« ZurückWeiter »
The banks with ease their humble streams contain, bottom. This they repeat twice. After each
lay them to dry; then roll theni on a table, and From the weak po.e no winds inclement blow,
so join four of them together by a red-hot iron. Mold the round hail, or flake the fleecy snow.
When joined they pour on more wax till the
flambeau is brought to the size required, which
is usually from a pound and a half to three Popc.
pounds. They then finish their form or outside, Where twenty ages gather o'er a name,
with a polishing instrument of wood, by running 'Tis as a snow-ball which derives assistance it along all the angles formed by the union of the From every flake, and yet rolls on the same,
branches. Flambeaux were anciently made of Even till an iceberg it may chance to grow, wood dried in furnaces or otherwise. Divers But after all 'is nothing but cold snow. Byron. kinds of wood were used for this purpose ; the
Flake, in the cod fishery, a sort of scaffold or most usual was pine. Pliny says that, in his platform, made of hurdles, and supported by time, they also used oak, elm, and hazel. In stanchions, used for drying cod-fish in Newfound the seventh book of the Æneid a flambeau of land. These fakes are usually placed near the pine is mentioned ; and Servius on that passage shores of fishing harbours.
remarks, that they also made them of the comel Flake, in gardening, a sort of carnation, tree. which is of two colors only, and has very large FLAMBOROUGH HEAD, a cape on the cast stripes, all of them going quite through the coast of Yorkshire, five miles east of Burlington, leaves.
and 206 from London. It was the Fleamburg FLAKE, White, in painting, lead corroded by of the Saxons; so called from the flames or the pressing of grapes, or a ceruss prepared by lights made on it to direct the landing of Ida, the acid of grapes. It is brought here from who in A. D. 547 joined his countrymen in BriItaly; and far surpasses, both with regard to the tain, with a large reinforcement from Germany, purity of its whiteness and the certainty of its and founded the kingdom of Northumberland. standing, all the ceruss of white lead made with In the time of Edward the Confessor, Flambous. It is used in oil and varnish painting, for all rough was one of the manors of Harold, earl of purposes where a very clean white is required. It the West Saxons, afterwards king of England. should be procured in lumps as brought over, and On his death William gave it to Hugh Lupus; levigated by those who use it; as that which the who bestowed it in perpetual alms on the moncolormen sell in a prepared state is levigated astery of Whitby. The cliffs of this cape are of and mixed up with starch, and often with white- a tremendous height and amazing grandeur. Ben lead.
neath are several vast caverns; some closed at FLAM, v. a. & n. s. Goth. flimma, to deceive. the end, others pervious, formed with natural See Flim. To delude, in jest, or lightly: a arches. In some places the rocks are insulated freak; whim; falsehood; pretext.
and of a pyramidal figure, soaring up to a vast Hard trifles, anagrams, or eteosticks, or finer flams. height. The bases of most are solid, but in some
Ben Jonson, pierced through and arched. The color of all A fam more senseless than the rog'ry
these rocks is white, from the dung of the innuOf old aruspicy and aug'ry.
merable flocks of migratory birds which quite For so our iguorance was flammed.
cover the face of them, filling every little pro-
rest. A light-house has been erected at Flamour church, to be either intrinsically unlawful or inde- borough Head, the height of which, from the bacent, all pretences or pleas of conscience to the con sis to the summit, is eighty-five feet, and from trary are nothing but cant and chcat, flam and delu- the level of the sea 250 feet. The lantern consion.
Id, tains three frames, with seven large lamps and
The lights revolve, and the motion is hori-
zontal, One of the lights is red, to distinguish As the attendants carried each of them a flambeau Flamborough lights from all others; and in a in their hands, the sultan, after having ordered all clear night they may be seen at the distance of the lights to be put out, gave the word to enter the thirty miles. The building is executed in a very house, and find out the criminal, and put himn to superior style; and is of great advantage to navideath.
gation, in securing the property of individuals, FLAMBEAUX are made of several thick wicks, and in preserving human life from the calamities covered with wax, serving to burn at night in the of shipwreck streets, at processions, illuminations, &c. They FLAME, N. s., v.a., & v. n.) Fr. flamme; differ from links, torches, and tapers. They are
Belg. and Teut. made square; sometimes of white wax and some
vlamme ; Swed. times of yellow. They usually consist of four FLAMMA'TION, n. s.
and Lat. flamwicks or branches, nearly an inch thick and about FLAMMABILITY, three foot long, made of a sort of coarse hempen FLAM'MEOUS, adj.
