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FOURCROY (Antoine François de), was born tion of his whole andience. Bucquet soon after at Paris on the 15th of June, 1755. His family substituted him in his place; and it was in his had long resided in the capital, and several of laboratory and in his class-room that Fourcroy his ancestors had distinguished themselves at first made himself acquainted with chemistry. the bar. His father, however, was a poor apothe- There was a college established in the king's cary, and he was at length even compelled to give garden, which was at that time under the superup that business by the corporation of apothecaries. intendance of Buffon, and Macquer was the proThe care of an elder sister preserved the subject fessor of chemistry in this institution. On the of this memoir with difficulty till he reached death of this chemist, in 1784, though Lavoisier age at which it was usual to be sent to college. stood candidate for the chair, Fourcroy was apHere he was unlucky enough to meet with a pointed; and continued professor at the Jardin brutal master, who treated him with cruelty. des Plantes during the remainder of his life, The consequence was a dislike to study; and he which lasted twenty-five years; and such was his quitted the college at the age of fourteen, scarcely eloquence, that his celebrity as a lecturer conbetter instructed than when he went to it. His tinued always upon the increase. We must now poverty now was such, thai he was under the ne- notice the political career of Fourcroy during cessity of endeavouring to support himself by the progress of the revolution. In the autumn commencing writing-master. He had even some of 1793 he was elected a member of the Nathoughts of going upon the stage; but, while un- tional Convention. The National Convention, certain what plan to follow, the advice of Viq. and France herself, were at that time in a state d'Azyr induced him to commence the study of of abject slavery; and so sanguinary was the tymedicine. This to a man in his situation was rant who ruled over that unhappy country, that by no means an easy task. Fourcroy, however, Fourcroy, notwithstanding his reputation for elostudied with so much zeal and ardor that he soon quence, and the love of eclat which appears all became well acquainted with the subject of me- along to have been his domineering passion, had dicine. It was now necessary to get a doctor's sufficient wisdoni never to open his mouth in degree; and all the expenses, at that time, the convention till after the death of Robespierre. amounted to £250 sterling. Viq. d'Azyr was During this unfortunate and disgraceful period, particularly obnoxious to the faculty of medicine several of the most eminent literary characters at Paris; and Fourcroy was unluckily the ac- of France were destroyed; among others, Laknowledged protegée of this eminent anatomist. voisier; and Fourcroy has been accused of conThis was sufficient to induce the faculty of me- tributing to the death of this illustrious philodicine to refuse him a gratuitous degree; and he sopher, his former rival, and his master in would have been excluded in consequence from chemistry. How far such an accusation is deentering upon the career of a practitioner, had serving of credit, there are no means of deternot the friends of d’Azyr, enraged at this treat- mining; but Cuvier, who was upon the spot, ment, formed a subscription, and contributed the and in a situation which enabled him to investinecessary expenses. But above the simple de- gate its truth or falsehood, acquits Fourcroy engree of doctor, there was a higher one, entitled, tirely of the charge. “If in the rigorous researches Docteur Regent, which depended entirely upon which we have made,' says Cuvier, in his Eloge the votes of the faculty; and this was unani- of Fourcroy,' we had found the smallest proof mously refused to M. de Fourcroy. Fourcroy of an atrocity so horrible, no human power being thus entitled to practise in Paris
, his suc- could have induced us to sully our mouths with cess depended entirely upon the reputation which his Eloge, or to have pronounced it within the he could contrive to establish. For this purpose walls of this temple, which ought to be no less he devoted himself to the sciences connected sacred to honor' than to genius. Fourcroy with medicine, as the shortest and most certain began to acquire influence only after the ninth road by which he could reach his object. His thermidor, when the nation was wearied with first writings showed no predilection for any destruction, and when efforts were making to reparticular branch of science. He wrote upon store those monuments of science, and those chemistry, anatomy, and on natural history. He public institutions for education, which, during published an Abridgment of the History of In- the wantonness and folly of the revolution, had sects, and a Description of the Bursæ Mucosæ been overturned and destroyed. Fourcroy was of the Tendons. This last piece seems to have particularly active in this renovation, and it was given him the greatest celebrity; for in 1785 he to him chiefly that almost all the schools estawas admitted, in consequence of it, into the blished in France for the education of youth are Academy of Sciences as an anatomist; but the to be ascribed. The