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bland, agreeable taste, yield proper nourishment; variety in food? Is it trecessary and allowable, while those of an acrid, bitter, and nauseous or universally hurtful ? Variety of a certain laste are generally improper. We use, indeed, kind seems necessary; as vegetable and animal several acrid substances as food; but the mild, foods have their mutual advantages, tending to the bland, and palatable, are in the largest pro- correct each other. Another variety, which is portion in almost every vegetable. Such as are very proper, is that of liquid and solid food, very acrid, and at the same time of an aromatic which should be so managed as to temper each nature, are not used as food, but as spices or other; for liquid food, especially of the vegetable condiments which answer the purposes of medi- kind, is too ready to pass off before it is properly cine rather than any thing else. Sometimes, in- assimilated, while solid food makes a long stay. deed, acrid and bitter vegetables seem to be ad- But this does not properly belong to the question, mitted as food. Thus celery and endive are used whether variety of the same kind is necessary or in common food, though both are substances of proper, as in animal foods, beef, fish, fowl, &c. considerable acrimony; but they are previously It does not appear that there is any inconveniblanched, which almost totally destroys their ence arising from this mixture or difficulty of asacrimony. Or, if we employ other acrid sub- similation, provided · a moderate quantity he stances, we generally, in a great measure, de- taken. When any inconvenience does arise, it prive them of their acrimony by boiling. In probably proceeds from this, that one of the pardifferent countries the same plants grow with ticular substances in the mixture, when taken by different degrees of acrimony. Thus, garlic sel- itself, would produce the same effects ; and indom enters our food; but in the southern coun- deed it would appear, that this effect is not tries, where the plants grow more mild, they are heightened by the mixture, but properly obviated frequently used for that purpose. The plant by it. There are few exceptions to this, if any, which furnishes cassada, being very acrimonious, e. g. taking a large proportion of acescent suband even poisonous in its recent state, affords an stances with milk. The coldness, &c., acidity," instance of the necessity of preparing acrid sub- flatulency, &c., may appear; and it is possible stances even in the hot countries; and there are that the coagulum, from the acescency of the other plants, such as arum roots, which are so ex- vegetables being somewhat stronger induced, ceedingly acrimonious in their natural state, that may give occasion to too long retention in the they cannot be swallowed with safety; yet, stomach, and to acidity in too great degree. when deprived of that acrimony, afford good Again, the mixture of fish and milk often occanourishment.

sions inconvenience. The theory of this is difAnimal food, although it gives strength, yet ficult, though, from universal consent, it must loads the body; and Hippocrates long ago ob- certainly be just. Can we suppose that fish served, that the athletic habit, by a small increase, gives occasion to such a coagulum as runnet ? was exposed to the greatest hazards. In the If it does so, it may produce bad effects. Befirst stage of life animal food is seldom necessary sides, fishes approach somewhat to vegetables, in to give strength ; in manhood, when we are ex- giving little stimulus; and are accused of the posed to active scenes, it is more proper ; and in same bad effects as these, viz. bringing on the the decline of life a considerable proportion of cold fit of fever. Thus much may be said for it is necessary to keep the body in vigor. There variety. But it has also its disadvantages, are some diseases, says Dr Cullen, which come provoking to gluttony ; this and the art of cookon in the decay of life, that are at least aggravated ery making men take in more than they properly by it: among these he ranks the gout as the can digest; and hence, perhaps very justly, most remarkable. But the late Dr. Brown, from physicians have almost universally recommended repeated experience, found that the gout was simplicity of diet; for, in spite of rules, man's highly aggravated by vegetable food, and that eating will only be measured by his appetite, and animal food was the most proper regimen in that satiety is sooner produced by one than by many disease, and all others arising from debility. It substances. But this is so far from being an is allowed, however, on all hands, by the friends argument against variety, that it is one for it; as of both the old and new systems of medicine, that the best way of avoiding a full meal of animal animal food, although it gives strength, is yet of food, and its bad effects, is by introducing a some hazard to the constitution, which, by the quantity of vegetables. Another means of prefrequent repetition of this stimulus, is sooner ex- venting the bad effects of animal food is to take hausted than by a diet chiefly vegetable. There- a large proportion of liquid'; and hence the bad fore it is to be questioned, whether we should effects of animal food are less felt ir

