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been said that its presence will sometimes oc contains no air, as it is expelled during the act casion an uneasy sense of weight in a weak of freezing, consequently it is remarkably vapid; stomach. The quantity of this salt varies con- but it soon recovers the air it had lost, by exsiderably; but, in general, it appears that the posure to the atmosphere. proportion of five grains in a pint of water will Lake water is a collection of rain, spring, and constitute hardness, unfit for washing with scap, river waters, contaminated with various animal and for many other purposes of domestic use. and vegetable matter, which from its stagnant Animals
appear to be more sensible of the im- nature have undergone putrefaction in it. This purities of water than man. Horses, by an in- objection may be urged with greater force against stinctive sagacity, always prefer soft water; and the use of water collected in ponds and ditches, when, by necessity or inatiention, they are con- and which the inhabitants of some districts are fined to the use of that which is hard, their coats often under the necessity of drinking. I have become rough and ill-conditioned, and they are known an endemic diarrhea to arise from such a frequently attacked with the gripes. Pigeons circumstance. are also known to refuse hard, after they have • Marsh water, being the most stagnant, is the been accustomed to soft water.
most impure of all water, and is generally loaded River water.—This, being derived from the with decomposing vegetable matter. There can conflux of numerous springs with rain water, be no doubt, that numerous diseases have sprung generally possesses considerable purity; that the up from its use.' proportion of its saline contents should be small, The juices and infusions of vegetable and is easily explained by the precipitation which animal matter,' says Dr. Paris, constitute the must necessarily take place from the union of second division of drinks. By impregnating different solutions : it is, however, liable to hold water with the soluble parts of toasted bread, it in suspension particles of earthy matter, which will frequently agree with those stomachs which impair its transparency, and sometimes its sa- rebel against the use of the pure fluid. It is thus lubrity. This is particularly the case with the rendered slightly nutritive, holding a certain porSeine, the Ganges, and the Nile : but as the im- tion of gum and starch in solution. Sir A. Carlisle purities are, for the most part, only suspended, recommends that it should be prepared with hard and not truly dissolved, mere rest or filtration biscuit, reduced by fire to a coffee color. This will therefore restore to it its original purity. The drink, he says, being free from yeast, is a most chemist, therefore, after such a process, would be agreeable beverage. Much depends upon the unable to distinguish water taken up at London water being at a boiling temperature, and it ought from that procured at Hampton-court. There to be drank as soon as it has cooled sufficiently; exists a popular belief, that the water of the for, by keeping, it acquires an unpleasant flavor. Thames is peculiarly adapted for the brewery of Infusions of other kinds of bread, in particular porter; it is only necessary to observe, that such of toasted oat-cakes, also dried or toasted aatwater is never used in the London breweries. meal, have been recommended; but the taste of The vapid taste of river, when compared with such finfusions would not be palatable to any spring, water, depends upon the loss of air and one who has not been accustomed to oat-bread. carbonic acid, from its long exposure.
• Barley water.—The decoction of barley is a • Well water is essentially the same as spring very ancient beverage : it is recommended by water, being derived from the same source; it Hippocrates, and preferred by him to every other is, however, more liable to impurity from its aliment in acute diseases. Barley has the adstagnation or slow infiltration : hence our old vantage over other grains, in affording less viscid wells furnish much purer water than those which potations. The invention of pearl barley has are more recent, as the soluble particles are greatly increased the value of this grain; it is gradually washed away. Mr. Dalton observes, prepared by the removal of its husk or cuticle, that the more any spring is drawn from, the and afterwards by being rounded and polished in softer the water will become.
