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Salt is made in various parts of France. Works of an imitation of Silesian drapery, called Silesies, corresponding with the salt mines, or brine imitations of our Wiltons, called Wiltons, and springs of Cheshire, and called, from their posi- casimeres, which they called maroes. Ratteens tion, Salines de l'Est, are situated at the small were made at Roybons, Crest, and Saillans; town of Salins in Franche Comté. They are cloths and ratteens at Romans; cloths for bilwrought by undertakers on lease, yield about liard tables at St. Jean-en Royans. Cloths of 20,000 tons a year, and afford a considerable different descriptions and qualities were also revenue to government. The heat of the climate made at Grenoble, Valence, Troyes, St. Leo, on the south and south-west coast, being favorable Bayeux, Amboise, Niort, Coutange, Lusignon, to the evaporation of salt water, bay salt is made &c. In the rank of coarse cloths may also be here extensively, not by the action of fire, but placed the woollen stuffs of Aix, Apt, Tarascon, by the heat of the sun, operating on sea water, Oleron, Orthes, Bagneres, Pau, Auch, the valley enclosed in a shallow bay (in French etang), so of Aure; the cloths of Cevennes, Sommieres, as to produce a saline deposit. The duty raised Limoux, &c. The greater part of these cloths from salt in France in all is nearly £2,000,000. bear the names of the various places in which Mineral waters are found at Aix, Bagneres, they were fabricated.

Besides cloths, properly Bareges. The first seem to have been known to so called, camblets, callimancoes, baizes, kerseys, the Romans, and a bath was erected by C. Sex- wool and hair plushes, are made at Amiens; tius Calvinius. See Aix. The water has nearly druggets, flannels, blankets, at Rheims; blankets the same temperature as some of those at Bath. in the suburbs of - Paris; flannels at Beauvais ; Bagneres, in the eastern part of Guyenne, was serges at Aumale, Bicomt, &c.; camblets and also known to the Romans, and the hottest of plushes at Margny. its springs is about 123° of Fahrenheit's scale, It has been thought that the woollen manuand the coldest 86o. The baths are about thirty facture decreased during the revolution, and in number. Bareges is situated in a chasm even subsequently; but the following are the among the mountains, and is only a summer official numbers of the workmen employed in this residence, in consequence of the torrents and branch in the three specified years : avalanches that so often prove destructive in winter. The waters issue from a hill in the centre of the village, and are distributed into three


1812 baths, the hottest of which exceeds 112°. They are strongly sulphureous and fetid, greasy to the


9,000 touch, and turn silver black. The waters at St.


6,200 Sauveur, near Luz, in the department of the 6,700


10,000 Upper Pyrenees, are not so hot as those of


18,300 Bareges, but are more nauseous to the taste. Hot 3,000


4,800 springs also arise in the midst of beautiful scenery at Cauterets, in this department, the hottest of which is 118°, Other springs are found The machinery used is very defective. It was among the Pyrenees; and there are baths at only in 1804 that carding engines were introForges, Vichi, Bourbonne, Balaruc, and Plom- duced. The greater part of the spinning-mills, bieres.

