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its highest summit 1751 toises above the level of Garonne, are the other great streams. The the sea; the length about 212 miles. Mont Perdu Rhone enters France from the lake of Geneva, is the highest elevation of the Pyrenees; Mont and enters the Mediterranean by several mouths Canigou the chief of the Eastern Pyrenees: the a few miles west of Marseilles. It passes in its hill is of difficult ascent, and is 1440 toises course Lyons, Vienne, Valence, Montelimart, above the Mediterranean. The Pyrenean chain Avignon, Beaucaire, Tarascon, and Arles. The appears at a distance like a shaggy ridge, pre- Seine, having a direction generally towards the senting the segment of a circle fronting France, north-west, rises in the department of Côte d'Or, and descending at each extremity. To the south and waters a series of beautiful valleys previous and west they are sterile, but on the north to its arriving at Paris; whence it follows a siand east, where the descent is more gradual, they nuous course to the English Channel, receiving afford frequent woods and excellent pasturage : a great number of tributary streams. The prinnear the summit of Mont Perdu is a large cipal towns on its bauks are Troyes, Melun, lake, upwards of 9000 feet above the level of the Paris, and Rouen. Toe Loire has its source in sea, which discharges its waters into Spain. the western side of the Cevennes, and flows to
The forests of France constitute one of its wards the north for about half its way. It then principal geographical features. They are es- turns to the west and falls into the Bay of Biscay timated to cover altogether a surface of 29,220 after a course of more than 450 miles. It receives square miles, or upwards of 18,000,000 English about forty of the central rivers of the country, acres; that is about an eighth of its territorial and is navigable for nearly ninety miles. The surface. Since the time of Cæsar, that of Ar- principal places it passes are Nevers, Orleans, dennes has been the largest in France : it then Blois, Tours, Saumur, and Nantes. extended from the Rhine to the Rhone, but is The Garonne, rising in the northern side of now much diminished at its extremities. The the Pyrenees, flows nearly north-west into the forest of Fontainbleau covers a space of about Bay of Biscay: having most of its course througti 25,000 acres. That of Orleans, including several a Hat country. It is joined by the Dordogne plains and villages, is fifteen leagues in length, before it reaches the sea, and after the junction and from three to eight in breadth. It contains is called the Gironde. It passes Toulouse, Agen, great variety of timber, such as oak, elm, fir, and Bourdeaux, below which it opens into a large aspen, &c. 'Before the revolution the value of estuary, having an eutire course of above 200 its timber annually was 100,000 Jivres: the miles. profit being part of the appanage of the duke of Other rivers in the northern departments are Orleans.
the Somme, which falls into the British Channel M. Chaptal, in his treatise d'Industrie Fran- below Abbeville; the Oise and the Mare caise, estimates the woods which are
which enter the Seine; the Aisne tributary to Hectares,
the Oise; and the Meuse, the Moselle, and the Regularly cut for fuel, equal to 6,612,000
Scheldt (l'Escaut) watering the central departThose allowed to grow for timber 460,000
ments. The Vilaine discharges its waters into And the chestnut woods
the ocean below La Roche-Bernard. The
Sarthe and the Loir unite above Angers, and, 7,478,000
having joined the Mayenne at that town, they
augment the Loire a little below. These collect The hectare is about two-fifths of the English their waters on the north of that river. The acre. Under the old government, the national for- Creuse joins the Vienne, which with the Cher ests yielded about 12,000,000 francs to the royal and the Indre enter the Loire from the south. treasury. By the revolution, all forests formerly The Yonne discharges itself into the Seine at held by the corporate bodies and the emigrants Montereau. The Saone and the Doubs unite were annexed to those of the state, which were and afterwards flow into the Rhone. Of the thus increased to upwards of 4,000,000 arpents, sout hern rivers the three which fall into the or about one-fourth. These, added to the Garoune are the Dordogne, the Lot, and the forests in Belgium, and on the left bank of the Tarn. The Adour runs into the sea at Bayonne. Rhire, in the year 1806, yielded rather more The Allier discharges itself into the Loire at than 70,000,000 francs, according to the budget Nevers; while the Isere and the Durance are for that year. All forests above 300 acres were both tributary to the Rhene. also added to the national domains, and declared The canals of France are few, and the general inalienable. In the year 1800 the national management of them very far behind that of our forests were exempted from the land-tax. But own internal navigation. The principal existing the revolution did not abolish the arbitrary laws canals are:-1. The Canal de Briare, which to which the private proprietors of woodlands unites the Loire near Briare, with the Loing at were subject. *According to these laws, the go- Cepoix; where also it receives the canal d'Or vernment appoints persons, who are proper leans. From this place the canal of Montargis judges of ship timber, to examine all the woods, continues the navigation to the Seine. By means and to mark such trees as they deem fit for their of these, and the connecting rivers, France may purposc, after which the proprietor must not lay be traversed from north to south. This canal the axe to them.