a mill. These well-known granules consist Snow water has been supposed to be unwhole chiefly of fecula, with portions of mucilage, some, and in particular to produce bronchocele, gluten, and sugar, which 'water extracts by defrom the prevalence of that disease in the Alps; coction :- but the solution soon passes into the but it does not appear upon what principle its acetous fermentation. The bran of barley coninsalubrity can depend.' The same strumous tains an acrid resin, and it is to get rid of such affection occurs at Sumatra, where ice and snow an ingredient that it is deprived of its cuticle. are never seen; while, on the contrary, the dis- The addition of lemon juice and sugar-candy ease is quite unknown in- Chili and Thibet, greatly improve the flavor of this drink. although the rivers of those countries are sup Gruel.--Oats, when freed from their cuticle, plied by the melting of the snow with which the are called groats; in which state, as well as mountains are covered. The same observations when ground into meal, they yield to water, by will apply to ice water. The trials of Captain coction, the fecula they contain, and form a nu. Cook, in his voyage round the world, prove its tritious gruel, which has also the property of wholesomeness beyond a doubt: in the high being slightly' aperient. It should never be kept southern latitudes he found a salutary supply of longer than forty-eight hours, as it becomes aces. fresh water in the ice of the sea. This melted cent after that period. Gruel may be made of a ice,' says Sir John Pringle, 'was not only sweet different degree of consistence, according to the bui soft
, and so wholesome as to show the fallacy object of its potation. If it be used as a de of human reasoning, unsupported by experi- mulcent drink, it should be thin ; and may be ments.' When immediately melted, snow water made, as Dr. Kitchener, our culinary ccnsok,
Informs us, by mixing well together, by degrees, hours before our accustomed period of repose. in a piat basin, one table-spoonful of oatmeal It seems to be generally admitted, that it poswith three of cold water, and then adding care sesses the power of counteracting the effects of narfully a pint of boiling water, which is to be cotics; and hence it is used by the Turks with boiled for five minutes, stirring it all the time, to much advantage, in ahating the influence of the inprevent the oatmeal from burning at the bottom ordinate quantities of opium they are accustomed of the stewpan; then strain through a hair sieve, to swallow. Where our object is to administer it as to separate the undissolved parts of the meal a promoter of digestion, it should be carefully from the gruel. If a more substantial repast is made by infusion; decoction dissipates its aroma. required, double the above quantity of oatmeal The addition of milk is one of unquestionable promust be treated in a similar manner. To in- priety; that of sugar, or rather sugar-candy, may crease the nutritive quality of this aliment, broth be allowed. I have known some persons who or milk may be substituted for water. Some have never taken this beverage without suffering persons are in the habit of introducing a piece from acidity in the stomach: where this happens, of butter into gruel ; but the propriety of this the practice must be abandoned. practice is questionable, where the stomach is • Chocolate. In consequence of the large quandisposed to generate acidity.
tity of nutritive matter which this liquid contains, it Sage tea.—The virtues of sage have been so should be regarded,' Dr. Paris observes, rather extravagantly praised, that, like many of our as food than drink. It is prepared by reducing the remedies, the plant fallen into disuse from coeoa-nut into paste, with sugar, mi
or eggs : the disgust which its panegyrists have excited. I it is also frequently mixed with different aroam convinced, however, that in the form of in- matics, the most common of which is the vanilla, fusion it possesses some power in allaying the a substance very liable to disagree with the irritability of the stomach, and that, on many stomach, and to produce a train of nervous occasions, it will furnish a salutary beverage. symptoms. As a common heverage, chocolate The same observation will apply to balm tea.' is highly objectionable; it contains an oil which We cannot here find room for the entire obser- is difficult of assimilation; it therefore oppresses vations of this author on Tea; but see this the stomach : this effect is of course increased by article.
the application of too much heat in its prepara• When drunk four hours after the principal tion. Another objection against its use is to be meal,' he observes, it will assist the ulterior found in the observations which I have already stages of digestion, and promote the insensible offered upon the subject of too great concenperspiration; while it will afford to the stomach tration. a grateful stimulus after its labors. In enume • Cocoa is usually considered as a substitute rating, however, the advantages of tea, it must for chocolate. As it contains less nutritive not be forgotten that it has introduced and che- matter, it is not so objectionable; and, as the rished a spirit of sobriety; and it must have aily matter exists only in small quantities, it is been remarked by every physician of general less likely to disagree with the stomach. practice, that those persons who dislike tea, fre • Whey is a delightful beverage; but as its quently supply its place by spirit and water. The nature and operation cannot be well understood addition of milk certainly diminishes the astrin- until the composition of milk is investigated, the gency of tea; that of sugar may please the observations which I have to offer upon its use palate, but cannot modify the virtues of the in- will be deferred until the history of that fluid has fusion.
