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Chent, which had revolted from him. Any other of Guise, a celebrated member of the ancient than Francis I. would have seized this opportunity house of Lorrain, repulsed him, when Charles of exacting a ransom in his turn; but this confi- avenged himself by rasing to the ground 400 dence of a man of bad faith is a fine testimony towns, and soon after Europe heard with astoto the honor of his dupe.

nishment, that he had quitted the empire to reThe two princes having quarrelled, a new war tire into a convent. Ferdinand, his brother, broke out, A.D. 1542, and raged along all the was made emperor, and his son Philip II. king frontiers. The king's galleys joined those of of Spain. The latter was the Louis XI. of this Barbarossa the Turk, and the count d'Enghien age, and the most powerful prince in Europe. gained the battle of Cerisoles, in Italy, but with- He moved it with two great levers, the gold of out any advantage to France. Charles, in league Mexico and Peru, and religious zeal. While the with Henry VIII., penetrated as far as Soissons, French were carrying on a fruitless war in Italy, and a peace was again signed at Crecy, which the duke of Savoy, his general, obtained at did not, however, procure the slightest rest to St. Quentin, a victory disastrous to France. the world. On the inhabitants of Cabrières and Terror spread on all sides ; Paris was fortified; Merindol, cantons of Provence, where the tra- the Spaniards could have easily entered it; ditions of the Albigenses had been preserved, Philip, however, thought proper to retreat. The embracing Lutheranism, the parliament of Pro- duke of Guise, who was now appointed lieutevence condemned them to the flames: the troops nant general of the kingdom, repaired this loss which were returning out of Italy executed this by taking Calais from the English; but, when a decree, and 3000 persons were massacred for the peace was signed at Cateau Cambresis, it was honor of the faith, by bands of robbers. These stipulated that Calais should be restored in eight things did not prevent Cauvin or Calvin from years (which has never been done) while the making fresh proselytes to a reform more entire French were to keep possession of Metz, Toul, than that of Luther. He denied the real pre- and Verdun. Henry II. was killed soon after sence, suppressed the ceremonies of worship, this at a tournament, while jousting with one of and submitted the Scriptures and the faith to the his knights. test of reason. He, however, caused poor Ser Under this reign, as under the preceding, wovetus to be burned, who did not believe in the men began to assume great influence at court; trinity. His doctrine spread in Switzerland, their intrigues, say the historians, have always France, Holland, and England. Francis I. died been fatal to France. Henry II. suffered himof a disease called the Neapolitan in France, self to be governed by his mistress, Diana of and at Naples the French.

Poitiers, who had already governed his father. Francis I. was the most absolute of the kings The ingenious Rabelais, and the lively Brantome, of France; he loaded the people with taxes have satirised these two kings, and described the without the authority of the states ; and sub- dissolute manners of the age. In 1558 the stituted, instead of these, assemblies of the nobles, states were assembled in conjunction with the that is to say, courtiers, whom it was his plea- parliament, and figured in it as a fourth order: sure to consult, and who always approved his an anomaly which has not since been renewed. actions. He enslaved the Gallican church, in- The nobles, humbled by Louis XI., had become stituted the censorship, sold the office of the the courtiers of his successors, until the luxury judges, and corrupted the nation by his bad ex- of the court had completely attached them to the ample. He was called the restorer of learning king, and they appeared formed for obedience and the arts, because they grew while he was on to his will. External wars now no longer octhe throne ; he doubtless protected them, but cupied them, and, while they resumed a portion the age for their advancement had arrived. The of their independence, those factions re-apgenius of republicanism had prepared the way peared of which religion was the motive or the for them in Italy; Erasmus, the Hollander, the pretext. The prince of Condé, and the king of Voltaire of the sixteenth century, had ridiculed Navarre, his brother, of the branch of Bourbon, , the pedantry of theologians; liberty had peo- were the chiefs of the protestant party; Guise, pled Florence with great men, and the Medici, the uncle of Mary Stuart, the king's wife, dimerchants who had become magistrates, were rected that of the Catholics. The constable, the Mecænates of the age. The honor of the Montmorency, had also his party. The imperirevival of letters has also been very improperly ous queen dowager