Welsh, flam; yarn half twisted. They are made with the ladle
Gothic, liom; much as torches or tapers are; viz. by first pour FLAM'Y.
Saxon, leom; ing the melted wax on the top of the several sus- (Loge, or Loke, among the Goths was the god of pended wicks, and letting it run down to the fire, or rather of flame). Blaze; the light emitted
ma; Arm. and
from fire : hence, metaphorically, ardor; passion;
Smit with the love of kindred arts we came, particularly the passion of love: to flame is to And met congenial, mingling flame with flame. shine as fire, or flame; to burst out into pas
Pope. sionate violence; to inflame; excite: flamma
A friend exaggerates a man's virtues ; an enemy
Mason. tion is the act of inflaming, or causing to flame:
inflames his criines. Hammability, the being possible, or likely, to
You from deep cauldrons and unmeasured caves blaze out: flammeous, consisting of, or re
Blow flaming airs or pour vitrescent waves. Darwin. sembling : flammiferous, bringing, or bringing
FLAME. Sir Isaac Newton considers flame as forth flame.
only the red-hot vapor of any substance raised
from it by fire, and heated to such a degree as to Much was he moved at that rueful sight, And flamed with zeal of vengeance inwardly,
emit light copiously. This definition seems to He asked who had that dame so fouly dight,
be accurate, though some allege that it contains Or whether his own hand, or whether other wight?
an inaccurate comparison. Simple ignition (they Spenser's Faerie Queene: argue) never exceeds in intensity of light the Wit is brush-wood, judgment timber; the one gives body by contact of which it was produced. But the greatest flame, the other yields the durablest heat; flame always consists of volatile inflammable and both meeting make the best fire.
matter in the act of combustion and combination
Sir T. Overbury. with vital air. Many metallic substances are think to blow out the intended fire your volatilised by heat, and burn with a flame by the city is ready to flame in, with such weak breath as
contact of the air in this rare state, Sulphur, this?
phosphorus, and some other bases of acids, exWith fiery flames, and covet what is bright;
hibit the same phenomenon. But the flames of But, feeling the effects, abhor the light.
organised substances are in general produced by Birth of Merlin. Rowley and Shalspeare.
the extrication and ascension of inflammable air Tis strong, and it does indifferent well in flame with more or less charcoal. When circumstances colored stockings. Shakspeare. Twelfth Night.
are not favorable to the perfect combustion of The vital spirits of living creatures are a substance these products, a portion of the coal passes compounded of an airy and flamy matter; and though through the luminous current unburnt, and forms air and fame, being free, will not well mingle, yet
to be ascertained, however, bound in by a body they will.
Bacon. that bodies emit flame in proportion to the quanAugust shall bear the form of a young man of a tity of vapor that rises from them. Thus wood, fierce and choleric aspect, in a flame-coloured garment. coals, &c., which emit a great quantity of vapor,
Peacham. flame violently; while lead, tin, &c., which emit The sullen cave
but a small fume, can scarcely be perceived to Where flame-eyed Fury means to smite. Quarles. flame at all. This rule, however, is not to be deWhat flame, what lightning e'er
pended upon in all cases. Some vapors seem to So quick an active force did bear!
Cowley. be in their own nature uninflammable, and capaMy heart's on flame, and does like fire
ble of extinguishing flame; as those of water, the To her aspire.
mineral acids, sal ammoniac, arsenic, &c.; while Hell all around
others take fire on the slightest approach of a As one great furnace flamed.
faming substance; such as ether, spirit of wine, To bottomless perdition.