been examined. Coffee. The hostility which has been mani • There are certain saline solutions which are fested against the use of tea has been ex- frequently employed as drinks, and deserve tended, with equal rancour, against that of some attention in this place: such are imperial coffee; and, probably, with equal injustice. and soda water. Imperial is a solution of cream. The principle" upon which its qualities de- of tartar flavored with lemon peel. It ought pend is more stimulant than that of tea, and never to be used except as a medicine. If emcertainly exerts a different species of action upon ployed as an ordinary drink, it is apt to retard. the nervous system, although it is very difficult digestion. If ever useful as an article of diet, it to define the nature of this difference. If taken will be under circumstances of robust health, immediately after a meal, it is not found to create and where a large quantity of animal food bas. that disturbance in its digestion which has been been taken. noticed as the occasional consequence of tea; • Soda Water. The modern custom of drinkon the contrary, it accelerates the operations ing this inviting beverage during, or immediately of the stomach, and will frequently enable the after dinner, has been a pregnant source of dysdyspeptic to digest substances, such as fat pepsia. By inflating the stomach at such a and oily aliment, which would otherwise occa- period, we inevitably counteract those muscular sion much disturbance. The custom of taking contractions of its coats which are essential to coffee immediately after dinner, as so universally chymification. The quantity of soda thus intro practised by the French, no doubt must coun- duced scarcely deserves notice : with the excepteract the evil effects which the peculiar form of tion of the carbonic acid gas, it may be regarded their diet is calculated to produce. Coffee, like as water, more mischievous only in consequence rea, has certainly an antisoporific effect on many of the exhilarating quality inducing us to take it individuals; it imparts an activity to the mind at a period at which we should not require the which is incompatible with sleep: but this will more simple fluid.' rarely occur if the beverage be taken for several Of Malt liquors.-Dr. Paris says, 'malt
liquors differ from wines in several essential bably an essential part, of the food of plants; points: they contain a much larger proportion that it is decomposed by them, and contributes of nutritive matter, and a less proportion of materially to their growth ; and that manures spirit; while they contain a peculiar bitter and serve rather to prepare the water for decomposinarcotic principle derived from the hop. It tion, than to form of themselves, substantially would appear, that the extractive matter fur- and directly, the nourishment of the vegetables
. nished by the malt is highly nutritive; and we Now a very clear analogy may be traced, beaccordingly find, that those persons addicted to tween the vegetation and growth of plants, and such potations are in general fat. Where, how- the digestion and nourishment of animals; and as ever, they are indulged in to any extent, without water is indispensably necessary in both proa corresponding degree of exercise, they induce cesses, and as in one of them (vegetation) it a plethoric state of the Lly, and all the dis- appears evidently to serve as food, why should cases consequent upon such a condition. To we not suppose it may serve as food in the other? those whose diet is not very nutritive, ale There is, in my opinion, abundant reason to susmay be considered not only as an innocent, but pect that this is really the case ; and I shall now as a salubrious article ; and happy is that coun- briefly state the grounds upon which this opinion try, whose labouring classes prefer such a beve- is founded. Having been engaged for a consirage to the mischievous potations of ardent spirit. derable length of time in providing food for the These remarks, however, cannot apply to those poor at Munich, I was naturally led, as well by classes of the community who'fare sumptuously curiosity as motives of economy, to make a great every day.' They will not require a nutritive variety of experiments upon that subject; and I potation of such a character; and light wines had not proceeded far in my opinions, before I have accordingly, in these days of luxury, very began to perceive that they were very important; properly superseded its use: but I am not dis- even much more so than I had imagined. The posed to extend this remark to its more humble difference in the apparent goodness, or the palacompanion, table-beer.' I regard its dismissal tableness, and apparent nutritiousness of the same from the tables of the great as a matter of regret; kinds of food, when prepared or cooked in difits slight, but invigorating bitter is much better ferent ways, struck me very forcibly; and I conadapted to promote digestion than its more costly stantly found that the richness or quality of a substitutes. But it should be soft and mild; for, soup depended more upon a proper choice of when stale and hard, it is likely to disturb the ingredients, and a proper management of the bowels, and occasion effects the very opposite to fire in the combination of these ingredients, than those it is intended to produce. Nor ought it to upon the quantity of solid nutritious matter emhave too great a proportion of hops, but should ployed; much more upon the art and skill of the be thoroughly fermented and purified. Syden- cook, than upon the amount of the sums laid ham always took a glass of small beer, at his out in the market. I found likewise, that the meals, and he considered it as a preservative nutritiousness of a soup, or its power of satisfying against gravel.'