, Catharine of Medicis

, alattributed to the Greeks, who, having emigrated ternately protected and betrayed each party, from Constantinople in 1453, brought into while she endeavoured to preserve the balance Western Europe the reveries of Plato, a taste between them, by the celebrated maxim, 'divide for subtilties that was by no means wanted, and and rule.' the mania of erudition instead of the spirit of The magistrate, Anne Dubourg, having been enquiry. Francis I. is only to be celebrated for hanged as a protestant, A. D. 1560, his brethren having founded the college of France, and esta- formed a conspiracy at Amboise, blished the use of the French tongue in public death. This the duke of Guise defeated, and documents.

the conspirators perished in arms. The punishThe character of Henry II. much resembled ments of the Calvinists were now redoubled ; that of his father; their reigns are also in some they defended themselves, and in the assembly respects similar. The war was still carried on of Fontainbleau claimed liberty of conscience, against Charles, in the course of which the king but in vain : the st took Metz, Taul, and Verdun, and the emperor leans, in order to draw the Bourbons thither: laid siege to Metz with 100,000 men. The duke and when Condé attended he was arrested, and

revenge his

were convened at Or

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condemned, and would have been executed, had were perpetrated in the different provinces of the not the king died. Francis (I. is described as an kingdom; but in the midst of this infatuation of excellent young man; but he was a weak prince. cruelty, every one was filled with admiration at His brother Charles IX. succeeded him at the beholding two of the king's officers (D'Orthez and age of ten years.

Curzay) who refused to act as executioners. The The states were now very much agitated : illustrious Coligny, however, was sacrificed; L'Hospital, a virtuous citizen, and philosophical and on this occasion the infamous Charles IX. magistrate, a prodigy for his time, endeavoured said, A dead enemy always smells well. Henry in vain to bring their minds back to moderation and the new prince of Condé were compelled to a and union. He merely succeeded in re-esta sudden abjuration of their sentiments; and the blishing the Pragmatic sanction in relation to the king openly avowed that every thing had been election of bishops. Catharine then turned about done by his orders: even the parliament apfrom the Calvinist or Huguenot party (from a plauded this massacre, and decreed an annual German word signifying confederates), and pro- procession to commemorate the murder of posed to terminate the existing differences, by a 100,000 Frenchmen! It is sufficient at this day conference at Poissy which only revived them. to mention St. Bartholomew's day to excite It was at this period that the Jesuits first esta- horror; and yet at this day, observes an able blished themselves in France.

French writer, it finds some apologists. A massacre of the Huguenots now took place If ever men were justified in assuming the at Vassy in Champagne, in consequence of some sword in defence of religion, the Protestants of injuries committed by the duke of Guise's peo- France were at this period. (A. D. 1573). The ple. At Toulouse 4000 of the Protestants were war wis again kindled; and the duke of Anjou murdered; an outrage which the people of Tou- lost .000 men at the siege of' La Rochelle; the louse, for two centuries, have annually celebrated, women even fought with the courage of despair. and this furuished a fresh motive for rupture. The year following the party of the malcontents The civil war broke out; the Protestants were was formed, to which the Huguenots united conquered by the royalists at Dreux; and two of themselves, and the contest still continued. In their ablest generals were taken. The rapacious the midst of these transactions the king died. We and ambitious duke of Guise laid siege to Or- learn with some surprise, says the worthy writer leans, and was assassinated there: he had made above alluded to, that this monster had some use of religion wholly as a means of aggran- sense, wrote verses, and protected learning. dising himself. A short peace ensued; but the e per. During this reign the long continued council of secution of the Protestants soon re-commenced; Trent terminated its sitting; after being occuand was continued with impunity. The Hugue- pied wholly in matters of diplomatic etiquette, nots were driven to extremities. Condé under- and in condemning the doctrines of the Protestook to carry off the king, in order to get posses- tants. At this time also the Belgians and the sion of the government; for so absurd are the Hollanders rose against the Catholic despot, consequences of absolute power, that it is often Philip II. The duke of Alva, his general, comexercised in the name of the titulary sovereign mitted in those countries horrible against himself. This attempt failed, and the against the Huguenots, who were here called doubtful battle of St. Denis took place soon Beggars. But the latter found happily those after (A. D. 1567), in which the able Montmo means of resistance which enabled them to rency was slain. On a renewal of the war, the found one of the richest and most industrious Huguenots, assisted the Protestants of Ger- 'communities of Europe. The manners of this many and England, ventured upon another age are a mixture of corruption and barbarity, pitched battle át Jarnac, and were defeated by of stoicism united with superstition, and dethe duke of Anjou, the king's brother. Here the bauchery with crime. By an ordinance of 1574, prince of Condé fell; assassinated it is said, in conformity with a bull of Gregory XIII., the near the field of battle, and while surrendering year, which used to commence with Easter, and himself-to his enemies as a prisoner. Coligny, a consequently to alter every year, was fixed to prudent chief, repaired this defeat, and rallied begin regularly on the 1st of January. The the forces, until Henry of Navarre, whom he had parliament for three years opposed this reform : formed 'for war, was placed at the head of the it had always an antipathy to useful innovations. party. The duke of Anjou was again victor, The duke of Anjou, who had just come from however, at Mocontour.