. Scotland desire this high degree of bodily strength, with on account of their drinking much with i, all the inconveniences and dangers attending it. and using broths, which are at once excellent Those who are chiefly employed in mental re- correctors of animal food and preventives of searches, and no: exposed to much bodily

labor, gluttony. should avoid an excess of animal food. But in Dr. Paris thus compares the relative advan-, nervous disorders, hysterical and hypochondriacal tages of an animal and vegetable diet, particularly cases, and in general all diseases arising from in this country. “As every description of weakness, fresh animal food, given frequently, food,' says he, whether derived from the animal and not in too great quantities, either in the form or vegetable kingdom, is converted into blood, it of soup, or that of a steak, will be found a much may be inferred that the ultimate effect of all more speedy and effectual restorative.

aliments must be virtually the same; and that Another question, Dr. Cullen observes, has the several species can only differ from each been much agitated, viz. What are the effects of other in the quantity of nutrimen! they afford,

in the comparative degree of stimulus they im- flesh and milk ; but, before any valid conclusion part to the organs through which they pass, and can be deduced from this circumstance, the habits in the proportion of vital energy they require of the people must be compared with those of for their assimilation. Were the degree of ex- their descendants. The history of later times citement which attends the digestion of a meal will furnish us with a satisfactory answer to those commensurate with the labor imposed upon the who deny the necessity of vegetable aliment. organs which perform it, less irritation and heat We learn from the London bills, that scurvy would attend the digestion of animal than of raged to such an excess in the seventeenth century vegetable food; for, in the one case, the aliment as to have occasioned a very great mortality: at already possesses a composition analogous to that this period the art of gardening had not long of the structure which it is designed to supply, been introduced. It appears that the most and requires little more than division and depu- common articles of the kitchen garden, such as ration; whereas, in the other, a complicated se- cabbages, w?re not cultivated in England until ries of decompositions and recompositions must the reign of Catharine of Arragon; indeed, we be effected before the matter can be animalised, or are told that this queen could not procure a assimilated to the body. But the digestive fever, salad until a gardener was sent for from the Neif we may be allowed the use of that expression, therlands to raise it. Since the change thus and the complexity of the alimentary changes, happily introduced into our diet, the ravages of would appear, in every case, to bear an inverse the scurvy are unknown. It follows, then, that relation to each other. This must depend upon in our climate a diet of animal food cannot, with the fact of animal food affording a more highly safety, be exclusively employed. It is too highly animalised chyle, or a greater proportion of that stimulant; the springs of life are urged on too principle which is essentially nutritive, as well as fast; and disease necessarily follows. There upon the immediate stimulus which the alimen- may, nevertheless, exist certain states of the systary nerves receive from its contact. In hot tem which require such a preternatural stimulus; . countries therefore, or during the heats of sum- and the physician may, therefore, confine his mer, we are instinctively led to prefer vegetable patient to an animal regimen with as much profood; and we accordingly find that the inhab- priety as he would prescribe opium, or any other itants of tropical climates select a diet of this remedy. By a parity of reasoning, the excludescription : the Brahmins in India, and the sive use of vegetable food may be shown to be people of the Canary Islands, Brasils, &c., live inconsistent with the acknowledged principles of almost entirely on herbage, grains, and roots, dietetics, and to be incapable of conveying a while those of the north use little besides animal nourishment sufficiently stimulating for the active food. On account of the superior nutritive exertions which belong to our present civilised power of animal matter, it is equally evident condition. At the same time it must be allowed, that the degree of bodily exertion, or exercise, that an adherence to vegetable diet is usually sustained by an individual should not be over- productive of far less evil than that which follooked in an attempt to adjust the proportion in lows the use of an exclusively animal regimen.' which animal and vegetable food should be Dr. Paris quotes some curious experiments mixed. Persons of sedentary habits are op- made by M. Majendie to ascertain the relative pressed, and ultimately become diseased, from quantities of azote (nitrogen) yielded by animal the excess of nutriment which a full diet of and vegetable food. He took a small dog of animal food will occasion ; such a condition, by three years old, fat, and in good health, and put some process not understood, is best corrected it to feed upon sugar alone, and gave it distilled by acescent vegetables. It is well known that water to drink : it had as much as it chose of artizans and laborers, in the confined manufac- both. It appeared very well in this way of living tories of large towns, suffer prodigiously in their for the first seven or eight days; it was brisk, health whenever a failure occurs in the crops of active, ate eagerly, and drank in its usual mancommon fruits; this fact was remarkably striking ner. It began to get thin in the second week, in the years 1804 and 1805. Young children although its appetite continued good, and it took and growing youths generally thrive upon a ge- about six or eight ounces of sugar in twenty-four ncrous diet of animal food; the excess of nu- hours. Its alvine excretions were neither free tritive matter is consumed in the development quent nor copious; that of the urine was very of the body, and, if properly digested, imparts abundant. In the third week its leanness instrength without repletion. Adults and old creased, its strength diminished, the animal lost persons comparatively require but a small pro- its liveliness, and its appetite declined. At this portion of aliment, unless the nutritive move- period there was developed upon one eye, and ment be accelerated by violent exercise and hard then on the other, a small ulceration on the centre labor