convention had destroyed reputation of Bucquet, which at that time was all the colleges, and universities, and academies, very high, gradually directed his particular at- throughout France. The effects of this ridicutention to chemistry, and he retained this predi- lous abolition soon became visible. The army lection during the rest of his life. Bucquet was stood in need of surgeons and physicians, and at that time professor of chemistry in the medical there were none educated to supply the vacant school of Paris, and was then greatly celebrated places. Three new schools were founded for on account of his eloquence. Fourcroy became educating medical men. They were nobly enin the first place his pupil, and soon after his dowed, and still continue connected with the particular friend. One day, when illness pre- university of Paris. The term schools of medivented him from lecturing as usual, he entreated cine was proscribed as too aristocratical. They M. de Fourcroy to supply his place : he at last were distinguished by the ridiculous appellation consented: and acquitted himself to the satisfac- of schools of health. The Polytechnic School
was next instituted, as a kind of preparation for Chimie, or the Annales de Museum d'Histoire the exercise of the military profession, where Naturelle, of which last work he was the original young men could be instructed in mathematics projector. As in most of these papers the name and natural philosophy, to make them fit for en- of Vauquelin is associated with his own, as the tering the schools of the artillery, and of the author; and as during the publication of those marine. Fourcroy, either as member of the con which appeared with his own name alone, l'auvention, or of the council of ancients, took an quelin was the operator in his laboratory, it is active part in all these institutions, both as far as not possible to determine what part of the experegarded the plan and the establishment. He riments were made by Fourcroy, and wbat by was equally concerned in the establishment of Vauquelin. the Institute, and of the Museum d'Histoire Na FOURMONT (Stephen), professor of the turelle. This last was endowed with the utmost Arabic and Chinese languages, was born at liberality, and Fourcroy was one of the first pro- Herbelai, a village twelve miles from Paris, in fessors; as he was, alsó, in the School of Medi- 1683. He studied in Mazarine College He cine, and the Polytechnic School. The violent was at length appointed professor of Arabic in exertions which M. de Fourcroy made in the nu- the Royal College, and was made a member of merous situations which he filled, and the pro- the Academy of Inscriptions. In 1738 he was digious activity which he displayed, gradually chosen F. R. S. of London, and of Berlin in undermined his constitution. He himself was 1741. He was often consulted by the duke of sensible of his approaching death, and announced Orleans, who greatly estet med him, and made it to his friends as an event which would spee- him one of his secretaries. He wrote a great dily take place. On the 16th of December, number of works. The chief of which are, 1. 1809, after signing some despatches, he suddenly The Roots of the Latin Tongue, in verse. cried out, Je suis mort, and dropped lifeless on the Critical Reflections on the Histories of ancient ground. He was twice married : first to Made- Nations, 2 vols. 4to. 3. Meditationes Senecæ, moiselle Bettinger, by whom he had two chil- folio. 4. A Chinese Grammar, in Lalin, folio. dren; a son, an officer in the artillery, who 5. Several Dissertations printed in the Memoirs inherits his title; and a daughter, Madame Fou- of the Academy of Inscriptions, &c. He died caud. He was married a second time to Madame at Paris in 1745. Belleville, the widow of Vailly, by whom he FOURNESS, a track in Loynsdale, Lancahad no family. He left but little fortune behind shire, between the Kent, Leven, and Dudden him; and two maiden sisters who lived with him, Sands, which runs north parallel with the west depended for their support upon his friend M. sides of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and on Vauquelin. The character of M. de Fourcroy the south runs into the sea as a promontory. is sufficiently obvious. It was exactly fitted to Here, as Camden expresses it, the sea, as if enthe country in which he lived, and the revolu- raged at it, lashes it more furiously, and in high tionary government, in the midst of which he tides has even devoured the shore, and made was destined to finish his career. Vanity was three large bays; viz. Kent-sand, into which the bis ruling passion, and the master-spring of all river Ken empties itself; Leven-sand and Dudhis actions. It was the source of all the happi- den-sand, between which the land projects in ness, and of all the misery of his life; for every such a manner that it has its name thence; attack, from what quarter soever it proceeded, Foreness and Foreland, signifying the same with was felt by him with equal acuteness. The us as promontorium anterius in Latin.' Bishop changes which took place in the science of che- Gibson, however, derives the name of Fourness, mistry were brought about by others, who were or Furness, from the numerous furnaces that placed in a different situation, and endowed were there anciently, the rents and services of with different talents; but no man contributed which, called bloomsmithy rents, are still paid. so much as Fourcroy to the popularity of the Here are several cotton mills; and in the mosses of Lavoisierian opinions, and the rapidity with Fourness much fir is found, but more oak: the which they were propagated over France, and trunks in general lie with their heads to be east