contains forty-two locks, and is about fifty-five The rivers of France are numerous, and inter- miles in length.—2. The Canal du Centre, also sect and beautify the country in every direction. called the Canal of Charollois, and the Canal of 'The Rhine now only waters the eastern frontiers of the Three Seas, or of Digoin, is about twenty two departments. The Rhone, Seine, Loire, and French leagues in length, and by means of the
Rhone, the Loire, and the Seine, unites the Me- merchantmen. Farther to the south, we find at diterranean, the Ocean, and the Channel.-3. La Rochelle a small, but secure harbour, and at The Canal de la Côte d'Or, likewise called the Bourdeaux, a river nearly equal in width to the Canal de Bourgogne, connects the Saone and the Thames at London. From this there is no seaYonne, at a short distance from Joigny; and port, until reaching Bayoune, a place of no easy two other intermediate rivers. Its whole length access. On the Mediterranean, the ports are the is about 140 miles.-4. The Canal de Montargis, Cette and Marseilles, the latter considered spaconstructed as early as 1720, to continue the na- cious and secure. At Brest and Toulon, are the vigation of the Canal de Briare to the Seine.- great dock yards and naval stations, both having 5. The Canal d'Orleans which joins the Loire excellent harbours; Rochefort is nearly equal to and the Loing. It commences at the former them, situated on the river Charente near its river, two leagues above Orleans, and unites with mouth. At Cherburg the labor and expense that the latter near Montargis. It has thirty locks in have been bestowed on the public works have a length of about fifty miles.-6. The Canal du been, as we have seen, immense. See CHERBURG. Midi or Canal of Languedoc, the most noted and Its roadstead, is extensive and open, but it has extensive in France. It was constructed under a sea-wall, which, affords considerable protecthe auspices of Colbert, during the reign of tion from the swell of the sea; and its spacious Louis XIV.; and employed a great number of dock is capable of containing fifty sail of the men for fifteen years, among whom nearly half a line. Havre de Grace, the best mercantile harmillion of money was distributed. This canal bour perbaps in France, has also been formed at commences at the bay of Languedoc, and enters a great expense. the Garonne near the city of Toulouse, after a The climate of France has been divided into course of 126 miles. Its breadth, including the that of the North, the Central, and the Southern towing paths, is 144 feet, and its depth about six. regions. The north, comprising Flanders, PiThe French government has recently formed cardy, Normandy, Brittany, and, in general, all many plans for improving the internal navigation. that part of France that would be bounded on A Report drawn up by the Administration des the south by a diagonal line from lat. 47° on the Ponts et Chaussées, for the information of the west to lat. 49o on the east frontier, bears a great French ministry, enumerates all the canals which resemblance in temperature and produce, to the are finished-all those on which they are at work, south of England; and the chief culture is in and all those which they recommend to be un- wheat, barley, oats, rye; apples, pears, and cherdertaken.
ries; hemp, flax, and rapeseed. Here also, and here Of the canals which are in progress the most only in France, is pasturage rich and extensive; important are-Canal de Monsieur, parallel with while the timber is also remarkably like our own. the Rhine, which will facilitate the exportation The central region comprising the country to the of the Alsace manufactures both to Paris and south of the Loire, or of the diagonal line we Marseilles—Canal de Bourgogne, joining the have mentioned, until reaching a similar line in Canal de Monsieur with the Seine by way of lat. 45° on the west and 47° on the east frontier, Dijon-Canal lateral de la Loire-Canal du Duc has its winters, except in the highest parts, senside Berry, striking off from the Loire near Tours bly shorter and milder. Wheat, barley, cats, and passing by Bourges and joining the Loire and rye, are here mingled with maize in the again near Nevers—Canal de Bretagne--Canal culture, and vines are general. The weather du Nivernois, to intersect the Nivernois, and give in this great inland tract is also more steady some means of communication to a district in than northward. In the summer it has little which hitherto all goods have been carried on rain, and few storms: but when they occur horseback.