Poland, where he had been chosen king, returned After these checks, the Protestants again made to France under the name of Henry III. He an advantageous peace, and having had four cities proved himself a very successful general of an surrendered to them as pledges for their civil and army: as a king he was idle, trifling, superreligious liberty, Catherine drew their chiefs to stitiously devout, and given up to infamous court, and lulled them into a false confidence of debaucheries. He was advised to act mildly security. Young Henry had just married the towards the Calvinists; he declared war against king's sister; and scarcely had the festivities them. His brother, the duke of Alençon, and closed, when on a sudden, in the dead of the Henry of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV., united night, the alarm bell was sounded, and the roy- against him, and, in an edict of 1576, the Calalists rushed into the houses of the Huguenots, vinists obtained some political advantages. The and massacred them without distinction of age holy league was then formed: a combination of

The Louvre flowed with blood; the mad' Catholics who pledged themselves to deinfamous king fired from his balcony upon the fend religion and the king in blind obedience to French. At the same moment similar horrors their chief, Henry of Guise. The states were


or sex.


assembled at Blois, and the leaguers had the as

virtues. Brought up in the mountains, and cendancy, for the king was compelled to autho- among shepherds, he had little knowledge of rise the league; but they soon began to treat that which corrupts princes; he was a man long him with little respect; and having consulted the before he was a king; and became, so to speak, pope, to know if they might disobey him for the the author of that legitimacy which he had to service of religion, were answered in the affirma- prove sword in hand. Acknowledged only by a tive. Guise put forward the old cardinal Bour- few provinces, in full possession of none, he first bon, who issued a manifesto in the name of all struggled against Mayenne, whose numerous the Catholic monarchs of Europe; and the court, army included a considerable body of Spanish intimidated, yielded entirely to the leaguers. infantry, at that time the best in Europe. He After this, however, the war called that of the was on the point of determining to go over to three Henries broké out. Sixtus V. excommu- England, when encountering Mayenne at Arques nicated Henry of Navarre; and the punishment he defeated him with 5000 men, and marched of Mary Stuart, ordered by the Protestant immediately towards Paris, which he was very Elizabeth, increased the fury of the Catholics. near surprising. Here the old cardinal of BourHenry, however, beat the royalists, under the bon, his cousin, had just been declared king command of Joyeuse and other favorites, at under the title of Charles X. Henry, after this, Coutras; while Guise, on the other hand, defeated vanquished Mayenne, in another battle, at Ivri

, the German Calvinists who were coming to his where he was heard to cry out. Save the French, assistance. In the mean time, insurrections and then blockaded Paris. The leaguers de were organised at Paris under the name of the fended themselves with fury; fanaticism supSixteen; that is, the sixteen quarters of the com- ported them; they even formed regiments of

The Sorbonne, which supported them, priests and monks; but the famine became decided that the government might be taken out frightful and bread was made of the bones of the of the hands of weak princes; and, having as

dead. Henry at last suffered provisions to be sembled at Nancy, the leaguers dictated orders sent in to the besieged until the celebrated Farto the king, who sent for the Swiss to Paris. The nese, the general of Philip II. came with an fanatical citizens immediately ran to arms, bar- army to raise the siege. ricadoed the streets, even up to the Louvre, and During this time the duke of Savoy invaded surrounded the troops. The king fled and left Dauphiny and Provence; and, the new pope the capital to Guise and the league. This was having proscribed Henry IV., Philip II., the • the day of the barricading. The leaguers im- demon of the south,' assisted by the Sixteen, laposed on the king a new union against the bored to get himself elected king of France. Henry heretics; and, about the same time, the English laid siege to Rouen, which Farnese delivered, defeated the great invincible fleet of Philip.