too, are worked by water, or by horses. In Woollen cloth is perhaps the most important Elbæuf and its vicinity several are situated on and most extensive manufacture of France. The the small streams : upwards of twenty are turned best superfine cloths are made at Louvieres in by horses; there were here in 1825 eleven steamNormandy; those of Abbeville, in Picardy, engines. though fine, are not to be compared with them The greatest woollen manufacturer, in 1825 in quality. The Londrines, made at Carcassone in France, was M. Ternaux, late deputy of Paris. in Languedoc, which were formerly the most He had twenty-two different manufactories, situsuccessful manufacture in France, and were ated in different towns: four at Rheims, two at manufactured expressly for the Turkish and Chi- Sedan, two at Louviers, at Liege, &c. &c. Yet nese markets, are also of beautiful quality. The although possessed of the abundant capital which cloths of Julienne, and the superfine fabrics of such manufactories must require, he had not Sedan, as well in scarlet as in other bright colors, thought fit, at that period, to concentrate his estab and in black, are only suitable to the affluent. lishments, nor even at any one to erect a steamFine cloths are also manufactured at Rouen, Da- engine. He employed nearly 6,000 men in that rental, Audelis, Montauban, and in various year; twenty years ago he had upwards of 12,000 places in Languedoc and Champagne. Those in his pay; the 6,000 now producing probably as of Andelis in Normandy are fine mixed cloths. much as the 12,000 then, owing to the use of Fabrics of a second sort of cloth are found improved machinery. Besides his general trade at Elbeuf in Normandy, and at Sedan: those as a clothier, M. Ternaux has pursued with great of Elbeuf are best suited for workmen and eagerness one particular branch which, till this mechanics. Chateaurouge, before the revolution, time, was quite unknown in Europe, the making furnished a great deal of livery cloth. Roma- of Cashmere shawls. He imported with great rantin, Issodoren, and Lodeve, furnish cloths for difficulty, and at considerable expense, a certain military clothing. There are still inferior coarser number of the Thibet, Angola, and other oriental cloths, made for the wear of the country laborer. goats, from whose duvet these celebrated shawls The fabrics at Rheims, before the revolution, are made. They have bred in France, and he besides the sort called draps de Rheims, consisted has been very successful in increasing the number

of his flock. The climate seems to suit them, which formerly made about 1,500,000 pieces anand as their food is, for the most part, what nually, have almost abandoned the manufacture. other animals reject, such as horse-chestnuts, of Other branches of this manufacture are carried which they are particularly fond, weeds, &c., the on to a very considerable extent, in the departexpense of keeping them is but small. He has ments du Nord, Pas de Calais, Aisne, Somme, a dock of upwards of 100 at his country-house Seine and Oise, Seine Inférieure, Seine, Calvados, at St. Ouen, near Paris; another somewhat larger in the north : Haut Rhin, Bas Rhin, Aube, in the in the Pyrenees; and one or two more of less north-east: Rhone, Loire, and other places in the extent in different parts of France. • He south-east: and Gard and Herault in the south. sells besides from seventy to eighty goats

The most extensive manufactories are those annually. As the quantity of duvet which each at and near St. Quentin and Lisle. In 1812 de animal produces is not above three ounces and l’Aisne and du Nord produced more than half a half, he is trying whether, by a cross between the cotton yarn spun in France; and, though the Thibet and Angola goats, he may not be able the same proportion no longer exists, still to obtain a greater quantity, as at present he is, Lisle and the neighbouring villages of Roubaix of course, unable to make many shawls of the and Tourcoing are among the most important pure duvet. Nor would the speculation have manufacturing districts of France. Neither at succeeded, if indeed it has succeeded in a pecu- St. Quentin, nor at Lisle, however, is much of niary point of view, were it not for the reputation the cotton yarn woven into goods. From his shawls enjoy ; as it is an idea generally re-. St. Quentin it is sent to the neighbouring ceived that they are made precisely of the same peasantry, as it is also from Lisle, Aubenton, St. materials as the Cashmere shawls, which bear Michel, and other towns in the departments de so high a price, and are so much esteemed in l'Aisne, and du Pas de Calais. There is a loom France.' Quarterly Review, No. 62.

in almost every cottage; and the peasantry, It is calculated that in the whole of France when prevented by the severity of the weather wool, value £4,000,000 sterling, becomes con or any other reason from pursuing their agriculverted into a manufactured value of £9,000,000, tural labors, weave those coarse stuffs which are of which about a tenth is exported.

the principal products of that department. At The cotton manufacture has been carried on Lisle part is woven in the town, and part, the in France about half a century. Forty years finest, is sent to Tarare, near Lyons, for the ago the system of spinning by machinery was manufacture of muslins. almost entirely unknown. The cotton was then The cotton trade carried on in Paris and its spun, by hand, principally in those mountainous vicinity has of late much diminished, except at districts where the price of labor was low; but Jouy, where the manufactory of printed goods is the greater part was imported from England still flourishing. It was originally established and Switzerland. In the three years ending by M. Oberkamf, who was almost the first indi1789, the average value of cotton goods imported vidual in France who pursued this particular was 25,831,233 francs (£1,033,500), of which line. Of later years M. 'Widmer has greatly ina very large proportion was of the finer kinds; creased the sale of these articles, by his chemical as the French manufactures of that day were for discoveries in dyes. The elegance of the patterns, the most part confined to the coarser goods, such and the beauty of the colors, have rendered them as the handkerchiefs furnished by Rouen and in appearance second only to the cottons of Montpelier, principally for the use of the lower Alsace, while in price they are considerably classes. Since that time the English improve- lower. In Paris itself the diminution both of ments in machinery have been slowly adopted spinning mills and of looms has been very conin France. New manufactories have sprung up; siderable within these few years. and the long war, which cut off all communica The exports of cotton goods from Paris were tion with Great Britain, compelled them to in value in exert themselves in order to supply, in some 1819 . 708,108 francs, of which in degree, the demand for those cotton goods for