hunger, and affording nourishment, appeared alFor Wine, see that article.
ways to be in proportion to its apparent richness On the subject of the food of the poor we have or palatableness. But what surprised me not a seen no remarks more intelligent than those of little was, the discovery of the very small quanCount Rumford, in his ingenious Essay on Food. tity of solid food, which, when properly prepared, He observes; “There is, perhaps, no operation will suffice to satisfy hunger, and support life of nature which falls under the cognizance of our and health; and the very trifling expense at senses, more surprising, or more curious, than which the stoutest and most laborious man may the nourishment and growth of plants and ani- in any country be fed. After an experience of mals; and there is certainly no subject of inves- more than five years in feeding the poor at tigation more interesting to mankind. As pro- Munich, during which time every experiment viding subsistence is, and ever must be, an ob- was made that could be devised, not only with ject of the first concern in all countries, any dis- regard to the choice of the articles used as food, covery or improvement by which the procuring but also in respect to their different combinagood and wholesome food can be facilitated, tions and proportions, and to the various ways must contribute very powerfully to increase the in which they could be prepared or cooked ; it comforts and promote the happiness of society. was found that the cheapest, most savoury, and That our knowledge in regard to the science of most nourishing food that could be provided, nutrition is still very imperfect, is certain ; but was a soup composed of pearl barley, peas. I think there is reason to believe, that we are potatoes, cuttings of fine wheaten bread, vinegar, upon the eve of some very important discoveries salt and water, in certain proportions. The relative to that mysterious operation. Since it method of preparing this soup is as follows. has been known that water is not a simple ele- The water and the pearl barley are first put ment, but a compound, and capable of being de- together into the boiler, and made to boil; the composed, much light has been thrown upon peas are then added, and the boiling is contimany operations of nature, which formerly were nued over a gentle fire about two hours; the wrapped up in obscurity. In vegetation, for in- potatoes are then added (having been previously stance, it has been rendered extremely probable, peeled with a knife, or having been boiled, that water acts a much more important part than in order to their being more easily deprived of was formerly assigned to it by philosophers; that their skins), and the boiling is continued for it serves not merely as the vehicle of nourish- about one hour more; during which time the ment, but constitutes at least one part, and pro- contents of the boiler are frequently stirred
about with a large wooden spoon or ladle, to water, forms the thickest and most nourishing destroy the texture of the potatoes, and to reduce soup that can be taken; and that the quantity of the soup to one uniform mass. When this is solid matter which enters into the composition done, the vinegar and salt are added ; and last of another very nutritive food, hartshorn jelly, is of all, at the moment it is to be served up, the not much more considerable. The barley in my cuttings of bread. The soup should never be soup seems to act much the same part as the suffered to boil, or even to stand long before it salope in this famous restorative; and no subis served up, after the cutti of bread are put stitute that I could ever find for it, among all the to it. It will, indeed, for reasons which will variety of corn and pulse of the growth of Euhereafter be explained, be best never to put the rope, ever produced balf the effect; that is to cuttings of bread into the boiler at all, but (as say, half the nourishment at the same expense. is always done at Munich) to put them into the Barley may therefore be considered as the rice tubs in which the soup is carried from the of Great Britain. It requires, it is true, a great kitchen into the dining hall; pouring the soup deal of boiling; but, when it is properly managed, hot from the boiler upon them, and stirring the it thickens a vast quantity of water; and, as I whole well together with the iron ladles used for suppose, prepares it for decomposition. It also measuring out the soup to the poor in the hall. gives the soup, into which it enters as an ingreIt is of more importance than can well be dient, a degree of richness which nothing else imagined, that this bread, which is mixed with can give. It has little or no taste in itself, but, the soup, should not be boiled. It is likewise when mixed with other ingredients which are of use it should not be cut as fine or thin as savory, it renders them peculiarly grateful to the possible; and if it be dry and hard, it will be palate. It is a maxim as ancient, I believe, as so much the better. The bread we use at Mu- the time of Hippocrates, that whatever pleases nich is what is called semel bread, being small the palate nourishes; and I have often had reason loaves, weighing from