&c. These last also exhibit a remarkable pheWhite or crystalline arsenick, being artificial, and nomenon; namely, that they cannot be made to sublimed with sal:, will not endure flammation. flame without the approach of some substance
Browne's Vulgar Errours. actually in flames. Thus spirit of wine, poured This flammeous light is not over all the body. on a red-hot iron, though instantly dissipated in
Browne. vapor, will not flame; but, if a burning candle In the sulphur of bodies torrified, that is, the oily, touches its surface, the whole is set in a flame at fat and unctuous parts, consist the principles of flam- once. The case is otherwise with oils, especially mability.
those of the grosser kind; for their vapors are My thoughts imprisoned in my secret woes, With flamy breaths do issue oft in sound. Sidney.
readily changed into flame by the mere increase Of all our elder plays,
of heat, without the approach of any flaming subThis and Philaster have the loudest fame ;
stance. There is, however, no kind of vapor, Great are their faults, and glorious is their flame : perhaps, that is incapable of being converted into In both our English genius is exprest,
flame, provided it is exposed to a sufficient deLofty and bold, but negligently drest. Waller. gree of heat. Thus the vapor of water, made to Behold it like an amplo curtain spread,
pass through burning coal, produces an exceedNow streaked and glowing with the morning red; ingly strong and bright flame. It is remarkable Anon at noon in flaming yellow bright,
that this vapor seems to be more powerful than And chusing sable for the peaceful night. Prior. almost any other in absorbing heat, and detain
Is not flame a vapour, fume, or exhalation heated ing it in a latent state, It seems probable that, red hot, that is, so hot as to sbine ? For bodies do when smoke is converted into flame, the caloric, not flame without emitting a copious fume, and this or latent heat with which the vapor had combined, fume burns in the flame. Newton's Opticks.
or rather that which made an essential part of it, Now gaudy pride corrupts the l'avish age, breaks forth, and adds to the quantity of sensible And the streets flame with glaring equipage. Gay. heat already present. This seems probable, from
No warning of the approaching flame ; the sudden explosion with which all flames Swiftly like sudden death it came
break out. If a vessel full of oil be set over the I loved the moment I beheld, Granville. fire a smoke or vapor begins to arise from it;
which grows gradually thicker, and at last be- lations. He at any rate applied it to benevolent gins to shine in some places very near the sur- purposes, in building extensive hospitals—that face of the oil, like an electrical light, or sulphur of the Quinze Vingt, for instance—and places just kindled. At this time the oil is very hot, as of worship. He died in 1418. Several books well as the steam which issues from it. But this on alchemy have been published with his name last is continually giving off its sensible heat into Paul Lucas, a French physician employed by the atmosphere; so that, at an inch or two from the court, about the commencement of the last the surface of the oil, the heat of the steam will century, to collect rare coins and antiquities in not exceed 400° of Fahrenheit; but, if a burning the Levant, furnishes an amusing sequel to this candle be held in the steam for a moment, the man's history. He tells us, in his second voywhole is immediately converted into flame, with age, that on the 9th of July, 1705, at Burnus something like an explosion; after which the Baschi, near Brussa, in Natolia, he fell in with an oil burns quietly until it is all consumed. Usbec dervise who spoke a variety of languages, The flame, as soon as it appears, is not only and who was not only perfectly well acquainted much hotter than the steam whence it was pro- with the story of Flamel as related above, but duced, but even than the oil which lies below it. who affirmed that both he and his wife were yet Whence, then, has this sudden and great increase of alive, having gained over their physician and the heat arisen? It could not be the sensible heat of the curate of S. S. Innocens to report their death, and vapor, for that was greatly inferior; nor could it to bury two logs of wood in their stead. They be communicated from the oil, for that could were now, he added, about 400 years old each, communicate no more than it had itself. The and belonged to a society, consisting in all of candle indeed would communicate a quantity of seven adepts, who travelled about the world, heat to the vapor which touched its flame; but meeting at some appointed spot every twenty it is impossible that this quantity should extend years ! permanently over a surface perhaps 100 times FLA’MEN. Lat. A Roman priest; one that larger than the flame of the candle, in such a officiated in solemn or sacrificial rites. manner as to make every part of that surface
A drear and dying sound equally hot with the flame of the candle itself;
Affrights the flamen.