printed goods 489,701 which formerly they had recourse to our markets. 1820 . 476,987.

306,226 Buonaparte, pursuing a system which, in his 1821 . 255,830.

i73,200 own view of it, promised at once to ruin his great In Alsace, however, the manufacturers are enemy, and to add éclat to his reign, attempted, highly prosperous, and though the trade, perhaps by prohibitions and premiums, to give new acti- is no longer increasing so rapidly as formerly, vity to the manufactures. He so far succeeded, yet it is progressive. Nor is this surprising when that machinery of an imperfect description is the excellence of the goods is taken into consinow generally used, and the French manufac- deration. In some points indeed, especially in turers are able to supply to their countrymen the dyes, they surpass those of British manufacmost of the articles of which they stand in need. ture. There are some, however, which they have found Round Lyons, the cotton trade has of late themselves incapable of making. "India nan- fallen off, being injured by the progress of the keens for instance, have (since 1816) been ad- silk manufactories. At Tarare, however, from mitted as an import on paying a duty of five peculiar circumstances, one branch, the wearing francs per kilo (equal to 21b. 30%. 5dr. 13grs. of fine muslins, prospers; and it is almost the 755 avoirdupois weight). And the consequence only place in France where that particular article has been that the departments de l'Ain, de la is made. The principal product of the cotton Seine Inférieure, de la Somme, and du Nord, factories in the south of France hosiery, oh

which Nismes and Montpelier used formerly The principal manufactures for these twc artito export a very large quantity. Beside the de- cles are in Normandy, Brittany, Dauphiny, partments just enumerated, in which the greater Mayenne, and also in Picardy_departments de part of the cotton manufactories of France are l'Aisne and du Nord. Siuce 1790 fine linen has situated, there are many others in which the in- in France, as in England, been in a great meahabitants make part of what is wanted for their sure displaced by cotton: the two together emown consumption. M. Chaptal mentions forty- ploy, at St. Quentin (in Picardy) and the neighfive departments in which there are spinning bourhood, no fewer than 40,000 workmen. In mills, besides much cotton-spinning in the cot a very different part of the kingdom, the province tages of the peasantry. To what extent this is of Dauphiny, there are also carried on linen carried, it would be very difficult to ascertain, as manufactures of various qualities. no official returns can be procured of the quantity Cambrics, thread, gauze, lawn,—made at St. so consumed.

Quentin, Valenciennes, Cambray, Douay, ChauSteam is comparatively but little used anywhere; ney, and Guise,-rank among the leading mawater-wheels, wherever currents can be obtained, nufactures of the north-east part of France. are established ; in level districts horses are con- Lace is still more general, being made in great stantly employed, and occasionally even manual quantities at Valenciennes, Dieppe, Alençon, labor. In the department de la Seine Inférieure Caen, Bayeux, Argentan. Machinery has as yet there are 109 spinning-mills situated on small. been very little applied to this manufacture in streams. The country round. Lisle is flat, and France, and the number of women employed in here recourse is had to horse-power, or the more it is very great. In general the French is thícker uncertain action of wind : sixty wind-mills, prin- and stiffer than Irish linen; while, in whiteness, cipally used for expressing oil from poppies, it is inferior to that of the Netherlands. It is, rape, and trefoil, may be seen at one time on however, a very serviceable article. leaving Lisle by one gate ; but there are not The silk manufactures of France are more conabove ten or twelve steam-engines in the town. St. fined 'to particular districts than either the cotton Quentin is almost the only considerable manufac- or the woollen trade. They originated at Tours turing town in France in which the steam-engines in the fifteenth century, and gradually spread bear any proportion to the number of mills. There thence over the south of France. Henri IV. enare here twenty-four in the whole, of which all couraged by every means in his power the cultibut two or three are used in the cotton mills. vation of the mulberry tree in Provenee, and his In the department de la Seine there are exertions were finally so successful that to this In Paris

35 day a large part of the population of the ten deArrondissement de Sceaux .

partments on the banks of the Rhone, and of de de St. Denis

8 l'Herault, de l'Indre, and Loire, in different

proportions, are occupied in this manufacture.

