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those which are taken without fire. When the Sect. V.-OF THE LOBATER FISHERY. fishery is over, they cut off the heads, take out
Lobsters are taken along the British Channel, the gall and guts, and then lay them in barrels, and on the coast of Norway, whence they are and salt them. The common way of eating anchovies is with oil , vinegar, &c., in order to which brought
to London for sale; as also in the frith of
Edinburgh, and on the coast of Northumberland they are first boned, and the tails, fins, &c., By 10th & 11th Will
. III. c. 24, no lobster is slipped off. Being put on the fire, they dissolve
to be taken under eight inches in length, from in almost any liquor. They are made into sauce
the peak of the nose to the end of the middle by minching them with pepper, &c. Sonie also
fin of the tail; and by the 9th Geo. II. c. 33, pickle anchovies in small earthen pots, made on
no lobsters are to be taken on the coast of Scotpurpose, of two or three pounds weight, more
land from the 1st of June to the 1st of Septemor less, which they cover with plaster to keep them ber. See Cancer. They are in season from the better. Anchovies should be chosen small; September to June. The shell is black before it fresh pickled, white on the outside and red is boiled, but afterwards becomes red. within. They must have a round back; for winter, the cock is supposed to be more delicate
During those which are flat or large are often nothing eating than the hen. They are taken in what but sardines.
fishermen call pots, in shape like a mouse-trap,
made either of netting or twiggen work; these, Sect. IV.-OF THE MACKEREL FISHERY.
after being baited with garbage, and having a The mackerel, see SCOMBER, is a summer
buoy affixed, are made fast to a rope, and thrown
to the bottom of the sea, where it may be found fish of passage, found in large shoals, in various parts of the ocean not far north ; but especially to be from six to ten feet deep. On the Yorkon the French and English coasts. It is about shire and Orkney coasts, the fishermen use small Seventeen inches in length, and weighs nearly nets, with iron hoops, baited with fish guts, or two pounds. The body long, round, thick, and dried dog-fish. Lumion consumes more lobsters fleshy, is beautifully shaped for swimming, and than all the rest of the country together. They becomes very small and slender towards the tail,
are sent hither as far as from the Orkneys in which is so much forked, that it seems to be chests, which contain 400 or 500 each ; and when almost parted into fins. Hanmer found one in
900 or 1000 are thus collected, they are stowed
aboard the first smack that is to sail for Queenthe month of June containing 546,681 eggs; when first taken it exhibits a phosphoric light.
borough and Billingsgate. Its eyes, when they first appear on our coasts, and
SECT. VI.-OF THE OYSTER FISHERY. during winter, are covered with a kind of white film; they are then nearly blind, this, however, The British oyster (ostrea edulis) a bivalvular they cast in the beginning of summer. The fish- testaceous fish, found in all parts of the kinging is usually in April, May, and June, or July, dom, though not the largest, has been said to be according to the place. They enter the English the best and most wholesome in the world. They channel in April, and proceed up the straits of were famous in the days of the Romans, so that, Dover as the summer advances; so that by June according to Juvenal and Pliny, they were conthey are on the coasts of Cornwall
, Sussex, Nor- veyed from the coast of Kent to Rome. Those mandy, Picardy, &c. where the fishery is most of Colchester, however, are now thought fully considerable. They are an excellent food fresh; equal to those of Kent. In Scotland they breed and not to be despised, when well prepared, in the creeks and bays of the Orkney and Western pickled, and put up in barrels; a method of Islands; but the most considerable fisheries are preserving them chiefy used in Cornwall. They in the Friths of Forth, near Inchkeith, and Presare taken either with a line or nets: the latter is tonpans, in Musselburgh Bay. Here they obthe chief method, and is usually performed in tain the appellation of Pandoors, from being the night. The rules observed in the fishing for taken close by the doors of the salt pans. Oysmackerel are much the same as those in the ters cast their spat, or spawn, in the month of fishery of herrings. There are two ways of May; when first shed, it has the appearance of pickling them : the first is, by opening and gut- candle-grease, and adheres to stones, or any other ting them, and filling the belly with salt, cram- substance, which the dredgers term cultch ;med in as hard as possible with a stick; which the spat is covered with a shell in two or three done, they range them in rows, at the bottom of days, and, in the course of three years, it becomes the vessel, strewing salt between the layers. In marketable in size. The dredgers make use of a the second way, they put them immediately into very thick, strong, net, fastened to three spills of tubs full of brine, made of fresh water and salt; iron : this they drag along the bottom of the and leave them to steep, till they have imbibed sea, forcing the oysters into it. In England, salt enough to make them keep; after which, many, after being taken in this manner, are carthey are taken out, and barrelled up, taking care ried to other places, and laid in beds, or pits of to press them close down. Mackerel are not salt water, to fatten; where they derive a green cured or exported as merchandise, except by the color, sometimes, and are then found unwholeYarmouth and Lowestoft merchants, hut are ge some. A green color is often artificially given Derally consumed at home; especiaily in Lon to them in the salt marshes; but we do not condon, the sea-ports between the Thames and sider it as any improvement, as we think white Yarmouth, east, and the Land's end of Cornwall, oysters both 'look, and taste, better than those west. It is said that this fish was in high esteem that are green. The sea star (asterias glacialis) with the Romaus.