of the transparent cornea; it increased very • Those who advocate the exclusive value of quickly, and in a few days it was more than a animal food, and deny the utility of its admixture line in diameter; its depth increased in the same with vegetable matter, adduce in proof of their proportion; the cornea was very soon entirely syster the rude health and Herculean strength perforated, and the humors of the eye ran out

. of our hardy ancestors. The British aborigines, This singular phenomenon was accompanied when first visited by the Romans, certainly do with an abundant secretion of the glands of the not appear to have been conversant with the cul- eyelids. It, however, became weaker and weaker, tivation of the ground, and according to the and lost its strength; and, though the animal early writers, Cæsar, Strabo, Diodorus, Siculus, ate from three to four ounces of sugar per day, and others, their principal subsistence was on i. became so weak that it could neither chew nor

swallow; for the same reason every other motion Class IX. Acidulous Aliments-Oranges, ap.was impossible. It expired the thirty-second ples, and other acescent fruits. day of the experiment. M. Majendie opened To these we may add condiments; such as the animal with every suitable precaution. He salt, the varieties of pepper, mustard, horses found a total want of fat; the muscles were re- radish, vinegar, &c. duced more than five-sixths of their ordinary In classing the different species of potations, size; the stomach and in estines were also much we may, in like manner, be governed by the diminished in volume, and strongly contracted. chemical composition which distinguishes them. The gall and urinary bladders were distended by They may be arranged under four divisions, viz. their proper fluids, which M. Chevreul was Class 1. Water. Spring, river, well water, &c. called upon to examine. That distinguished Class II. The Juices and Infusions of Vegechemist found in them nearly all the characters tables and Animals.- Whey, tea, coffee, &c. which belong to the urine and bile of herbivo Class III. Fermented Liquors.-Wine, beer, rous animals ; that is, that the urine, instead of &c. being acid, as it is in carnivorous animals, was Class IV. The Alcoholic Liquors, or Spirits.sensibly alkaline, and did not present any trace Alcohol, brandy, rum, &c. of uric acid, nor of phosphate. The bile con . By cookery," he says, alimentary substances tained a considerable portion of picromel; a undergo a twofold change; their principles are character considered as peculiar to the bile of chemically modified, and their textures methe ox, and, in general, to that of herbivorous chanically changed. The extent and nature, animals. The excrements were also examined however, of these changes, will greatly depend by M. Chevreul, and were found to contain very upon the manner in which heat has been applied little azote, whereas they usually furnish a con- to them; and if we enquire into the culinary siderable quantity.

history of different countries, we shall: trace its *M. Majendie considered that such results re- connexion with the fuel most accessible to them. quired to be verified by new experiments : he This fact readily explains the prevalence of the accordingly repeated them on other dogs, but peculiar species of cookery which distinguishes always with the same conclusions. He there- the French table, and which has no referenoe, as fore considered it proved, that sugar, by itself, some have imagined, to the dietetic theory, or is incapable of supporting dogs. This want of superior refinement, of the inhabitantş.' the nutritive quality, however, might possibly be By boiling, according to this author, the prinpeculiar to sugar: he therefore proceeded to ciples not properly soluble are rendered softer, enquire, whether other substances, non-azotised, more pulpy, and, consequently, easier of digesbut generally considered as nutritive, would be tion; but the meat, at the same time, is deattended with the same consequences. He fed prived of some of its nutritive properties by the two dogs with olive oil and distilled water, upon removal of a portion of its soluble constituents: which they appeared to live well for about fifteen the albumen and gelatin are also acted upon; the days : but they afterwards underwent the same former being solidified, and the latter converted series of accidents, and died on the thirty-sixth into a gelatinous substance. If, therefore, our day of the experiment. In these cases, however, meat be boiled too long or too fast, we shall obthe ulceration of the cornea did not occur.' tain, where the albumen predominates, as in