two to three ounces; and to think it perfectly just. Could it be clearly as we receive this bread in donations from the ascertained and demonstrated, it would tend to bakers, it is commonly dry and hard, being that place cookery in a more respectable situation which, not being sold in time, remains on hand, among the arts than it now holds. That the and becomes stale and unsaleable; and we have manner in which food is prepared is a matter of found by experience, that this hard and stale real importance; and that the water used in that bread answers for our purpose much better than process acts a much more important part than any other, for it renders mastication necessary; has hitherto been generally imagined, is, I think, and mastication seems very powerfully to assist quite evident; for it seems to me to be impossiin promoting digestion; it likewise prolongs the ble, upon any other supposition, to account for duration of the enjoyment of eating, a matter of the appearances. If the very small quantity of very great importance indeed, and which has solid food which enters into the composition of a not hitherto been sufficiently attended to. The portion of some very nutritive soup were to be quantity of this soup furnished to each person at prepared differently, and taken under some other each meal, or one portion of it (the cuttings of form, that of bread, for instance; so far from the bread included) is just one Bavarian pound being sufficient to satisfy hunger, and afford a in weight; and as the Bavarian pound is to the comfortable and nutritive meal, a person would pound avoirdupois as 1,125,842 to 1,-it is absolutely starve upon such a slender allowance; equal to about nineteen ounces and nine-tenths and no great relief would be derived from drinkavoirdupois. Now, to those who know that a ing crude water to fill up the void in the stomach. full pint of soup weighs no more than about six- But it is not merely from an observation of the teen ounces avoirdupois, it will not, perhaps, apparent effects of cookery upon those articles at the very first view, appear extraordinary, that which are used as food for man, that we are led à portion weighing nearly twenty ounces, and to discover the importance of these culinary proconsequently making nearly one pint and a quarter cesses. Their utility is proved in a manner of this rich, strong, savoury soup, should be found equally conclusive and satisfactory, by the effects sufficient to satisfy the hunger of a grown person; which have been produced by employing the but when the matter is examined narrowly, and same process in preparing food for brute animals. properly analysed, and it is found that the whole It is well known that boiling the potatoes with quantity of solid food which enters into the which hogs are fed renders them much more nucomposition of one of these portions of soup tritive; and, since the introduction of the new does not amount to quite six ounces, it will then system of feeding horned cattle, that of keeping appear to be almost impossible that this allow- them confined in the stables all the year round (a ance should be sufficient. That it is quite suf- method which is now coming fast into common ficient, however, to make a good meal for a use in many parts of Germany), great improvestrong healthy person has been abundantly proved ments have been made in the art of providing by long experience. I have even found that a nourishment for those animals; and particularly soup composed of nearly the same ingredients, by preparing their food, by operations similar to except the potatoes, but in different proportions, those of cookery; and to these improvements it is was sufficiently nutritive, and very palatable, in most probably owing, that stall feeding has in which only about four ounces and three-quarters of that country, been so universally successful. It solid food entered into the composition of a portion has long been a practice in Germany for those weighing twenty ounces. But this will not ap- who fatten bullocks for the butcher, or feed pear incredible to those who know, that one milch cows, to give them frequently what is single spoonful of salope, weighing less than one called a drank or drink; which is a kind of potquarter of an ounce, put into a pint of boiling tage, prepared differently in different parts
of the country and in different seasons, accord- ing of fool is worthless, or good for nothing ; ing to the greater facility with which one dirty or idle: applied to the mind, weak, mudor other of the articles occasionally employed in dy in its ideas; slow of apprehension; reluctant the composition of it may be procured, and ac to think It is now generally applied to a nacording to the particular fancies of individuals. tural, au idiot; one to whom nature has denied Many feeders make a great secret of the compo- reason; to one who counterfeits folly; a buffoon sition of their drinks, and some have, to my or jester. In Scripture the term is employed to knowledge, carried their refinement so far, as designate a wicked man, to intimate that wickedactually to mix brandy in them in small quanti- ness is folly; as it debases reason, and dishonors ties; and pretend to have found their