is a most destructive animal in a bed of oysters Vol. IX.
The fishing for oysters is permitted from the The other witnesses seem generally to entertain 1st of September to the last day of April inclu- the same opinion. Mr. Little has been told of sive: or, according to common observation, oys- evidence on this subject, p. 112; but no facts ters are in season in all those months which have are communicated. Indeed, Mr. Halliday asthe letter r in their name.
serts, that they do not all come to the same
river in which they were bred ;' and as a proof Sect. VII.-SALMON FISHERY.
of this he states, • I found the different rivers The Report from the Select Committee of the vary from one year to another; but when one is Salmon Fisheries of the United Kingdom, order- protected and another unprotected, the unproed hy the house of commons to be printed, the tected river keeps up its quantity as well as the 17th of June 1824, presents so complete an ac- protected one;' p. 87. count of the habits of this fish, and the general 2. Grilse.—Sir H. Davy and Mr. Jahn Wilmodes pursued in obtaining it, that we cannot son consider this fish as a young salmon; other do better in this place than present an abstract witnesses, as Messrs. Little, Johnstone, and of it to the reader.
Halliday, entertain a different opinion, viewing In the course of the examinations which are it as a distinct species. They found this opinion here recorded, the committee seem to have been of its claim to rank as a species, on the circumanxious to determine the different species of fish stances of its being found full of milt or of roe, usually found in the salmon rivers, or captured and of its spawning and return to the sea as a in the nets. This is object of considerable im- kelt or spawned fish. But fish spawn long beportance, in every view of the subject before us. fore they attain maturity, consequently this test is
1. Salmon.-All the witnesses are of the same of little value. But other proofs are offered. opinion with regard to this species; but they Mr. Johnstone says, ' The grilse is a much less differ greatly as to the question, Whether the fish in general ; it is much smaller at the tail in salmon of one river can be distinguished from proportion, and it has a much more swallow tail, those of another by any definite characters. _Mr. inuch more forked; it is smaller at the head, Halliday has compared them in Ireland, Eng- sharper at the point of the nose, and generally land, and Scotland, many times, and says, " I the grilse is more bright in the scales thau the cannot make out the distinction of one river's salmon;' p. 38. Mr. Halliday states, that a fish from that of another.' Mr. James Bell states, grilse's tail is very much forked, like that of a • I have a little guess; not altogether.' J. Proud- swallow; a salmon's tail is not forked like that foot considers the Tweed fish as smaller than of a grilse, and the chowk fins (pectorals) of a those of the Tay, and those of the River Isla as grilse are much more blue in their color than a smaller than those of the River Tay; but, when salmon's; a grilse is much smaller at the head asked if upon meeting with an Isla fish and a and immediately above the tail than a salnion is: Tay fish in the frith, he should know the one it seems to be a different fish in shape every from the other, he replies · No; I would not.' way; besides, it goes up full of spawn in the On the other side of the question, Mr. James end of the year, and does not come down till the Wilson, in reference to the North and South spring, when it is a kelt grilse, while the young Esks at Montrose, declares, that the species of salmon are coming up the rivers in numbers of salmon are quite different in these two rivers;' at least fifty young salmon for every kelt grilse and adds, One is a large coarse scaly fish, and that returns to the sea :' p. 63. Mr. Little, who the other is a smaller and a finer fish. Mr. James entertains a similar opinion to the two preceding Bell states, that the Aberdeen fish is quite dif- witnesses, states, that grilses enter rivers in ferent from the Tay, different in the scale? Geo. June, seldom in May, p. 12 (confirmed by Mr. Little, esq. states, that the salmon in the Shan- Halliday, p. 53.); and adds, . We do not find non grow to a large size;' and adds, We have in some rivers the same proportion of grilses to three fishings that fall all into one bay in Ireland, salmon as we do in others; for instance, in our the Bush, the Bann, and the Foyle, and we can fishing at the Foyle, it consists almost entirely easily distinguish the fish of all the different rivers of grilse,' p. 110. When they first appear in the when we take them. The salmon in the bush is rivers, they are from a pound and a half to three a long-bodied round salmon, nearly as thick at pounds in weight, and they increase gradually the head as he is at the middle. The salmon every week during the time we kill them.' At that we kill at the Bann, is what I call a very the end of the season they weigh eight, nine, or neat-made fish, very broad at the shoulders, and ten pounds. He likewise states, Our water the back fin tapering away towards the tail, and keepers tell me that they very seldom see a salquite a different shaped fish from the Bush fish. mon and grilse breeding together, but they have The Foyle is a river that we seldom get any large seen it occasionally, but not generally; Fery salmon in.'