51 There are, on an average of many years, about Of these several are used at Charenton and the 5,150,000 kilos of coccoons produced in the other iron manufactories; some for raising water, eleven first-mentioned departments, and about and one of less than half horse power for grind- 30,000 in that of the Indre and Loire, making ing chocolate. This unwillingness to employ altogether something under 5,200,000, valued at steam, which not only adds to the expense of 15,600,000, francs. This produces, when washed spinning, but prevents the thread from being so and spun, about 280,000 kilos of raw silk, regular from a want of uniformity in the motion, 160,000 kilos of organised silk, valued at may be attributed partly to the high price of the 23,600,000 francs. About an equal value is machines, partly to the badness of the iron and imported from foreign countries, making about the workmanship, whence accidents repeatedly 47,000,000 francs (in value) of silk, in thread, occur, which naturally tend to deter others from furnished to the manufactories. · setting them up. The low rate of wages also The most important of these are at Lyons, renders manufacturers less attentive to that eco- where almost every species of silk goods is madle. nomy of manual labor which has so much con- That town, however, is more particularly celecontributed to the prosperity of the English brated for its étoffes, especially those intended manufacturer. Yet, indifferent as the machinery for furniture. In its neighbourhood however, at is, it was in a far worse state when M. Chaptal the villages of St. Etienne and St. Chumand, came into office under the imperial govern- and the vicinity, almost all the silk ribands con

sumed in France are woven. At Avignon they In the linen manufacture, flax to the value of make principally satins, Levantines, and taffetas; 20,000,000 francs (19,000,000 home and at Nismes, stockings, gauzes, crapes, mixed 1,000,000 foreign) is said to be given out to the goods, &c.; and at Gauges, and the other towns weavers; which sells manufactured for about in the Cevennes, they are principally occupied 75,000,000; and goods to the value of about with hosiery. The manufacture of Tours, where, 25,000,000 more are worked up in their cottages as we have already mentioned, the silk trade by the peasantry. They estimate that about began, is confined to stuffs for furniture, and 320,000 quintals of hemp are grown in France, some few other articles of little importance. valued at 30,000,000 francs. Five millions more Next to Lyons, the greatest variety of silk in value are imported; and, when manufactured, goods is made at Paris. Out of about 18,600,000 the whole is estimated at 110,000,000 francs; tó francs worth of silk annually exported from Paris which must again be added the cottage products, nearly 8,000,000 come under the class of objets which are 35,000,000 francs more.

de luxe. The total value of the silk goods mada'



in France does not exceed 110,000,000 francs to put into hi, goods. And, those heavy duties (£4,200,000), of which about 30,000,000 being now removed, there cannot be a doubt but (£1,200,000) is exported—the trade having, if that we shall be able in this, as in every other there is any variation, rather diminished. trade, to drive the foreign manufacturer out of