, most countries in Europe. He must have pose the high winds having been from the west. sessed an uncommon facility in writing, for his Fourness produces all sorts of grain, but prinliterary labors are exceedingly numerous. Be- cipally oats, of which the bread is generally made : sides those essays which have been already ng- and there are veins of a very rich iron ore, ticed, he published five editions of his System which is not only melted and wrought, but exof Chemistry; the first edition being in two ported in great quantities. The three sands volumes, and the fifth in ten. It contains a vast above-mentioned are very dangerous to travelquantity of valuable matter, and contributed lers, by the tides and the many quicksands. considerably to the general diffusion of chemical There is a guide on horseback appointed to Kent knowledge. Perhaps the best of all Fourcroy's or Lancaster-sand at £10 a year, to Leven at £6 productions is his Philosophy of Chemistry, out of the public revenue; but to Dudden-sands, which is remarkable for its conciseness, its per- which are most dangerous, none; and it is no spicuity, and the neatness of its arrangement. uncommon thing for persons to pass over in parBesides these works, and the periodical work ties of 100 at a time like caravans, under the dicalled Le Medecin Eclairé, of which he was the rection of the carriers, who pass every day. The editor, there are above 160 papers on chemical sands are less dangerous than formerly, being subjects
, with his name attached to them as the much more frequently passed and better knowo, author, which appeared in the Memoirs of the and travellers who are stra gers, never going Academy of the Institute, in the Annales de without guides.
Fourness ABBEY, or Furnis Abbey up in half an inch from the end. Two inches and the mountains,' was begun at Tulket in Amoun- a half inwards from the last mentioned notchy derness, in 1124, by Stephen earl of Boulogne, holding the above end from you, there is a cut afterwards king of England, for the monks of made on the right side to half the breadth of the Savigny in France, and three years after removed stick, quite through; from which, towards the to the valley, then called Bekangesgill, or “the outer end on the same side, a little within the vale of night-shade.' It was of the Cistertian first mentioned notch, the wood is cut out in a order, endowed with above £800 per annum. circular manner. The inner end is tapered and Out of the monks of this abbey, Camden says, left rough, in order to make the bait at (6) the bishops of the Isle of Man, which lies over hold the latter upon it. The upper piece (c) is against it, used to be chosen by ancient custom; three inches long, half an inch broad, and oneit being as it were the mother of many monas- sixteenth of an inch thick. At half an inch teries in Man and Ireland. Some ruins, and from what is to be the highest part of the trap, it part of the fosse which surrounded the monas- is to be notched, like the outer end of the baittery, are still to be seen at Tulket. The remains stick, to one-fourth of its thickness: the other at Fourness breathe the plain simplicity of the end is made sharp like the face of a chisel. The Cistertian abbeys; the chapter-house was the third piece is of the same thickness and breadth, only piece of elegant Gothic about it. Part of and four inches long, sharpened at one of its the painted glass from the east window, repre- ends like the above, and cut square at the other. senting the crucifixion, &c., is preserved at This piece is called the pillar (d). Winder-mere church in Bowlness, Westmore There are two slates required; one to lie upon land.
the ground, and this must be pressed so deep FOURSCORE, adj. Four and score. Four into it as to cause its upper side to be equal with times twenty; eighty. It is used elliptically for the general surface; because, if access to the fourscore years in numbering the age of man. bait is any way difficult, the mice will take the
When they were out of reach, they turned and seeds as the readiest food, although not perhaps crossed the ocean to Spain, having lost fourscore of the most palatable. Having laid the above slate, their ships, and the greater part of their men. and being provided with another, from six to seven
Bacon's War with Spain. inches square, and from one and a half to two In the mean time, the batteries proceeded, pounds weight, take the upper piece (c) into the And foutscore cannon on the Danube's border
left hand, holding the sharp end towards you, Were briskly fired and answered in due order. and the notch downwards. Next place the
Byron, sharpened end of the pillar into this notch, And so all ye, who would be in the right,
forming an acute angle; hold these two pieces In health and purse, begin your day to date From day-break, and when coffined at fourscore,
in this position with the fingers and thumb of Engrave upon the plate, you rose at four.