seldom;' p. 113. There can be little doubt, A considerable degree of importance seems to that the term grilse is used in general to denote be attached to this branch of the enquiry, with a young salmon, though the same epithet is prothe view of determining the question, Whether bably bestowed on & Jistinct species of the genus the fish bred in a particular river always return salmo, with which it seems to be confounded. to their birth-place, and to no other river. Sir 3. Trout.—Sir H. Davy considers salmonHumphry Davy assumes that ' salmon, and peal, sewen, and bull-trout, as constituting one salmon-trout, belong, in fact, to the river in · species, the salmo-eriox of Linnæus, the most which they were spawned,' and that each va correct appellation of which is sea-irout. The salmo riety of salmon, or salmon-trout affects a parti- trutta of Linnæns, however, has been universally cular river, and always returns to it;' p. 145. regarded by British systematical writers as the
common sea-trout; and the salmo eriox is a very as a distinct species. They are called hirlings on different species. Linnæus employed the term the Scotch side of the Solway, whitings on the eriox as a trivial name to the S maculis cirereis, English side; hirlings, whitings or whitlings at cauda extremo æquali of Artedi, and the gray of Berwick; whitelings in the Tay; and finnocks Willoughby and Ray. Mr. Johnstone says, “ Al- in the north of Scotland ;' p. 37. though in some friths and rivers, where there are 5. Pur.-Mr. Little is the only witness who a great many salmon, there are also great num- is questioned in reference to this fish. “I have bers of trout; yet in others, where are a great seen them; but I consider them merely a freshmany salmon, there are very few trout;' p. 38. Mr. water fish, or a species of fish by themselves, unHalliday states, “ In the Annan I have known connected with our salmon-fisheries altogether. us get more sea-trouts in one day, than we shall p. 113. get in the Tay in a whole year;' p. 64. Mr. It is probable that some species migratory Little declares, that the sea-trout are not found trouts have not been noticed at all. The river in all salmon rivers. We do not see any thing fishers are better acquainted with the trouts than like the Spey trout, or like the trout that is the frith fishers.-But we return to the habits of caught in the Solway Frith, or like the trout that the salmon, as furnishing materials for regulating is caught in the Tweed, in any of our fishings in the legislative enactments of this kingdom. Ireland. They do not breed, nor are they to be Before entering upon this branch of the subseen there;' p. 111. Sir H. Davy states, that ject it may be proper to state, that the present the different habits of the salmon and sea-trout legal time for beginning the salmon-fishing varies are well demonstrated in the Moy, near Ballena in different rivers, from the 10th December (in in Ireland,' on which there is a large pile the Tay) to the 12th March (in the Solway); and near the town, and which, below the fall, is that the fishing-season legally ends, according to joined by a considerable stream. The salmon the rivers, from the 12th August (Ireland geneleap this fall; the sea-trout almost all spawn in rally) to the 4th December (in the Teign). How the smaller stream, a few miles from the sea;' p. far these terms are suitable or improper will 144. There is some strange blunder here. Mr. presently appear. Little, the tenant of the fishings on the Moy, In the more important actions of the salmon, says, there are trout, but not the trout called viz. migration and spawning, there is a season the sea-trout;' and with regard to the pile or during which these are executed by the greatest fall which obstructs the progress of the trout, number of individuals, occupying, however, a and over which the salmon leap, he adds,“ They range of some months. But there are individuals, can go over it at tide-time, without leaping; executing these operations irregularly, at other after the tide rises they can go over it;' p. 134. periods. Mr. Little says, “There are some rivers He likewise observes, - A trout goes very up in which you will get some good salmon all the the river to spawn. The smaller the fish is, they year round. In the spring months few fish enter go the higher up into the little streams to deposit rivers; they rapidly increase in numbers as the the spawn; but the trout in the Moy are quite a summer advances, and in autumn again they bedifferent kind of trout from what we call in Scot- gin to decrease, leaving the winter months, as to land the salmon or sea-trout;' p. 134.