they are frequently accompanied with hail. France contains no lakes of importance, and This is altogether perhaps the most pleasaut the sea-coast is singularly deficient in harbours part of France'; it is certainly generally preferconsidering its extent. In thirty leagues of coast red by English visitors and residents. The Languedoc has not one good harbour; and southern region comprehending the whole breadth while Provence abounds in inlets arising from of France, from lat. 45° and 46° to lat. 42° 30', the sand and other accretions, which the Rhone approaches in climate to the warmth of Italy; brings down, being driven to the westward, these it being necessary, in the summer months, to render the coast extremely shelving, and full of suspend all active exertions in the middle of shoals.
The coast of Provence, is on the con- the day. Wheat is here but partially grown; trary steep and rocky, and inclines gradually to barley, oats, and rye, on the high grounds; and the southward, from the mouths of the Rhone to maize very generally. The vines supply in their near Toulon. But here all the harbours want rich produce and cultivation the main article of depth as roadsteads for shipping. Going round export. The common fruits are olives, mulberthe coast from the north-east we have, at Dunkirk, ries, and in warm parts oranges and lemons. The a small harbour in the interior of the town, ap- pasturage is good only on mountainous or well proached on the Dutch plan by a canal leading watered tracts. from the sea. Boulogne is a shallow roadstead, The quantity of rain that annually falls in giving protection by land batteries near its Paris is very nearly the same as in London; the entrance to small craft. The port of Dieppe is average in both places being between twenty-one much exposed in winter; that of St. Malo is less and twenty-two inches. The mean quantity for So, and, on doubling the projecting part of Brit- the whole of France is about twenty-one inches. tany, we find, in the south-west of that province, At Marseilles it is 22.5 inches; at Bourdeaux L'Orient, a port of tolerable securitv for large twenty-six; and at Montpelier nearly thirty
inches. Brittany is considered as rainy as lon. The variations of climate are considerably Cornwall. In the interior the rains are less fre- greater on the whole between the north and south quent, but more heavy; so that there is much less of France than between the north and south of difference in the quantity of rain that falls in the Britain, where the difference of latitude is so course of the year than in the number of rainy much modified by the vicinity of the sea. days. The atmosphere of this country is much France has a most diversified and abundant less cloudy than ours : but the most frequent soil, speaking generally. Arthur Young consiwind in the north and central part of France is, ders it much freer froin poor lands than that of as in Britain and Ireland, the south-west. In England. It consists chiefly of different kinds the south of France the winds are commonly of loam, varying from the deepest and richest to from the north. Nor is the difference of tempe- the calcareous and gravelly. This author gives rature between London and Paris considerable: the following estimate of the proportion of the the degree of heat indeed, along the west coast different soils. But his numbers it is to be obof France, is not felt to be intense until passing served include the whole surface of the kingdom, Poitou. In the interior it is more perceptible, making no deductions for roads, rivers, ponds, being strongly felt at Lyons, and still more in &c. Ñecker estimated the roads of France alone the latitude of Nismes, Aix, Marseilles, and Tou- at 9000 square leagues.
Acres. Acres. Rich district of the north-east, containing the provinces of Flanders, Artois, Picardy, Normandy, the Isle of France, &c.
18,179,590 Plain of Garonne
7,654,564 Plain of Alsace
637,880 Lower Poitou, &c.
1,913,641 Rich loam
28,385,675 The heath district of Brittany, Anjou, and parts of Normandy, &c. 15,307,128 The heath district of Guyenne and Gascony
· 10,206,085 Heath
25,513,213 The mountainous district of Auvergne, Dauphiny, Provence, Languedoc, &c. 28,707,037 The chalky district of Champagne, Sologne, Touraine, Poitou, Saintonge, Angoumois, &c.
16,584,889 The district of gravel of the Bourbonnais and Nivernais
3,827,282 The district of stony soils in Lorraine, Burgundy, Franche Compté, &c.