the left hand, and place the under end of the FOURSQUARE, adj. Four and square of the upper slate near the extremity of the upper
pillar upon the lower slate, and the outer edge Quadrangular ; having four sides and angles part of the trap; then take the bait-stick (preequal.
viously baited) with your right hand, and place it The temple of Bel was environed with a wall car.
so as that the notched part near the extremity ried foursquare, of great height and beauty; and on each square certain brazen gates curiously engraven.
may receive the sharpened end of the upper Raleigh's History.
stick, and let that place of it which was cut half FOURTEEN, adj. Sax. feopertyn. Four end of the bait-stick may slightly rest upon the
through hold the pillar, but so as that the baited and ten; twice seven.
slate; and the trap is set. I am got fourteen pence on the score for sheer ale. A very little practice will enable any person who
Shakspeare. is a stranger to this kind of trap to use it with FOURTE’ENTH, adj. From fourteen. The facility; and a great number may be placed in ordinal of fourteen; the fourth after the tenth.
the nursery grounds at no expense.
Bricks are I have not found any that see the ninth day, few sometimes used in place of slates. The best bait is before the twelfth, and the eyes of some not open be- oatmeal made into dough by butter, and tied on the fore the fourteenth day. Browne's Vulgar Errours. bait-stick with a little fax: after being tied on,
FOURTH, adj. From four. The ordinal of it will be of use to burn the bait a little, to make four; the first after the third.
it smell. Such a quantity of bait must not be A third is like the former : filthy hags!
used as may prevent the mouse from being killed Why do you shew me this? A fourth? start cye! by the fall of the slate. What! will the line stretch out to the crack of doom?
Shakspeare. Fourth FIGURE Trap, the trap generally used in gardens, plantations, &c., to catch the mice which devour the seeds. It is composed of three pieces of wood in the shape of a figure 4 (see diagram) supporting a piece of slate. The following is the account given of it in Nicholls's Planter. The longest of these pieces of wood, or the bait-stick (a), should be seven inches in length, half an inch broad, and onesixteenth thick; the outward end on the upper side is notched to one-fourth of its thickness, at
FOʻURTHLY, adv. From fourth. In the excellent poor-house, and an alms-house for fourth place.
eight decayed widows. No wheeled carriages Fourthly, plants have their seed and seminal parts can come into this town, owing to the narrowuppermost, and living creatures have them lowermost. ness and sudden turnings of the streets. Most
Bucon's Natural History. of the inhabitants are in the pilchard fishery, FOURWHE'ELED, adj. Four and wheel. which employs a great number of vessels. About Running upon twice two wheels.
28,000 hhds. of fish are annually brought into Scarce twenty fourwheeled cars, compact and strong,
this port. The corporation consists of a mayor, 'The massy load could bear, and roll along. Pope.
recorder, eight aldermen, a town clerk, and two FOU-TCHEQU, a city of China of the first of the market, fairs, and harbour, were vested in
assistants: the market is on Saturday. The tolls rank in the province of Fo-Kien. It carries on a great trade, and has a good harbour and a most
the corporation on the payment of a fee-farm
rent of about 40s. It has sent two members to magnificent bridge, which has more than 100 arches, constructed of white stone, and orna
parliament since the 13th of queen Elizabeth. mented with a double balustrade throughout. It Powey lies twenty-two miles E. N. E. of Truro, is the residence of a viceroy, and has under its and 239 W. S.W. of London.
FOWL, n. s. & v. n. Sax. fugel, suhl; jurisdiction nine cities of the third class. It lies
Fow'ler, n. s. 870 miles south of Pekin. Long. 136° 50' E. of
Belg. vogal; Goth.
Fow'LING-PIECE, N. s. ) fugl; from Ayga, to Ferro, lat. 26° 4' N.
Fou-Toukou, a city of China of the first rank, ily: A winged animal; a bird. It is colloin the province of Kiang-si; formerly one of the quially used of edible birds, but in books, of all
the feathered tribes. finest cities in the empire, but almost ruined by
Fowl is used collectively; the Tartar invasion. It lies 735 miles east of as, we dined upon fish and fowl: to kill birds Pekin. Long. 133° 42' E. of Ferro, lat. 27°
for food or game: a sportsman who pursues 55' N.
birds; a gun for birds.
the foules of ravine FOʻUTRA, n. s. Fr. foutre. A fig; a scoff;
Were highest set; and, then, the foules smale, a word of contempt. Not used.