and war raged throughout almost all the country. The states re-assembled at Blois (A.D. 1588), To increase the anarchy a new faction was when the leaguers again had the majority. They formed at Paris, called the party of the politioccupied themselves much about the council of cians, which united with that of the malcontents. Trent, and not at all in the establishment of order. It consisted of some moderate Catholics who The Guises were now at the summit of their sought for peace by recognising the king. At power, and could with equal ease play the parts length the various parties came to a conference. of Pepin or of Capet. This the king perceived, The king decided on recantation, and said, and, being unable to resist them, procured, to his

• Paris is worth a mass;' Mayenne signed a disgrace, their assassination. The rage of the truce, and the league fell by the power of ridileaguers was thus redoubled : in the duke of cule and contempt in an attempt to assassinate Mayenne they soon found a second head: they Henry, who entered Paris on the 22nd of March, cursed the king in the pulpit; and those members 1594. of the parliament who resisted them were im

Thus closed the sixteenth century, the cenprisoned in the bastile. At last the king, having tury of the Reformation, and of the most glorious only a few towns left, felt the necessity of being events for mankind. Copernicus, Galileo, and reconciled to Henry of Bearn; who received him Torricelli, notwithstanding the power of the very cordially and led him back towards Paris. inquisition, applied themselves in this memorThey had already reached St. Cloud, when a able era to the study of the philosophy of exyoung Dominican, under the direction of the perience and reason, while the pedants of the leaguers, stabbed the king with a knife; a mur- university were contending about the pronunciader which the Parisians celebrated with joy: the tion of the letter Q. Bacon, the chancellor of Catholics generally, instigated by the Jesuits, England, introduced some order into the cataendeavoured to prove from Scripture that it was logue of human sciences; Montaigne carried lawful to kill a tyrant; and Clé, the assassin, independence of mind into the study of man; was regarded as a saint. In this reign the order but political questions were still approached of St. Michael, founded by Louis XI., having with much timidity. Morus, Bodin, and Grofallen into discredit, that of the Holy Spirit was tius sought for the laws of the social body, rainstituted to flatter the Catholics. The intriguing ther among the ancients than in nature, while Catherine died in 1589, detested by all parties.

Boëtius attacked despotism with quotations and

declamation. The Reformation, however, 'i Sect. V.—THE BRANCH OF THE BOURBONS.

must be admitted, spread something of a repubThe branch of the Valois being extinct, Henry lican spirit : the Calvinist politicians, in 1575, of Bourbon Navarre ascended the throne as a traced the plan of a constitutional organisation, descendant of Louis IX.: he merited it by his and were the liberals of the age; but publie

opinion was not ripe for their efforts. Then the time of the anarchy. They formed the

proalso, as at all times when the human mind is ject of preserving this in the same way as the emancipated, the enemies of religious and civil counts of the time of Charles the Bald had done ; liberty were leagued together to reduce it again in fact, they wished to recommence the feudal under their yoke. The Spanish kings had government. Mayenne, Mercæur, and Nemours strengthened their throne by a union of the tiara strove to make their honors hereditary. Biron with the sword; the inquisition had been esta- treated with the duke of Savoy to attain the same blished; and though for this time, at least, it object. The plan was to make France a feudal was repulsed by France, the policy and fanatic and electoral confederation like Germany. But cism of the priests again rallied, and the society the conspiracy was discovered, and Biron, alof the Jesuits was founded, to become the curse though the king's old companion in arms, was of the world.

beheaded by a decree of parliament, A. D. 1602. Holland, struggling both against the ocean The latter events of this reign were, the proand the Spanish aggression, triumphed over both. mise made to the pope to recall the Jesuits; the Called forward by the states of this republic, the conspiracy of Henrietta of Entragues, to whom brother of Henry III. wanted to assume the au- Henry had made a promise of marriage; and the thority of a king, but the French stupidly cried mediation between the pope, the Venetians, out • Live the mass,' and they were irritated, and Spain, and Holland. Henry took arms against drove them away.