20,412,171 The district of various loans in the Limousin, Berry, La Manche, &c.
The agriculture of France is not equal to its advantages in point of soil and climate. Before the revolution it languished under the seigneurships and ecclesiastical tenures: and since that event the law which directs an equal division of landed property among the children of a family, in most cases, has greatly increased the evils of its minute subdivision. The parent of two children has the free disposal of only one-third of his property; the parent of three children of only one-fourth ; the residue being shared equally among all. The claiın of primogeniture is thus in a great degree annulled.
One-half of the population of France, it is considered, have from these provisions, and the extensive sales of land in modern times, become landed proprietors; and one-fourth agricultural laborers : consequently two-thirds of the whole are employed in agricultural pursuits; while, in Great Britain, those so occupied do not amount to more than one-third of the population. A recent statement of M. Chaptal (De l’Industrie François) reckons the surface of France at 52,000,000 hectares, which are thus distributed :
3,488,000 Chestnut woods
359,000 Kitchen gardens
328,000 Lakes, Ponds, &c. .
186,000 Hops and Hemp
43,000 Mines and Quarries
28,000 Gardens, Parks, and Plea ur: Grounds
9,000 Cultures particulieres, crops 11 0
small to be classed but as sun-
787,000 Waste lands, heaths, sands 3,841,000 Buildings
Total 52,000,000 It further appears, from this writer, that the whole value of the agricultural produce of France is 4,678,708,855 francs. The expenses of raising this he estimates at 3,334,005,515 francs, which reduces the net profits to 1,334,703,370 francs. Besides this statement of the pet profits, three others have been given, arising from them
1,486,244,653 According to the return of special commissioners
1,626,000,000 The mean of these three gives
1,478,461,176 ef, to find the average result of all these state Chestnuts supply, in the central part of France, ments, we take the mean of this last and of M. no inconsiderable portion of human food. In Chaptal's, we shall have 1,411,582,273 francs; the south the fruits are almonds, olives, prunes, which has been thought a near approximation to figs, and oranges. the truth. From the estimate of this author, it The vine is cultivated over, perhaps, one-half appears that the capital employed in agricultural of France, beginning, in a limited degree, pursuits in France is 37,522,061,476 francs; in Champagne and Burgundy; in Provence and which, compared with the statement of profits, the lower part of Languedoc, the climate becomgives only three and a half per cent. upon the ing much warmer, the culture of it is general ; whole capital employed.
though it is no where managed with such skill as Buck-wheat is largely cultivated in Normandy along the banks of the Garonne. The quality of and the south of France, both as green food for French wines, it is well known, is very various. cattle, and for the diet of the peasantry: it is The entire amount produced is said to have been sown generally in the month of June, and har- considerably increased since the revolution, as vested in the end of September. Rape-seed is well from the division of the larger estates as also general here and in French Flanders; and from the quantity of waste land that has been supplies, as in several districts in England, oil brought under vulture: 5,000,000 acres of land for the market and food for the cattle, either are, we are told, planted with vines; and that the green or in cake. Cole-seed is also raised in value of the annual produce is from £28,000,000 this part. Flax is very generally raised in Flan- to £30,000,000 sterling, of which about a tenth ders, Alsace, and Normandy, as well as in the or twelfth part only is exported. A farther provinces of the west and south, where it is spun quantity, equal to about a sixth of the above, is in the cottages. Hemp also is raised in many made into brandy. parts of France, particularly in the north. To The official calculations of the produce of bacco flourishes in Alsace and Picardy, and France are no where else equalled in point of would it is said be extensively reared throughout minuteness. They give the following as the France but for the excise restrictions, which only value of articles produced annually in France :license its growth in particular parts. We have
20,000,000 often thought our own excise laws sufficiently in Raw silk
9,600,000 trusive upon all the works of man, but this is an
1,200,000 interference with natural productions which we Flax
800,000 do not recollect that they equal. Maize is a cul Madder
200,000 ture of great importance, both for the food of Wood for fuel and timber of all man and cattle, in the warm parts of France;
5,600,000 when intended to stand for harvest it is planted Olive oil, rape-seed, and cole-seed 2,800,000 in rows with but little seed, and yields more Tobacco
300,000 than twice the quantity of wheat that would be Chestnuts
300,000 produced on the same area. During its growth, the leaves are regularly stripped for the cattle;
40,800,000 and in some districts it is sown thick and mown Of the following articles also, produced in for that purpose only. Potatoes are little known, Great Britain, we extract not the value only, but and as little approved, speaking generally. the quantity and average price.