The result of these experiments, in M. Ma- beef, a hard and indigestible mass, like an overjendie's opinion, was, that the azote of the organs boiled egg; or, where the gelatin predominates, is produced by the food, and consequently that as in young meats, such as veal, a gelatinous no substance which does not contain this prin- substance equally injurious to the digestive ciple can support life. Dr. Paris distributes organs. Young and viscid food, therefore, as what he calls the Nutrientia, into the following veal, chickens, &c., are more wholesome when classes.

roasted than when boiled, and are easier diClass I. Fibrinous Aliments.—Comprehend- gested. Dr. Prout has very justly remarked, ing the flesh and blood of various animals, es that the boiling temperature is too high for a pecially such as have arrived at puberty: ve- great many of the processes of cooking, and nison, beef, mutton, hare.

that a lower temperature and a greater time, or a Class II. Albuminous.-Eggs; certain animal species of infusion, are better adapted for most matter.

of them. This is notorious with substances inClass III. Gelatinous Aliments. The flesh tended to be stewed, which, even in cookery of young animals: veal, chickens, calf's foot, books, are directed to be boiled slowly (that is, certain fishes.

not at all), and for a considerable time. The Class IV. Fatty and Oily Aliments.-Animal ignorance and prejudice existing on these points fats, oils, and butter; cocoa, &c.; ducks, pork, is very great, and combated with difficulty; yet, geese, eels, &c.

when we take into account their importance, and Class V. Caseous Aliments. The different how intimately they are connected with health, kinds of milk, cheese, &c.

they will be found to deserve no small share of Class VI. Farinaceous Aliments. - Wheat, our attention. The loss occasioned by boiling barley, oats, rice, rye, potatoe ; sago, arrow- partly depends upon the melting of the fat, but root, &c.

chiefly from the solution of the gelatine and os Class VII. Mucilaginous Aliments.-Carrots, mazone: mutton generally loses about one-fifth, turnips, asparagus, cabbage, &c.

and beef about one-fourth, of its original weight. Class VIII. Sweet Aliments. The different Boiling is particularly applicable to vegetables, kinds of sugar, figs, dates, &c.; carrots. rendering them more soluble in the stomach, and

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depriving them of a considerable quantity of air, work, as the more solid contributions of nature so injurious to weak stomachs. But, even in to the food of man. The former are divided by this case, the operation may be carried to an in- the popular author whom we have already quoted jurious extent; thus, potatoes are frequently into the saline, the aromatic, and the oily. boiled to the state of a dry, insipid powder, Salt,' he says, 'appears to be a necessary and instead of being preserved in that state in which universal stimulus to animated beings; and its the parts of which they are composed are ren effects upon the vegetable as well as animal kingdered soft and gelatinous, so as to retain their dom have furnished objects of the most intershape, yet be very easily separated. On the esting enquiry to the physiologist, the chemist; other hand, the cabbage tribe, and carrots, are the physician, and the agriculturist. frequently not boiled long enough, in which pears to be a natural stimulant to the digestive state they are highly indigestible. In conduct-, organs of all warm-blooded animals, and that ing this process, it is necessary to pay some at- they are instinctively led to immense distances tention to the quality of the water employed; in pursuit of it. This is strikingly exemplified thus, mutton boiled in hard water is more tender in the avidity with which animals in a wild state and juicy than when soft water is used ; while seek the salt pans of Africa and America, and in vegetables, on the contrary, are rendered harder the difficulties they will encounter to reach them: and less digestible when boiled in hard water. this cannot arise from accident or caprice, but

