernard, to fall upon the had introduced licentiousness, and corruption, Austrians, and gained the battle of Marengo, into the expenses of the unfortunate soldiers; where the virtuous Desaix met his death in generals and governors, who had acted as judges giving him victory. During this time Moreau, in foreign countries, all cried out that France commanding the army of the Rhine, triumphed had need of a stronger government; that is, one at Hohenlinden, and threatened Vienna. "The that might ennoble and decorate them. The peace concluded at Luneville further aggrandised systematic Sieyes had at this time been called to France. Italy and Switzerland placed themselves the directory; on the 30th of Prairial, year 7, the under her protection ; Piedmont became French councils had introduced three members; and territory; when Spain, and England herself,
signed the peace of Amiens, March 22nd, 1802. tuted the eagle for the tri-colored fag; and
two emperors, Alexander and Francis, concordat, which re-established the Catholic were beaten at Austerlitz. The emperor of clergy. An act still more politic and just fol- Germany was now compelled to submit to the lowed this : he put an end to the proscription of terms of his conqueror. Joseph Buonaparte the emigrants, and opened the country to them ; was sent to Naples with the title of king, while giving them possession of such part of their pro- Louis was placed, as king, in Holland, and perty as had not been sold. A concert of sin- Prussia lost her Rhenish provinces. The confecere praises now arose to him; the senate had deration of the Rhine was confirmed to Napoagreed to continue the consulship during ten leon, in order to supply him with soldiers. years, but this true and all powerful dictator Prussia, at this period, still trembling for her now procured a popular vote, which declared own safety, was once more excited by England him consul for life. It was at this time (1803) and Russia to resistance; upon which, Napoleon that he proved his respect for legitimacy, by de- transports his immense army across the contimanding of the Bourbons a cession of their right nent, and in less than one month arrives at Berto the throne.
lin, having gained the battle of Jena. In that Soon after he avenged their refusal, while he city he launched his famous interdict against the disgraced himself indelibly, by the seizure of the English trade; and, shortly after, the Russian young Bourbon Condé, the duke d'Enghien, army was crushed at Eylaui and at Friedland: whom he caused to be shot (see our article En- finally, the peace of Tilsit confirms Napoleon Guren). Pichegru, and Cadoudal, who wished to in the highest degree of power which he could restore the Bourbons, and Moreau, who impa- reach; Prussia, punished for her temporising tiently submitted to the yoke of a man who was policy, is occupied by the military: Jerome his equal, were said at this time to be implicated Buonaparte is installed king of Westphalia, and in a conspiracy against Buonaparte; and, though Poland forms the hope of raising herself from the punishment of the two former excited little the ashes of her freedom, under the auspices of interest, the latter, surrounded with republican the great emperor. Never had the fortune of a glory, was considered, as it were,
man been more brilliant; the whole world was tative of his brethren in arms, who discovered struck with astonishment at the recital of victowith bitter regret that they had shed their blood ries so rapid, and seemed to bow itself before so only to raise a dictator to power.
colossal a power. But the ambition of Napoleon The sympathy for Moreau threatened a dan- did not permit him to stop here; Europe was the gerous ferment; but the camp at Boulogne, devoted prey of his ambition, and every freeman which was made to resound with a threatened was his enemy. No sovereign could be more descent upon England, created a diversion: absolute; he regarded other men as insignificant Moreau was forgotten. Buonaparte had the po- cyphers, destined to increase the amount of that licy of astonishing the people by numerous unity which centred in himself; their wealth, changes of sights, and keeping the French conti- their thoughts, their life-all was nothing. He nually at bay. He immediately obtained the wished to fill the pages of history with the account decree of the imperial crown from the Tribunate, of his time, and he has succeeded; there was in which Carnot signalised himself by his resist no further anxiety about France. apce, as the polytechnic school also did; and It has been often said, that Buonaparte rethese were the last sighs of expiring Liberty: the compensed France for the loss of liberty and senate bowed itself, notwithstanding the opposi- repose by the illusions of his glory; but nothing tion of the patriotic Lambrechts and the virtuous can make up for the want of liberty. It is true, Gregoire, the friend of the blacks. Napoleon that, always ready to suffer herself to be seduced demanded the adherence of the public function- by the false glory of conquest, France appeared aries, and of the army; an empty formality, to to offer her shoulders to the yoke; but it is not which the people expressed little eagerness to less a crime, on that account, to have enslaved add theirs. The pope now proceeded to Paris her. We shall see Napoleon soon after laboring to crown the emperor, and to sanction that which to bring back the ancient order of things, by the royalists must have considered as a usurpa- abolishing all the customs and effacing all the tion. Most of them, however, applauded, no images of liberty. The tribunate, which existed more expecting to find a monk in Buonaparte; only in name, and which had been honored with they saluted him king, when Napoleon substi- the discussion of the civil law, Napoleon closed;