That eten as hem nature would encline, A foutra for the world, and worldlings base. As worme or thing, of whiche I tell no tale ;
Shakspeare. And water foule sate, lowest, in the dale; FOWEY, FAwey, or Foy, a populous and And foules that liveth by sede, sat on the greene, flourishing town of Cornwall, with a commodious
And that so fele, that wonder wos to sene. haven on the British Channel. It extends above
Chaucer. A ssemble of Foules. a mile on the east side of the river, and has a
The fowler we defy
And all his craft. Id. Legend of Good Women. spacious market-house, with a town-hall above it, erected by the then representatives of the Are their males' subjects, and at their controuls.
The beasts, the fishes, and the winged fouls, borough, Philip Rashleigh, Esq., and lord vis
Shakspeare. count Valletort. It has also a fine old church, Lucullus entertained Pompey in a magnificent a free-school, and an hospital. It rose so much house : Pompey said, this is a marvellous house for formerly by naval wars and piracies, that, in the the Summer; but methinks very cold for Winter. reign of Edward III., its ships refusing to strike Lucullus answered, Do you not think me as wise as when required, as they sailed by Rye and Win- divers fowls, to change my habitation in the Winter chelsea, were attacked by the ships of those season?
Bacon's Apophthegms. ports, but defeated them ; whereupon they bore
'Tis necessary that the countryman be pmrided
Mortimer. their arms mixed with the arms of those two with a good fowlingpiece. cinque ports, which gave rise to the name of the By those good omens, with swift early steps
The fowler, warned Gallants of Fowey. And Camden informs us
Treads the crimp earth, ranging through fields and that this town quartered a part of the arms of all
glades, the other cinque ports with their own; intima- Offensive to the birds.
Philips. ting that they had at times triumphed over With slaughtering guns the' unwearied fowler roves, them all. In the same reign they rescued cer When frosts have whitened all the naked groves. tain ships of Rye from distress, for which this
Pope. town was made a member of cinque ports. Ed
'This mighty breath ward IV. favored Fowey so much, that when
Instructs the fouls of heaven. the French threatened to come up the river to
Thomson's Spring. burn it, he caused two towers, the ruins of which Fowl, among zoologists, denotes the larger are yet visible, to be built at the public charge sorts of birds, whether domestic or wild: such as for its security: but he was afterwards so pro- geese, pheasants, partridges, turkeys, ducks, &c. voked at the inhabitants for attacking the French, Tame fowl make a necessary part of the stock of after a truce proclaimed with Louis XI., that he a country farm. See Poultry. Fowls are again took away all their ships and naval stores, toge- distinguished into two kinds, viz. land and water ther with a chain drawn across the river between fowls, these last being so called from their living the two forts, which was carried to Dartmouth. much in and about water; also into those which For the present defence of the harbour three are counted game, and those which are not. batteries have been erected at the entrance, See Game. which stand so high that no ship can bring her Fowling Pieces are reckoned best when they guns to bear upon them. The market-house is have a long barrel, from five feet and a half to large and spacious, over which there is a neat six feet, with a modera te bore. But every fowler town-hall. Here are also two free-schools, an should have them of different sizes suitable to
ha res ;
the game he designs to kill. The barrel should ties of each to their full strength, and revealed Je well polished and smooth within, and the bore to the worid the ultimate resources of two of an equal size from one end to the other; of the most distinguished men that ever strugwhich may be proved by putting in a piece of gled for superiority, by eloquence and wispasteboard cut to the exact roundness of the top, dom. The nearness of their deatns, too, secures for if this goes down without stops or slipping, the complete coincidence of their histories ; 90 you may conclude the bore good. The bridge- that, in all future periods, the name of the one pan must be somewhat above the touch hole. inust naturally suggest that of the other, and each As to the locks, choose such as are well filled communicate to his rival a portion of his own with true work, whose springs must be neither renown. It is fair, however, to observe that, if too strong nor too weak. The hammer ought their comparative merit is to be weighed by their to be well hardened, and pliable to go down to celebrity alone, the balance must incline towards the pan with a quick motion.
the claims of him who, without place or power, FOX, n. s. Sax. fox; Belg. vos, vosch, from and acting more as a commentator on great Goth. for. A wild animal of the canine kind, national measures, than as their author, created with sharp ears and a bushy tail, remarkable for for himself a splendor of reputation equal to his cunning, living in holes, and preying upon that of an opponent, who enjoyed nearly through fowls or small animals; by way of reproach, life the most eminent and efficient station.