By roasting the fibrine is corrugated, the al- from a powerful instinct, which, beyond control, bumen coagulated, the fat liquefied, and the compels them to seek, at all risks, that which is water evaporated. As the operation proceeds, salubrious. To those who are anxious to gain the surface becomes first brown, and then further information upon this curious subject, I scorched ; and the tendinous parts are would recommend the perusal of a work endered softer and gluey. Care should always be titled Thoughts on the Laws relating to Salt, by taken that the meat should not be over-done, Samuel Parkes, Esq., and a small volume by my nor ought it to be under-dressed; for, although late lamented friend, Sir Thomas Bernard, on in such a state it may contain more nutriment, the Case of the Salt Duties, with Proofs and yet it will be less digestible, on account of Illustrations. We are all sensible of the effect the density of its texture. This fact has been of salt on the human body; we know how unsatisfactorily proved by the experiments of palatable fresh meat and vegetables are without Spallanzani; and Mr. Hunter observes, that it

. During the course of my professional pracboiled, and roasted, and even putrid meat, is tice, I have had frequent opportunities of witeasier of digestion than raw. Animal matter nessing the evils which have attended an abstiloses more by roasting than by boiling : it has nence from salt. In my examination before a been stated above, that by this latter process committee of the house of commons in 1818, mutton loses one-fifth, and beef one-fourth ; but appointed for the purpose of enquiring into the by roasting, these meats lose about one-third of laws respecting the salt duties, I stated, from my their weight. In roasting, the loss arises from own experience, the bad effects of a diet of the melting out of the fat, and the evaporating unsalted fish, and the injury which the poorer of the water; but the nutritious matter remains classes, in many districts, sustained in their health condensed in the cooked solid; whereas, in from an inability to procure this essential condiboiling, the gelatine is partly abstracted. Roast ment. I had some years ago a gentleman of are, therefore, more nutritive than boiled meats.' rank and fortune under my care, for a deranged

Frying,' Dr. P. thinks, ‘is, perhaps, the most state of the digestive organs, accompanied with objectionable of all the culinary operations. The extreme emaciation. I found that, from some heat is applied through the medium of boiling cause which he could not explain, he had never oil, or fat, which is rendered empyreumatic, and eaten any salt with his meals: I enforced the therefore extremely liable to disagree with the necessity of his taking it in moderate quantities, stomach.

and the recovery of his digestive powers, was * By the operation of broiling, the sudden soon evinced in the increase of his strength and browning or hardening of the surface prevents condition. One of the ill effects produced by the evaporation of the juices of the meat, which an unsalted diet is the generation of worms. Mr. imparts a peculiar tenderness to it. It is the Marshall has published the case of a lady who form selected, as the most eligible, by those had a natural antipathy to salt, and was in conwho seek to invigorate themselves by the art of sequence most dreadfully infested with worms training.

during the whole of her life.(London Medical The peculiarity of baking depends upon the and Physical Journal, vol. xxix. No. 231). In substance being heated in a confined space, which Ireland, where, from the bad quality of the food, does not permit the escape of the fumes arising the lower classes are greatly infested with worms, from it; the meat is, therefore, from the retention a draught of salt and water is a popular and of its juices, rendered more sapid and tender. efficacious anthelmintic. Lord Somerville, in But baked meats are not so easily digested, on his Address to the Board of Agriculture, gave account of the greater retention of their oils, an interesting account of the effects of a punishwhich are, moreover, in an empyreumatic state. ment which formerly existed in Holland. The Such dishes accordingly require the stimulus of ancient laws of the country ordained men to be various condiments to increase the digestive kept on bread alone, unmixed with salt, as the powers of the stomach.'

severest punishment that could be inflicted upon Condiments and Drinks have not so distinctly them in their moist climate. The effect was received our attention, in the former part of this horrible; these wretched criminals are said to

have been devoured by worms engendered in the child of nature, nor the passive inhabitant their own stomachs.' The wholesomeness and of any particular region : he ranges over every part digestibility of our bread are undoubtedly of the globe, and elicits nourishment from the much promoted by the addition of salt which it productions of every climate. It may be thereso universally receives.