ne made a monopoly of public education, in stupid nation could achieve, when dircted by which youth were taught the glories of the em- enlightened men, and roused to a pitch of fanaperor, as children are taught their catechism. ticism by the priests; and yet to this unjust agSome of the priests declared from the pulpit, gression Spain owes the dawn of liberty she has that he had a divine mission. He created a mi- seen; and Europe her deliverance from his iron litary nobility, something like that which existed grasp. Suddenly Napoleon was before the time of Henry IV.; and his generals, (A. D. 1809), obliged to transport his powerful adorned with ribands, endowed with pensions, army to Vienna; where, after having beaten and enriched with the spoils of an enemy's Austria at Essling and at Wagram, he decountry, respected him as their chief. They manded Maria Louisa in marriage. To accomwere no longer those poor leaders, who led the plish this adulterous alliance Josephine BeauFrench on foot to the defence of their country; harnais was divorced; and an arch-duchess the times of the patriots Jourdan and Perignon espouses a man whom the nobility of Germany had passed away; Hoche, Desaix, Marceau, Du- looked upon as an upstart. Half-a-dozen kings gomier, and Kleber were dead: yet the army were present at the marriage; and Napoleon, a could still reckon in the list of its worthies such year after, was presented with a son, whom he men as Lecourbe, Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, Lefebvre, decorated, from his cradle, with the title of king Dejeau, Desolles, and Lannes, who preserved of Rome. their dignity, and were not cowed by their The French departments now (1811), extended new master. Some of the old Jacobins, strangely from Rome to Hamburg : all 'Europe bowed to decorated with feudal titles, and some emigrants Napoleon but it could not contain bim. He installed in the antechambers, rivalled one undertook to chastise Russia, which had just another in submission, and in prostrating them- broken the blockade; and the English, whose atselves around him. He re-established the im- tempt upon Belgium had been repulsed by the posts, the abuses and prodigalities of the ancient national guards, effected a coalition between monarchy. The aids and monopolies re-appeared Russia and Sweden, which had just elected Berunder the name of united duties. The press nadotte her crown prince. Napoleon now urges was kept under by a merciless censorship; juries the whole of Europe upon Russia : 400,000 were perverted; prefects and other petty subaltern men, who might have crowned him on the way despots assumed the place of free administra- emperor of Constantinople, arrived in time to wittions of justice; the emperor nominated all the ness the heroic and ever to be lamented burning public functionaries, and all, even down the of Moscow. Nature at length subdued the pride of field-keepers, were inviolable: the council of state, a man who never started at impossibilities; and, a dependent and removable body, was the sole while an unusual severity of cold annibilated his arbiter of their responsibility. The election of superb army, he who had dated his decrees from the deputies was a ridiculous thing in this pre- the Kremlin returned alone to Paris to put himtended representative government, the laws of self into a terrible and ridiculous passion against which were the dicta of the emperor, under the the liberal sentiments of the people. During his name of decrees, or senatorial edicts. Individual absence (1812) the conspiracy of Mallet had failed liberty no longer existed; and while the 14th of of effecting a change in the government. The July was often celebrated, many bastiles were senate, however, furnished men, money, and occupied throughout France in the service of this horses, and Napoleon went to Saxony to subdue arbitrary despot. A police, that was a true po- the Prussians and Austrians who had declared litical inquisition, suspected even silence itself; against him. There Moreau fell, with the reaccused even the thoughts of men, and extended proach of having fought against his country, but over Europe a net of iron. All this time too with the satisfaction of knowing, at the same time, the conscription, a dreadful tax upon human that he was defending the cause of Europe and life, was levied with unsparing activity; and the civilisation. The emperor, however, could not French youth were surrendered to his will by the stand out against the defection of all bis allies, senate as a sort of annual contribution. It is and even of the kings whom he himself had said that Napoleon held the human race in so made. Still, however, he might have concluded vereign contempt; he had, indeed, good reason a glorious peace; but he would yield nothing, to do so!