Miltor. for this would be to suppose it to communicate Then first the flamen tasted living food; 100 times more heat than really was in it. The Next his grim idol smeared with human blood. heat therefore must have originally resided in the
Pope. vapor itself: and as, in the freezing of water, its Flamen, in Roman antiquity, an order of latent heat is extricated and becomes sensible, priests, instituted by Romulus or Numa. They and the water thereupon loses its fluidity ; so, in were originally only three ; viz. the Flamen Dia the accession of vapor, the latent heat breaks alis, Martialis, and Quirinalis. The last two, forth with a bright Aash, and the vapor is then though of high authority, were much inferior to totally decomposed, and converted into soot, the Flamen Dialis. They were all chosen by the ashes, or water, according to the different naturé people, and consecrated by the pontifex maxiof the substances which produce it, or according In latter times several priests of the same to the intensity of the heat. - Several other order were added to them, but inferior in power. hypotheses have been offered, to solve the phe- The whole number at last amounted to fifteen : nomena of burning and flaming bodies. See the first three of whom were senators, and called CHEMISTRY, COMBUSTION, FIRE, Heat, Igni- Flamines majores; the other twelve, taken from
The colors of fames differ according among the people, being denominated Flamines to the substances from which they are produced. minores. Some authors tell us the Romans had Thus, the fame of sulphur and spirit of wine is a flamen for every deity they worshipped. The blue; the flame of nitre and zinc, of a bright greater flamines wore the robe edged with white; that of copper, of a greenish-blue, &c. purple, like the magistrates ; had an ivory These varieties afford an opportunity of making chair, and a seat in the senate. They wore a a number of agreeable representations in fire- little band of thread about their heads, whence works, which could not be done if the flame their name is said to be derived, quasi filamines. produced from every different substance was They also wore a hat or cap, called apex or flamof the same color. See PYROTECHNY.
FLAMEEL, or FLEMEAL (Bertholet), a cele Flamen dialis was sacred to Jupiter, and a brated Flemish painter, was born at Liege, in person of the highest consequence and authority 1614. He improved himself at Rome by copy
in the state. He discharged several religious ing the best masters; and in 1647 returned to duties which properly belonged to the kings, his native place, but afterwards went to Paris and was honored with many eminent privileges and became a professor in the Academy of Paint- beyond all other officers, but was obliged to obing. He died in 1675. His architectural re serve several superstitious restraints. Flamen presentations are in fine style.
Martialis was sacred to Mars, and was ordained FLAMEL (Nicholas), a notary and alleged to inspect the rites of that god. Flamen Quirialchemist of Paris, in the fourteenth century, nalis was sacred to, and superintended the rites suddenly became possessed of so much wealth of, Quirinus Romulus. as induced a suspicion that he was indebted for
FLAMINGO. See PHOENICOPTERUS. it to the philosopher's stone : while others af FLAMINIA V1A, the highway from Rome to firmed that he obtained it by extortion from the Arminum, made by Flaminus. Jews, when they were exiled. The truth seems FLAMINACA, the wife of the Flamen Dialis, lo be, that he acquired it hy commercial specul wore a flame-colored habit, on which was painted
a thunderbolt, and above her head-dress she had at London in 1725, in 3 vols. He likewise green oak boughs, to indicate that she served composed the British Catalogue of the fixed Jupiter the thunderer, to whom the oak was stars, which contains twice the number that are sacred.
in the catalogue of Hevelius (see ASTRONOMY); FLAMININUS (Titus), or T. Quinctius to each of which he annexed its longitude, latiFlaminius, a celebrated Roman general, who tude, right ascension, and distar.ce from the pole, was consul A U.C. 554, or A. A.C. 198. He together with the variations of right ascension acquired much military experience in the war and declination, while the longitude increases a against Hannibal; and was afterwards sent degree. This catalogue, together with most of against Philip V. of Macedon, whom he totally his observations, were printed on fine paper at defeated on the confines of Epirus, and made all the expense of prince George of Denmark. Locris, Phocis, and Thessaly, tributary to Rome. FLÁNCHES, in heraldry. The fianch is Yet he not only granted peace to Philip, but composed of an arched line, proclaimed all Greece free and independent at drawn from the upper angle the Isthmian games. This political step ren- of the escutcheon to the dered him very popular among the Greeks, and base point of one side, and paved the way to the universal dominion of the so on to the other. Flanches Romans. He was afterwards sent to Prusias, are never borne single, but king of Bithynia; who had given refuge to Han- in couples, and always in the nibal, and by his address prevailed on the mon- flanks of the shields. See arch to desert that unfortunate general. See diagram. PRUSIAS II. Flaminius died suddenly.