Austria, and proposed, they say, to execute the Henry IV. at first re-established the parlia- plan of a perpetual peace and confederation of ment; then he undertook to allay the animosities Europe. At this time he was assassinated by of the Calvinists and the leaguers; which the Ravaillac. Two other fanatics had already atJesuits as steadily inflamed. They were, how- tempted this crime; excited to it, as was this ever, by the advice of the parliament, driven out wretch, by the Jesuits. of the university and the church, until they ob Henry, assisted by Sully, his friend and mitained from the pope the absolution of the king, nister, introduced order and economy into the as the price of their re-establishment. At this public treasury, which formerly not more than time Mayenne was not reduced, but the king one-fifth of the taxes ever reached. He was truly defeated him at French Fontaine, and granted a good man, though he reigned like an absolute him an amnesty. The duke of Eperon also monarch; and repressed every rising attempt having revolted, submitted, and war was de- at freedom, even to the resistance of parliament, clared against Philip II., who took Calais. On by the empty parade of seats of justice. How, this the king, who wanted money to oppose him, indeed, could such a man sign the cruel edict, summoned the nobles at Rouen, to take their that condemned his subjects to the whip and the advice; that is to say, to ask for subsidies, and galleys for killing a rabbit? The reason may be told them, that his fairest title was the quality of easily given, though it is with pain; the despoa gentleman.

tism of Richelieu and of Louis XIV. is to be Ultimately, the Spaniards were driven back; traced to Henry IV. After this we may cease Mercœur, governor of Brittany, who still held to reproach him for loving gambling, and sewith the league, submitted, and a treaty was ducing the wives of his subjects. But he was signed with Philip, who died soon after. At popular, and still lives in the gratitude of the this time, the Calvinists having loudly expressed, nation; a glory which, to the present day, bein their meeting at Saumur, their discontent at longs almost solely to him. the little favor they enjoyed, Henry issued the Louis XIII. being only nine years old, the celebrated edict of Nantes, in which the exercise parliament gave the regency to his mother, of their religion was tolerated under some re- Mary of Medicis: this tribunal thus again asstrictions.

sumed the rights of the states-general. The An event of this period leads us to speak of benefits of the preceding administration were the French

peerage. According to one of the lost; Sully was dismissed, and his savings disprinciples of feudalism, a man was to be tried sipated. The Florentine Concini, since marshal by his peers

. The dukes of Normandy, Bur- of Ancre, and his wife Galigai, ruined France gundy, and Aquitaine, the earls of Champagne, hy their influence over the regent. The nobles Toulouse, and Flanders, and other great vassals, and the factions rose again, and, when the statescould alone judge in matters that concerned each general were assembled, their time was spent in other; and they had a right to enter the king's empty discussions. They had not since that council at any time, as they were themselves so- time been convened up to the period of the revereigns : it has been seen how the royal power volution. The complaints of parliament about was oppressed by such counsellors ; but, by their the bad administration of affairs were resented ; pride or their carelessness, the chief of them the prince of Condé was arrested; he was at the were kept from repairing to the court

. Philip head of the discontented and the Calvinists, who the Fair created new peers, in order to weaken rose several times, and obtained some advanand pervert this institution, which was still so tageous treaties. One of the king's young imposing that the rank of peer was superior to pages, who had his ear, persuaded him to disthat of prince of the blood. During the civil miss his minister, in order to shake off the yoke wars, however, the peerage had declined; the of the regent, whom he treated very harshly and nobles, being divided, became less formidable, banished. She twice revolted, assisted by some and Henry IV. lowered their claims by a vigo- of the lords. The prince, cruel through his rous display of the royal will. But the governors weakness, caused Concini to be assassinated, of the provinces had usurped immense power in while his wife was accused of sorcery and burned

The new favorite received, as a gift from the was rendered miserable; it seems as if despotking, the immense riches arising from their mal- ism stupified the people, and inflicted barrenpractices. Louis XIII. was one of those men, ness on the soil.' The claims of parliament who execute without energy the suggestions of were of very little avail under such a master. others, and who avenge themselves for their ha- One day, the magistrates having refused a regisbitual submission, by fits of brutality.