'The French,' says an able writer in the Quar- the market.' terly Review, No. 62, to which we have been The French, it is well known, have long exmuch indebted on the subject of the French ma- celled in jewellery, as well as watch and clock nufactures generally, “have long been supposed making. These are carried to a considerable to be unrivalled in the silk manufacture. "Obvi- extent at Paris : the number of new watches ous causes have contributed to give them a su- made annually in the kingdom is calculated at periority in this respect over England; for, 300,000; and the value of these different kinds besides the other disadvantages under which the of workmanship altogethnr at £1,500,000, of English inanufacturer labors, of a high rate of which more than the half is made in the capital. wages and high taxation, he has to import the The works in bronze, also belonging almost exraw material, much of it either from France itself clusively to Paris, are taken at a farther annual or from its immediate neighbourhood—the north value of £1,500,000 sterling. of Italy; while the duty imposed upon silk, The porcelain of Sevres near St. Cloud, and 55. 8d. per lb. upon raw, and 13s. 8d. upon or the beautiful tapestry of the Gobelins, are also ganzined, was so heavy as to put the price of ma- peculiar to this vicinity. The materials of the nufactured articles beyond the reach of that class latter are silk and fine woollen thread; the subof persons who, in France, are the principal jects woven into the work being taken from consumers. Yet, even under these disadvantages, paintings executed on purpose. Both the by our superior skill and superior machinery, our establishments have been long conducted by the manufacturers contrived to produce articles government at a sacrifice. which, in appearance, were equal to the French The inferior manufactories, common to every goods, though inferior in quality; thus in some country in the high state of civilisation which measure compensating for the larger quantity of France is, we need not particularise. The followsilk which the French manufacturer could afford ing is

A SUMMARY of the present state of the MANUFACTURES, stated in francs.


Value. Silks 107,560,000 | Alum

6,000,000 Woollens 238,133,932 Copperas

3,000,000 Flax 100,000,000 Saltpetre

3,000,000 Hemp 142,796,012 Nitric Acid

6,000,000 Paper 31,700,000 Muriatic Acid

240,000 Cotton 191,600,000 Other Salts and acids

6,000,000 Gold, Silver, and Worsted Lace 7,000,000 Soap

33,000,000 Iron 207,390,377 Sugar

60,823,910 Copper 16,171,260 Hats

24,375,000 Lead 4,830,460 Prepared Skins

155,392,600 Other Metals. 4,000,000 Dyeing

44,117,950 Watch-making and mending 22,500,000 Varnishing

5,000,000 Gold and Silversmith and Jew


13,000,000 ellery : 38,000,000 Starch

6,000,000 Gilding Bronzes 38,000,000 Books, Printing

21,652,726 Glass

20,500,000 Cabinet-ware and Musical InEarthenware of all kinds 26,000,000

40,000,000 Bricks and Tiles 17,500,000 | Beer

47,635,377 Lime and Plaster 15,000,000 Cider and Perry

48,622,435 Common Salt 6,600,000 | Spirits

55,000,000 The foreign commerce of France has been so Of this amount there was in wine, brandy, corn, materially shaken and irregular, since the revo and other products of the soil, £10,000,000 lution, that we find no regular schemes of the Raw materials for manufactures, 2,000,000 imports and exports since the average of the Manufactured goods,

6,500,000 years ending 1789, which are thus stated by M. Miscellaneous articles,

1,500,000 Chaptal. With Imports. Exports.


Imports. Exports. Spain 43,711,800 85,084,133 Holland

28,287,467 40,796,533 Portugal 9,180,353 3,751,933 Sweden

7,051,067 3,943,600 Switzerland 6,796,467 21,124,033 Denmark

3,978,533 6,451,867 Russia 6,854,033 6,523,467 | Austria

32,858,200 Not stated Piedmont 24,571,967 18,981,433 England

62,295,800 33,486,333 Genoa

9,525,833 5,853,967 | American states 10,244,833 1,543,633 Two Sicilies 18,717,000 Not stated Smyrna

6,196,302 14,535,072 Minor states of Ger-} 8,518,033 23,681,000 Levant in general

Hans Towns

12,789,167 62,310,967 many

37,317,048 18,214,734 Prussia

4,037,167 10,428,267 |


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of the sea.

The war of 1793 compelled the French to GOVERNMENT.-The constitution of France desist from exporting a number of articles, and since 1814 greatly resembles that of England, to raise or fabricate others, for which they had the king being a limited monarch, and the rehitherto depended on their neighbours: and the sponsibility of all the public measures resting interruption of intercourse continued, either by with his ministers. The royal title is king of sea or land, for more than twenty years. Since France and Navarre.' the peace of 1815 the relations of the com The French cabinet consists of a Keeper of the mercial world have been almost equally un- seals (corresponding to our chancellor), the misettled : at present, the imports and exports nisters of Foreign affairs, of Finance, of Police, of France are supposed to be less than before the of War, of the Navy and Colonies, of the Home revolution, and afford a remarkable contrast Department, and finally of the Head of the to the rapid extension of foreign trade in a Royal Household. Each minister is independcountry like our own possessing the command ent in his department, but general measures pro

ceed from the premier. The king has also as The same causes that almost destroyed, the with us a privy council