The pasturage is, as we have stated, chiefly rich in iron. The Ardennes, Vosges, Jura, Puy confined to the north and west of France: and de Dôme, Pyrenees, &c., &c., all abound with here clover and sainfoin abound; lucerne is much this mineral; and numerous forges, estimated in more general, being raised not merely in the all at about 250, have been built, principally in north, but in the central and southern provinces, the departments des Ardennes, du Cher, du Côte wherever irrigation is practicable and the soil d'Or, de la Dordogne, de la Haute Maine, du and climate suitable.
Nievre, de la Haute Saône. There are besides The art of breeding cattle is little understood 100 forges à la Catalane, and about 900 faux in France, nor is there much judgment shown in d’affinerie, for refining the metal, producing fattening them. The beef and mutton of the nearly 75,000,000 kilos per annum. But, with north and west are, however, very tolerable, and the exception of that found near Beffort (Bas their price, though varying in different provinces, Rhin), the quality is inferior. It is in general thirty per cent. less than in England. 'Butter is too brittle to be employed in machinery. Copmade and used extensively, but cheese much per is only found, in any considerable quantities, less than in England. In the south, however, at Baygorri (Basses Pyrenées), and at Chessy olive oil, largely supplies the place of butter in and St. Bel, near Lyons. A small supply is cooking. The French horses are inferior, both in also derived from a few mines in the departsize, number, and general appearance, to those ments des Hautes Alpes and de Haut Rhin. of our own country. In the performance of Lead is found in the departments de l'Arriege, labor, however, they are found strong and de la Haute Loire, and du Finisterre; and tin is tolerably expeditious. A French mail-coach found near St. Omer ; but the whole product of performs only five instead of seven miles an these mines is quite insufficient to answer the hour, as with us; but this is owing less to in- demand in France, and zinc is frequently subferiority in the horses, than to the state of the stituted for copper, especially for sheathing roads, and to general want of despatch at post- ships. houses. More than one-half of the horses be The fields of coal in France are inexhaustible, long to the northern provinces, viz. Normandy, and the collieries very numerous. They are to Brittany, Picardy, Alsace, and the Isle of France. be found in the north, near Valenciennes and In the central and southern departments the Lisle, near the banks of the Allier, in the departwork is chiefly done by oxen. ' The total of ment du Puy de Dôme, de l'Aveyron, du Captal, horned cattle in France, in 1812, was reported and in many other places. Many of them, howofficially as follows :-Chaptal, vol. i. p. 197. ever, are not worked, in great measure owing to
the difficulty of carrying the coal away when Bulls
214,000 brought to the surface. The whole value of Oxen
1,702,000 coal annually extracted from the mines in France Cows
3,910,000 is not above £2,000,000 sterling ; nor is the Heifers
856,000 quality in general so good as in England.
Besides the mines that are actually worked, Sheep are reared almost every where, and the there are many others which exist, but which, mutton is good. Merinos were first brought owing to the impediments thrown in the way of from Spain in 1787, and formed into a royal speculators by the government, have not yet been flock at Rambouillet. The quality has been opened. By the French law, all minerals of progressively improved, and distributions of every kind belong to the crown, and the only Merinos have been successively made to pro- advantage the proprietor of the soil enjoys, is the prietors of sheep pastures in all parts of France. having the refusal of the mine at the rent fixed The consequence is that, in many districts, the upon it by the crown surveyors. There is great weight of the fleece has been nearly doubled. difficulty sometimes in even obtaining the leave The animals are not folded during night, but of the crown to sink a shaft upon the property crowded into covered buildings (bergeries), and of the individual, who is anxious to undertake suffer, particularly in winter, much injury from the speculation, and to pay the rent usually desudden exposure. Mules, though little known manded, a certain portion of the gross product. in the north of France, are reared in the central The comte Alexandre de B-, it is said, has and southern parts very generally. Poultry, in been vainly seeking this permission for a lead France, is both larger and more abundant than mine on his estate in Brittany for upwards of ten
5,023,904 10,265,944 231,886 1,075,277