FLANDERS, a country of the Netherlands, FLAMINIUS, or Flaminio (Mark Anthony), and now chiefly incorporated in the kingdom of a Latin poet in the sixteenth century, of Imola, that name, was formerly governed by its own in Italy. The pope had chosen him secretary to hereditary sovereigns. It was bounded on the the council in 1545; but he refused that em- north by the United Provinces ; on the east by ployment, as he favored the new opinions, as the ci-devant Austrian provinces of Brabant and they were called, and would not employ his pen Hainault; on the south by Hainault and Artois ; in an assembly where he knew these opinions and on the west and north-west by the German were to be condemned. He wrote notes on the Ocean; extending sixty miles in length, and Psalms; paraphrased thirty of them in Latin fifty in breadth. It contained thirty cities, verse; and wrote letters and poems which are a great number of market towns, 1154 villages, esteemed. He died at Rome in 1550.
and forty-eight abbeys; besides many colleges, FLAMSTED, a town of England, in Hert- monasteries, &c. The towns are situated so near fordshire, five miles from St. Alban's and Dun- each other, that the Spaniards who followed stable, on the Verlam, anciently called Verlam- Philip II. supposed the whole country to constede. The land hereabouts is a clay so thickly stitute but one great city. Since that period it mixed with flints, that, after a shower, nothing has suffered greatly from the ravages of various appears but a heap of stones; yet it bears good wars. The climate is temperate and healthy; corn even in dry summers. Edward VI. when the soil very fertile, being watered by many rivers an infant, was brought hither for his health. and canals, and producing all kinds of corn, The bedstead he lay on, which is curiously flax, and other vegetables; and the surface perwrought, is still preserved in the manor house. fectly level, there being not a single hill of any
FLAMSTEED (John), an eminent Engļish importance in it. The pastures are excellent, astronomer, born in Derby in 1646. He had and rear great numbers of fine horses, sheep, and early studied civil and ecclesiastical history; but black cattle. The Flemings were formerly the accidentally meeting with John De Sacrobosco's principal manufacturers in Europe, and either inbook, De Sphærâ, acquired a turn for astronomy, vented or improved several important arts ; parwhich he afterwards prosecuted with great vigor. ticularly weaving figured linens, dyeing cloths, In 1674 he wrote an ephemeris, in which he painting in oil colors, curing herrings, &c. Silk, showed the falsity of astrology; and gave a cotton, and woollen stuffs, camblets, brocades, table of the moon's rising and setting, with the linens, laces, and tapestry are still manufactured eclipses and appulses of the moon and planets in great quantities. The laces are also superior. to fixed stars. This fell into the hands of Sir The ehief rivers are the Scheldt and the Lys. Jonas More; for whom he made a table of the Flanders has been divided into three parts ; moon's true southings. In 1674 Sir Jonas viz. Flemish, French, and Austrian or Imperial having informed him that a true account of the Flanders. It has been otherwise divided into tides would be highly acceptable to the king, he French, Austrian, and Dutch Flanders; but, the composed a small ephemeris for his use; and, country being so much exposed to the depredawhen Sir Jonas showed the king and duke of tions of ambitious princes and tyrannical states, York Flamsteed's telescopes and micrometer, the limits of these provinces have often varied : he procured for him a warrant to be king's astro nor is it necessary to ascertain them with much nomer, with a salary of £100 a-year. His Doc- precision, now that these distinctions are abotrine of the Sphere was published in 1681, in a lished. French Flanders, now forming the posthumous work of Sir Jonas More, entitled, French department of the NORTH, we shall treat of A New System of the Mathematics. In 1684 under that title, and confine the present account he was presented to the living of Burstow, in to those provinces of the Netherlands, which Surry, which he enjoyed till he died in 1719. still retain the name of East and West Flanders. His Historia Culestis Britannica was published East Flanders is divided from West Flanders
by a line running almost due so.th from Sluys, Great ordnance and small shot thundered and a smai. town opposite Flushing. Its capital is showered upon our men from the rampier in front, Ghent; its computed extent 1080 square miles; aud from the gallies that lay at sea in slank. its population fully 600,000. The surface in the
Bacon's War with Spain. northern part is level, while to the south it con
Gray was appointed to stand on the left side, in sists of undulating plains. The soil is in general such sort as he might take the flank of the enemy. a heavy fertile loam. The climate, though moist,
The belly shall be eminent by shadowing the flank. is not unhealthy: the chief productions are corn,
Peacham. pulse, flax, madder, tobacco, fruit; most of these
To right and left the front are in great abundance; and the pasturages ex Divided, and to either fllank retired. Milion. cellent. The manufactures are also here con With fates averse against their king's command, siderable. This province sends ten deputies to Armed on the right, and on the left they stand, the provincial assembly, and is divided into the And flank the passage. Dryden's Æneid. four circles of Ghent, Dendermonde, Oudenarde, By the rich scent we found our perfumed prey, and Eecloo. No part of it adjoins the sea, which flanked with rocks did close in covert lay. Dutch Flanders occupying the bank of the
Dryden. Scheldt; but it enjoys the benefit of water com He said, and poised in air, the jav'lin sent : munication by canals, the principal of which
Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went, lead to Bruges in the west, and to Sas Van Ghent
His corselet pierces, and his garment rends, in the north.