advantage the character. The neuter verb is used in the in adding this costly ingredient. The articles most sense to trifle; to toy; to play; to idle; to commonly used are, bran, oat meal, brewers' sport. The active signifies to treat with contempt; grains, mashed potatoes, mashed turnips, rye to disappoint; to frustrate; to cheat ; to defeat; meal, and barley meal, with a large proportion to infatuate; to allure from the dictates of reason of water; sometimes two or three or more of and sobriety. Foolery is either habitual folly, these articles are united in forming a drink : and, or a solitary act, or the object of folly. Foolish, of whatever ingredients the drink is composed, to be void of understanding; weak of intellect; a large proportion of salt is always added to it. imprudent; indiscreet; ridiculous; contemptiThere is perhaps nothing new in the method of ble. Foolishly, weakly; without understanding
: feeding cattle with liquid mixtures, but the man- In Scripture all these terms signify wicked and ner in which these drinks are now prepared in wickedly. Foolishness is folly; want of underGermany is, I believe, quite new; and shows, what standing; actual deviation from the right. Fool I wish to prove, that cooking renders food really is used in composition and in phrases idiomatic more nutritive. These drinks were formerly given and peculiar—the following are instances of cold, but it was afterwards discovered that they both, and their illustrations are placed in the were more nourishing when given warm; and of regular chronological order with those of their late their preparation is, in many places, become etymon. a very regular culinary process. Kitchens have FOOL'BORN, adj. Fool and born. Foolish been built, and large boilers provided and fitted from the birth. up, merely for the cooking for the cattle in the FOOL'-HAPPY, adj. Fool and happy. Lucky; stables; and I have been assured by many very without contrivance or judgment. intelligent farmers, who have adopted this new Fool'-HARDINESS, n. S.
Fool and hardy. mode of feeding (and have also found by my own Fool'-HARDISE, n. S.
Mad rashness; couexperience), that it is very advantageous indeed; Fool'-HARDY, adj.
rage without sense. that the drinks are evidently rendered much more The second noun is obsolete: it is however nourishing and wholesome by being boiled ; and used by Spenser, and signifies adventurousness that the expense of fuel, and the trouble attend- without judgment: the adjective signifies foolishly ing this process, are amply compensated by the bold. advantages derived from the improvement of the
Fool'-LARGE, adj. Fool and large. Foolishly food. We even find it advantageous to continue liberal. the boiling a considerable time, two or three hours for instance; as the food goes on to be catch fools in, generally set by rogues.
Fool'-TRAP, n. s. Fool and trap. A snare to still farther improved, the longer the boiling is continued. These facts seem evidently to show, jester, to jest; to make sport; to act like one
To play the fool. To play pranks like a hired that there is some very important secret with re- void of common understanding. gard to nutrition, which has not yet been pro To make a fool of. To disappoint; to defeat. perly investigated ; and it seems to me to be more than probable, that the number of inhabi- stance; to exchange without an adequate equira
To fool away. To squander; to waste subtants who may be supported in any country lent. upon its internal produce, depends almost as much upon the state of the art of cookery, as Aattering his vanity, or cajoling his understand
To fool one of his money, is to cheat him by upon that of agriculture. The Chinese, perhaps, ing; that is, to rob him through the medium of understand both these arts better than any other his folly or his ignorance. nation. Savages understand neither of them.
The fool hath said in his heart there is no God. But, if cookery be of so much importance, it
Psalm siv. I. certainly deserves to be studied with the greatest
A ful gret fool is any conseillour, care; and it ought to be particularly attended to
That serveth any lord of high honour, in times of general alarm on account of a scarcity
That dare presume, or ones thinken it of povisions; for the relief which may in many That his conseil shuld pass his lordes wil cases be derived from it is immediate and effec
Chaucer. The Marchantes Tale. tual, while all other sources are distant and un
But for as moche as som folk ben onmesurable, certain.' After anticipating some objections to
men oughten for to avoid and eschue fool-largesse, she his plan, Count Rumford recommends the estab- whiche men clepen waste. Certes, he that is fool-large, lishment of public kitchens in all towns and large he geveth not his catel, but he leseth his catel.
Id. The Persones Tals. villages throughout the kingdom. See KITCHEN. FOOL, n. s., v. n. & v. a.
Greek φαυλος, ;
This is my lif but if that I wol fight; FOOL'ERY, n. s.
German faul, and And out at dore anon I mote me dight, Fool'ish, adj.
probably foul in
Or elles I am lost, but if that I FOOL'ISHLY, adr.
English Thus, Be, like a wild leon, fool-hardy. FOOL'ISHNESS, n. s. the original mean
id. Prolague to the Monker Tals.