and therefore lost all. His campaign in France Portugal was now in the emperor's possession, evinced the energy, the constancy, and the supeand Spain placed herself at his feet: the army of riority of his genius ; there, struggling with a the latter fine country he transported into the handful of men against immense forces, he gare north to fight the battles of his future ambition. a sufficient answer to those who would pretend Discord prevailed at this time among the Bour- that he never conquered but with vast armies at bons at Madrid, who chose Napoleon arbitrator, his command. But France, enslaved and gagged, and he made them prisoners, in order to raise his bad forsaken him; the mutes of the legislative brother Joseph to the throne; Murat, his brother- body had found their tongues; a cry of liberty in-law, being transferred to Naples. The em- resounded in Germany; the kings seemed to apperor went to Erfurt to meet Alexander of Russia, prove it, and accepted the assistance of those and they agreed to shut up the Continent of liberal notions which at this day they fear and Europe against the English who had blockaded disavow. it. The Spaniards, however, rose against the con The English and Portuguese, united with the querors of Europe, and for several years Spain whole Spanish people, had driven into the south became the grave of the French. Both Napo- of France the few forces that opposed them, leon and France well knew what the most and the battle of Toulouse left the glory uncer
tain between the success of numbers and the with regard to the people, and the charter was resistance of the vanquished. Bourdeaux was founded on that constitution, and on the desbetrayed to the English by its mayor; while potic decrees of Napoleon. Had Buonaparte Paris, defended by its inhabitants, a few invalids, been bribed to smooth the way for the restoration and the young pupils of that school, all the of royalty, he could not more faithfully have fulthoughts and labors of which were consecrated filled his mission. The Bourbons found the to the good of their country, opened its gates to communes, the national guard, trial by jury, the a foreign force. The people now (1814) learned departinent, the elections even, and an enormous that he who had been emperor but the night budget in the hands of the executive authority; before, was the next day to retire to a little island they found a hierarchy of irresponsible officers, in the Mediterranean: and some persons, in rising in various degrees around this centre, from white robes, proclaimed the Bourbons, who which every thing emanated, and to which all were advancing with a promise of the abolition tended. It has been disputed, whether or not a of the conscription and the united duties. Led counter-revolution had taken place: the fact is, on by M. de Talleyrand, ever skilful in taking Napoleon had already in part formed a counteradvantage of circumstances, the senators formed revolution; take away the right of general taxa plan of a constitution, nearly the same as that ation, and the equality of men in the eye of the which exists in the charter, and recalled Louis law, and it is completed. Louis re-established, XVIII., on condition that he would continue to with the representative system, a part of the revothem their situations. They then signed the lution; to restore it entirely, it was necessary to projected deposition of Napoleon. The allied put in the place of the imperial institutions, monarchs approved it; France was reduced to which govern France, the liberal institutions that its ancient limits; the remainder of the fleet, she hopes to behold. which had been almost annihilated at Trafalgar Little alteration in fact was made at this time : in 1805, and by the fireships at Rochefort, was the ministers contented themselves with displaydelivered up, as well as part of the artillery. ing the charter, and, without fulfilling its con
• If,' says the able French writer whoin we ditions, cavilled about its meaning. There was have permitted chiefly to tell this tale of France, need of economy, but prodigality was the order
we have judged Napoleon with rigor, we render of the day. The parties which had not been homage to his great actions. At a time when his dissolved, but only depressed by Napoleon, will, in conjunction with his genius, directed raised themselves again. The most ridiculous him to that which was good, he deepened the claims were urged with insatiable eagerness; port of Cherbourg, and formed the roads of the satellites of despotism, in order to reinstate mount Cenis and the Simplon; he despoiled themselves, openly displayed their treason; and Rome and Nismes, to embellish Paris. His con- prefects, who had executed the conscription in a tinental system and his prohibitions, which were way similar to the treatment of negroes, dreamed good as far as they were reprisals, gave to French only of serving the legitimacy in the same manindustry that activity which peace has redoubled. ner. The possessors of national property were But he depopulated the country parts, and already disturbed alternately by hopes or by fears; the covered France with military fiefs. There is an army, discontented at having lost its political author, a declared supporter of feudalism, who ascendancy, had already begun to move. admires Napoleon, because,' as he says, he sudden in the spring of 1815 it was reported that alone could and would have established it. Certain . Napoleon, having escaped the unsuspicious comit is that he destroyed the revolution by its own missioners of the allies, had landed at Cannes power; while he was to be pitied for his predi- with a few soldiers, which in Grenoble were section for nobility and the splendor and etiquette taken for a regiment; that he was entering Lyons, of courts; one cause, perhaps, of his own fall.' and would soon be at Paris with an army. Every
Wearied with the imperial yoke, and with thing was thrown into confusion; the king and continual war, France hailed the approach of the princes again swore fidelity to the charter; peace with acclamations of joy and hope. The they confided the security of it to the citizens declaration of St. Ouen, which included in it and the army, and protested their love for several of the fundamental principles of the liberty. Napoleon also promised liberty; he revolution, re-assured all hearts. France, and was again placed on the throne, and the Boureven Europe are indebted to Louis XVIII. for bons fed to Ghent. having set a useful example, by assisting in the France now knew not what law to obey, but re-establishment of the representative system. order was restored. A chamber of representaThe senators, in conjunction with some others, tives was convoked; and an assembly of the formed a chamber of peers. At the same time French electors announced under the name of was convened the legislative body of the empire, champ-de-mai. Napoleon obliged, in these cirwhich formed the chamber of deputies; and cumstances to bave something to do with liberty, Louis, who had declared his determination to offered for the provisional acceptance of the adopt a liberal constitution, granted the charter, people, the additional act, in imitation of the which, notwithstanding some omissions and charter. The congress of Vienna, however, where imperfections, contains sufficient guarantees for the kings had divided among themselves the liberty, were they well executed; but here lies nations, to whom they owed their deliverance, the difficulty. The imperial institutions still still continued. One of the king's ministers, existed, and these alone had any real effect. The Talleyrand, still accredited there, stirred up the charter promised, but it organised nothing; the coalition against the usurper of Europe. "The constitution of the year 8 remained in force army and the national guards hastened to the