, which is convened only commerce nearly annihilated the fisheries of on particular occasions : but his Council of France, which are now carried on chiefly for her- State is an efficient body, divided into five comrings, mackerel, sardine, anchovy, tunny, and mittees appropriated respectively to legislation, other species, on her own coasts. One branch finance, home affairs, the navy, and the colonies. of the French fishery is that for coral, in the Each committee is in connexion with the minister Mediterranean, for which a company has long of the department to which its labors are directed, been established at Marseilles. In the middle and receives from him the materials of its deliof the last century the French fisheries in Ame- beration. The members of these committees rica employed annually about 5000 seamen; but are called conseillers d'etat en activité; as the the unsuccessful contest with England in 1756 title of conseiller d'etat is in the case of many reduced them greatly, and deprived them of persons merely honorary; and, what is more reCape Breton, their principal station. The peacemarkable, the appellation of ministre d'etat is of 1783, renewed their right to fish on the banks given to about thirty public men, exclusive of of Newfoundland, a right subsequently acknow- the cabinet ministers. It implies in that case ledged by the treaties of 1802 and 1814; and no participation in ministerial business; but is though their only permanent possessions for this accompanied with a pension, and is accounted purpose are the small islands of St. Pierre and

one of the highest marks of royal favor.Miquelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, they The king exclusively has the right of bringing have not been backward to avail themselves of in bills into the Chambers. The opposition act their advantages.

there as in Britain, except that they are denied Since 1814 various efforts have been made by this important privilege-a denial founded on the the ship-owners of Havre, Bourdeaux, Marseilles, supposed agitation which might be produced by &c., to re-establish the shipping interest, but this the proposition of popular measures in a counat present has been attended with but limited try where the constitution is as yet unsettled.

The chamber of Peers comprises upwards of The roads of France are managed by govern- 200 members, who possess privileges similar to ment Bureaux or Boards, the chief of which are those of the peerage of Great Britain; their at Paris. The extent of roads, under their direc- number, as with us, is unlimited; the grant of tion, is estimated at 30,000 miles; and the an- titles being vested in the king, and the dignity nual expenditure at from £1,300,000 to hereditary. But no clerical dignitaries have £1,500,000, the whole being defrayed without a seats as such in the legislature: a few cardinals, single toll or turnpike. The great roads are, in who are members, owe it altogether to their titles general, paved and in tolerable condition; but as temporal peers. The peers take cognizance, the cross roads in almost every department are as in England, of charges of high treason, and of most wretched; and receive hardly any repair. public misdemeanours. Their discussions are

The chief bridges in France are those of stone, not made public. over the Loire at Orleans, Tours, and Nantes; The house of Commons, or chamber of Dethose on a smaller scale over the Seine at Paris, puties, are elected by the people: the number and those over the Saone and Rhone at Lyons. returned may in some measure be altered at the The Pont du St. Esprit above Orange, over the will of the king; the smallest number allowed is Rhone, is a long structure of sixteen arches. At 256. "The election is vested in the voters at nó great distance from it is the Pont du Gard, once, the only qualification required for a voter one of the most entire existing monuments of being the payment of £12 of annual taxes. For Roman architecture. It is composed of a triple a deputy the requisites are, that he shall be of ter of arches, erected for the purpose of con the age of forty, and pay taxes to the amount of ducting an aqueduct over the river Gardon. This £40 a year. One-fifth of the chamber of depumagnificent structure is 157 feet in height, 530 ties is re-elected annually. feet in length at the bottom, and 872 at the top. By the charter, appealed to by all parties as Of bridges lately erected in France, the most re the safeguard of the French constitution, all markable are those over the Seine at Neuilly ranks are equally admissible to public employnear Paris, and over the Oise at St. Maixent, ments, whether civil or military. (The object of along with two of larger dimensions, viz. one this clause is to do away any claim for preferover the Garonne at Bourdeaux, the other ove: ence on the part of the noblesse). The catholic the Seine at Rouen

is the state religion, but all other religions may


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