And glancing downward near his Hank descends. West Flanders extends along a considerable
Popc. tract of coast, in the central part of which is
FLANK, or Flanc, in farriery and horsemanOstend. This side faces the north ; but the ship. The Hanks of a horse should be full, and western boundary of the province adjoins the at the top of each a feather. The distance beFrench territory: Its extent is nearly 1500 tween the last rib and haunch-bone, which is square miles, and its surface in general level, ex- properly the flank, should be short, which they cept the sand-hills on the coast. Flere also the term well coupled, such horses being most soil is fertile, and the agriculture excellent. The hardy, and fit to endure labor A horse is said climate, like that of England, is humid and to have no flank, if the last of the short ribs be changeable; the products nearly the same as in at
a considerable distance from the haunchEast Flanders, and the language Flemish, except bone; or when his ribs are too much straitened along the French frontier, where there is an inter- in their compass. mixture of French. The manufactures are very
Flank, in military affairs, the side of a body considerable in lace and fine linen; cotton, stuffs,
When a battalion is drawn up three and leather; and there are extensive breweries deep, its flank files consist of three inen. When and distilleries. The exports consist of manu
four deep, the flank files are termed double files; factured articles, corn, pulse, rapeseed, tobacco, so that a column formed from any of these aligbutter, oil, cheese, and cattle. This province nements will have all its relative flank files, be sends eight deputies to the representative as
the depth of formation what it will. sembly; it is divided into four circles, that of Flank-COMPANY, a certain number of men Bruges (the capital), Furnes, Ypres, and Cour- drawn up on the right, or left, of a battalion. tray. Ostend is its only harbour of consequence, Thus the grenadiers compose the right, and the but the province has several canals, which form light infantry the left flank company; or, when a line of communication with France. Popula- these are detached, the two extreme battalion tion 520,000. Wood is scarce: the common companies become such. Thề grenadiers and fuel is turf and coal. Both provinces are of light infantry are generally called fank comthe Catholic religion; and each has, in addition panies, whether attached, or not, to their several to its share in the general representative body, a
battalions. local public assembly.
FLANKING-Party, a select body of men on FLANK, n. s. & v.a. Fr. flanc ; Teut.
foot or on horseback, whose object is to harass FLANK'er, n. s. & v. a. Sflank, or rather lank, the enemy, to get upon his wings, or by any
maneuvre to hang upon the flank of an opaccording to Wachter, who derives our word from this, with the addition of f; Goth. lang ;
posing force. In flanking, a great deal depends Belg: and Swed. flank. The side ; that part of upon the officer or serjeant; he must be exthe side of animals near the hinder thigh : in for- tremely active, and not only attend to the movetification, that part of the hastion which reaches but likewise to his fiankers.
ments of the divisior from which he is detached, from the curtain to the face. See FORTIFICATION.
FJANK OF A Bassion (fianc d'une bastion, To flank, in a military sense is to command or
Fr.) in fortification, that part which joins the attack an enemy's side, or to secure an army face to the curtain, comprehended between the on the side. A flanker is, in fortification, a lateral defence of any kind : to flanker is to defend angle of the curtain and that of the shoulder.
It is the principal defence of the place. Its use laterally, to protect or to attack sideways.
is to defend the curtain, the flank, and face of Like storms of hail the stones fell down from high, the opposite bastion, as well as the passage of Cast from the bulwarks, flankers, ports, and towers. the ditch; and to batter the salient angles of the
Fairfax. counterscarp and glacis, whence the besieged The Turks, discouraged with the loss of their fel- generally ruin the flanks with their artillery; for lows, and sore beaten by the Spaniards out of their
the fanks of a fortification are those parts which flankers, were enforced to retire.
Krwlles. the besiegers endeavour most to destroy, in