fore necessary that he should accompany the An excess of salt is,' however, we are told, “as ingestion of foreign aliment with foreign condiinjurious as its moderate application is salutary. ment. If we go to the East for tea, there is no This observation applies with as much force to reason why we should not go to the West for sugar. the vegetable as to the animal kingdom; a small The dyspeptic invalid, however, should be cauproportion, applied as a manure, promotes vege- tious in their use; they may afford temporary tation in a very remarkable manner;

whereas a benefit at the expense of permanent mischief. larger quantity actually destroys it The experi- It has been well said, that the best quality of ments of Sir John Pringle have also shown, spices is to stimulate the appetite, and their worst that a little salt will accelerate putrefaction, and to destroy, by insensible degrees, the tone of the a large quantity prevent it. In explaining the stomach. The intrinsic goodness of meats should operation of salting meat, and in appreciating always be suspected, when they require spicy the effects of such meat as food, it will be ne- seasoning to compensate for their natural want cessary to advert to a chemical fact which has of sapidity. But, mischievous as the abuse of not hitherto attracted the attention which its im- aromatic condiments may be, it is innocent in portance merits. The salt thus combined with comparisor, with the custom of swallowing a the animal fibre ought no longer to be considered quantity of brandy to prevent the upbraiding of as the condiment upon which so much has been our stomachs, or an increased libation of wine said; a chemical combination has taken place, to counteract the distress which supervenes a too and, although it is difficult to explain the nature copious meal—as if drunkėnness were an antiof the affinities which have been brought into dote to gluttony. action, or that of the compound to which they Oil and butter, constitute what is called the have given origin, it is sufficiently evident that oleaginous condiments. Melted butter is, perthe texture of the fibre is so changed as to be haps, the most injurious of all the inventions of less nutritive, as well as less digestible. If we cookery: oil, when used in extremely small are called upon to produce any chemical evi- quantities, as a seasoning to salads, appears to dence in support of such an assertion, we need prevent their running into fermentation, and cononly relate the experiment of M. Eller, who sequently obviates flatulency.' found, that if salt and water be boiled in a cop Of the different kinds of water used as drink per vessel, the solution will contain a notable we are told quantity of that metal; whereas, if, instead of Rain water, when collected in the open fields, heating a simple solution, the salt be previously is certainly the purest natural water, being promixed with beef, bacon, or fish, the fluid resulting duced as it were by a natural distillation. When, from it will not contain an atom of copper. Does however, it is collected near large tawns, it denot this prove that the process of salting meat rives some impregnation from the smoky and is something more than the mere saturation of the contaminated atmosphere through which it falls ; animal fibre with murate of soda?

and, if allowed to come in contact with the · Vinegur, in small quantities, is recommended houses, will be found to contain calcareous as a grateful and wholesome stimulant; it will matter ; in which case it ought never to be used often check the chemical fermentation of certain without being previously boiled and strained. substances in the stomach, and prevent vegetable Hippocrates gave this advice; and M. Margraaf, matter in its raw state from inducing flatulence; of Berlin, has shown the wisdom of the prebut its use requires caution, and in some morbid caution, by a satisfactory series of experiments. states of the system it is obviously improper. Spring water, in addition to the substances Fatty and gelatinous substances frequently ap- detected in rain water, generally contains a small pear to be rendered more digestible in the sto- portion of muriate of soda, and frequently other mach by the addition of vinegar, although it is salts : but the larger springs are purer than the difficult to offer either a chemical or physiological smaller ones; and those which occur in primiexplanation of the fact. The native vegetable tive countries, and in silicious rocks, or beds of acids may also be occasionally substituted: the gravel, necessarily contain the least impregnaaddition of lemon juice to rich and glutinous tion. An important practical distinction has soups renders them less liable to disagree with been founded upon the fact, that the water of the stomach ; and the custom of eating apple- some springs dissolves soap, while that of others sauce with pork is, undoubtedly, indebted for its decomposes and curdles it: the former has been origin to the same cause.

termed soft, the latter hard, water: Soft water The aromatic condiments comprise the foreign is a more powerful solvent of all vegetable matspices, as pepper, Cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ters, and is consequently to be preferred for donutmeg, cloves, ginger; and the indigenous mestic as well as medicinal purposes The herbs and roots, such as parsley, thyme, sage,. brewer knows well, from experience, how much garlick, leek, onion, horse-radish, mustard, &c. more readily and copiously soft water will disThe former of these were not intended by nature solve the extractive matter of his malt; and the for the inhabitants of temperate climes : they housewife does not require to be told, that hard are heating, and highly stimulant. I am, how- water is incapable of making good tea. Sulever, pot anxious to give more weight to this phate of lime is the salt which generally imparts objection than it deserves. Man is no longer the quality of hardness to water; and it has

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