No applied to a knave or cunning fellow.
antagonist of Godolphin or Harley, of Walpole The sely widewe, and hire daughtrer troo,
or Pelham, fills so large a space in the eye of the Herlen these hennes crie and maken wo;
historian, as these long established dispensers of And out at the doors sterten they anon;
profit and preferment: and even of the great And saw the for toward the wode is gon,
Chatham it is the glorious administration, not the And bare upon his back the cok away;
animated opposition, that is most frequently in They crieden, out harou and wala wa
the mouths of his admirers. If Fox, therefore, "A ha the fox!' and after him they ran
contrary to all former example, contrived, during And eke with staves many another man.
a life of political adversity, to acquire an equal Chaucer. The Nonncs Preestes Tale.
name with his more fortunate competitor, it is The fox barks not when he would steal the lamb.
natural to ascribe to him a superiority of that He that trusts to you,
genius which captivates popular attention. Where he should tind you lions, finds
Mr. Fox was born on the 13th of January, Where fores, geese.
Id. Macbeth. 1749. He was the second son of Henry lord These retreats are more like the dens of robbers, or Holland, who, by a public career in an opposite holes of foxes, than the fortresses of fair warriours. direction to that of his son, at once ennobled
Locke. and enriched bis family. The former was as Fox, in zoology. See Canis. The fox is a zealous in maintaining, as the latter in resisting, great nuisance to the husbandman, by taking the principles of the court; yet, notwithstanding away and destroying his lambs, geese, poultry, this contrariety of conduct, some features of a &c. The common way to catch him is by gins; family likeness may be traced between the father which being baited, and a train made by drawing and the son. We find in both a certain mascuraw flesh across in his usual paths or haunts to line vigor of character, united with a kind, indulthe gin, it proves an inducement to bring him gent, and affectionate temper; political activity to the place of destruction. The fox. is also a with domestic indolence; and an equal ardor beast of chas and is taken with greyhounds, in public enmities and private friendships. The terriers, &c. See HUNTING,
more pleasing qualities in lord Holland's characFox (Charles James), an illustrious states ter were remarkably displayed towards his favoman, who took a large and important share in rite boy, whose genius he had sufficient peneall the public business of the British empire, tration very early to discern. To its growth he from 1768 to 1806. The period of Mr. Fox's is reported to have given the fullest scope, by political life was filled with measures of such freeing him from every species of restraint; interest and magnitude as would have conferred conversing with him on state affairs; and, at celebrity on a meaner agent; while his talents times, even profiting by his suggestions. His were so considerable as to exalt and dignify even mother was lady Georgina Caroline Lennox, sisthe ordinary course of affairs. His era and ter to the late duke of Richmond, through whom character, therefore, mutually aid each other's he inherited the blood, and even the features, of immortality; and, when taken together, com- the royal house of Stuart; but in character, as mand a double portion of that historical interest has been observed by Mr. Burke, he bore a much which either of them would have separately pos- closer resemblance to Henry IV. of France, anosessed. Another accessary circumstance, which ther of his royal progenitors. He enjoyed the full serves to augment his natural and intrinsic claims advantage of a public education, having been sent to fame, was the distinguished eminence of his to Eton, during the mastership of Dr. Barnard, chief political opponent. The mind, like the and under the private tuition of Dr. Newcome, body, is generally disposed to exert no more of the late primate of Ireland. Pitt.spent his boyits power than the occasion reqnires; and, from hood at home, and it is amusing to remark how the want of a sufficient stimulus, many have complete a contrast, in every particular, these allowed their intellectual vigor to degenerate by illustrious men have been destined to exhibit to inaction, and its extent to remain unknown both the world; since they even assist us to appreciate, to others and themselves. But the co-existence in minds nearly of equal force, the comparative and competition of Fox and Pitt tasked the facul- benefits of public and private education. Fox,