tration, Richelieu had them cited before the At this time appeared the celebrated cardinal king, and kept them on their knees during the Richelieu; he was the creature of Concini, and whole of the audience. He, however, instituted had lived retired since the fall of the latter. the academy, which had the patience to draw up Possessed of a disposition the most inflexible, his apotheosis annually for 150 years; but the and the most ardent desire of making others Cid, which he suppressed, gave scope to the feel his power, he subjected every thing to the genius of French literature, and Descartes, perforce of his despotic but able mind. He at first secuted by the devotees, went to philosophise in attempted to make himself feared by the great, Sweden. and caused several of them to be condemned to Louis XIV. was at this time (A. D. 1643) death by commissions. He surrounded himself five years old. The parliament still arrogated to with guards; suppressed the high ottices of ad- itself the right of appointing the regency. The miral and constable, which formerly conferred queen dowager, Anne of Austria, a coquettish immense authority; and treated the Calvinists and versatile woman, obtained it. Mazarine, an with cufficient kindness to excite their hopes, Italian cardinal, her favorite, who had been that he might afterwards succeed in his project elevated by Richelieu, governed for her. He for oppressing them, by taking away their was a clever and supple man, who cunningly towns. After a famous siege, which he con- acted the despot, and seemed to regard the art ducted in person, and a truly heroic resistance of making dupes as the only art of reigning. of a year, displayed in all the horrors of famine, The war with Austria continued, but without he took Rochelle, which was defended by an any result. The young d'Enghien, afterwards English fleet, and he caused this bulwark of the the great Condé, 'showed himself on this occaCalvinistic faith to be rased to the ground. He sion: he triumphed at Rocroy and at Fribourg; then reduced Rohan, the general of the reformed Turenne was victor (1644) at Nordlingen, and army, and discovered, it is said, that the plan of took Dunkirk; and Condé was again victorious the Protestants was to found a federative repub- at Lens. This war, in which the Swedes were lic, like that which they had seen so prosperous useful allies, terminated in the treaty of Westin Holland. Had they succeeded, how different phalia (A. Þ. 1648), which arranged the Gerwould the history of furope have appeared ! manic body, and limited the imperial power.

We are, in fact, not now treating of the reign At the peace, the discontents of the nobles of Louis, but of Richelieu, before whom every broke out against cardinal Mazarine, and, united thing bowed. Roussillon was conquered in with the parliament, they began the association 1628; the house of Austria was humbled, and called La Fronde, while the people sometimes several wars were carried on against the Spaniards supported them, and opposed the two magiswith various success: Catalonia was given up to trates appointed by the court. France. The genius of Richelieu could avail itself however, hardly any thing interesting to them of all the resources of policy; and he is entitled in these quarrels of a few ambitious and turbuto the praise of gloriously maintaining the rank lent men : bowed down under the yoke, they of France among the nations of Europe. There gained nothing by these disputes; these facis, however, something sad and monotonous in tions were in fact the clubs of despots, who this reign; every thing in it bears the mark of laughed and jested at the public wrongs while despotism. Weak attenipts were made, from they were contending for power. A libertine time to time, to resist its progress, but they were prelate was seen playing the part of Catiline, always effectually suppressed; even the noblest and, while he recited his strange exploits, he families connected with them did not escape. rendered civil war amusing. At length Condé, The marshal Marillac was executed in 1630; the discontented with the court, which he had at duke of Montmorency, taken in arms, and con- first served, forsook it; and though Mazarine demned by the parliament of Toulouse, was had him arrested, he afterwards released him. doomed to the same fate, notwithstanding he Seeing the storm growing blacker, this great obtained the king's pardon, in 1632; and his man at first left France; but, a price being set ou estates of St. Maur, Ecouen, and Chantilly his head, he returned, raised 7000 men, and passed to the house of Condé, as national do- united himself with the frondeurs and the mains. Cinq Mars and de Thou were beheaded Spaniards. Mazarine now raised a force, which in 1642, for having conspired against the cardi- he placed under the command of Turenne, and nal, with the knowledge even of the king him- an engagement ensued near the fauxbourg of St. self, who was weary of the haughty pomp of his Anthony; in which Condé was victorious after minister. At length this tyrannical priest died. a bloody battle. The parliament on this apLouis XIII. breathed a little, and then died pointed the irresolute Gaston, duke of Orleans, also, 'as if,' say our French authorities, 'Riche- lieutenant of the kingdom. Mazarine retired lieu had ordered him to follow him to the tomb!' from court, and the Fronde having no longer

The absolute power of Charles VII. and any pretext dispersed; but the king and the Henry IV. at least preserved the elasticity of the cardinal soon re-entered Paris, and the natural French character. Richelieu, like Louis XI., result of this parade of insurrection was 90 humbled and degraded it; under him France render their power more absolute. Condé now

There was,

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