the ascending migration, to constitute a dead 4. Whitling.—Sir H. Davy considers this fish season. as a young salmon, and states, that they are The condition of rivers in the spring influences without visible ova or spermatic secretion; are the movements of the salmon." J. Proudfoot found in salmon rivers, a mile or two from the states, that in the spring of the year the fish alsea, and which return to the sea, without at- ways occupy the north side of the Tay (i. e. the tetapting a farther migration;' p. 145. Mr. sunny side of the river). The north side fishing Lide
, who knows this fish by different names in kills far more fish than the south side;' p. 28. different rivers, as hirlings, whitings, or fin- Mr. Little states, that in the river Shannon the pocks, declares, " We never see such a fish in salmon fishery is nearly over by the middle of Ireland, in the rivers we are concerned with.” May,' p. 114; and that he does not get many Mr. Halliday states, that in Carlisle they call fish in the Foyle of any kind till the end of May;' them whitings: in Annan hirlings, and in the p. 112. When the great differences existing beNorth finnocks. I never saw any in the Tay; tween different rivers, in the quantity, temperabut I have taken 100 dozen in the Annan at one ture, and contents of their waters, are duly condraught. It is about twelve inches long. The
we need not wonder at the influence tail of the hirling is straighter than that of the these circumstances may exert on the motions of salmon or grilse, and it is quite a short-headed salmon ; but, if we make a difference in the close fish; neither does the head of the hirling shoot season between one river and another, we must, like that of the salmon when he is going to with equal propriety, establish a similar distincspawn). The largest I ever saw was about three- tion between the south side and the north side of quarters of a pound. My reasons for believing every river. In rivers, during the early spring that they are not the young salmon, are, that months, the fisheries are seldom productive: even when they go up the rivers, they are as full of lord Gray's fishings on the sunny side of the Tay, spawn for their size as the salmon is; and when according to J. Gillies, taking the average from they come down in the spring of the year kelts
, the 10th December till the end of January, will We are getting the young salmon;' p. 63. Mr. not, one season with another, pay the expenses Johnstone agrees with the preceding witnesses, or little more. There are some very good fishings in asserting the ordinary presence of ova and in the month of February ; perhaps in the month spermatic secretion, and in considering this fish of February there will be ten days of those fish
ings, and scarcely take one fish.'
. The same wit- adjoining, during the proper season; p. 13. On ness adds, in reference to the kind of fish taken the other hand, Mr. Johnstone says, 'ihe salmon at those periods in the Tay, “You will get ten caught in the sea, and nearest to the sea, are genefoul fish till the middle of February for one clean rally the richest.' When they have been some one;' p. 139. As the season advances, the salmon days in the water, they lose their bright color,'appear on the shores, in the estuaries, and enter the 'their firm state; the fish gets longer in proporrivers in greater numbers. The stakenets, in such tion to its thickness, and loses its weighi.'– If places, according to Mr. Halliday, are seldom he is not many days in the water, if he is caught productive but in May, June, and July;' p. 68. immediately out of the sea, I do not see he can The fishings fall materially off about the middle be any worse;' p. 50. 'A few weeks would of August, and the end of it;' p. 69, and 84. make him a great deal worse;' p. 53. Mr. Hal“In September they catch almost nothing;' p. 84. liday states, that those that had been long in These conditions vary much with the season. fresh water were very much exhausted, quite The salmon are most abundant in dry seasons changed in the color, as if they had hung in a on the shore, and in estuaries. In rivers, they smoky chimney for some time ; others were very abound most in wet seasons. J. Proudfoot de- red in the skin, by having been in the fresh clares that ' in rainy seasons, in heavy speats, the water for some time.' "When they are in the upper fisheries (in the river) give more fish in fresh waters they turn as slippery as aneel;' p. 61. proportion when the river is high than when it is “The salmon becomes unsound after it has been Iittle;' p. 26. The fish which enter rivers in the detained in fresh-water at any season; p. 79. spring and summer months, have roe; but in Mr. Little not only states, if he remains any May, for example, it is very small. As the sea- length of time in a fresh river, he becomes worse, son advances, the roe and milt are found in a but even limits the period to a week or ten days; riper state, until the time of spawning; but, in p. 126. This supposed deterioration in fresh these respects, there are individual differences. water, we consider to be visionary, and for this Now, since salmon enter rivers months before reason,-if it took place, how could the fish suffer they be ready for spawning, Do they remain in under its influence for months, while exertthe river until that period, or do they occasionally ing themselves in ascending to the spawningreturn to the sea ? On this subject the come ground, -while in the protracted act of spawnmittee seem to have bestowed considerable at- ing,—during their residence in the neighbourhood tention. The opinions of the witnesses, however, after parturition,—and in their subsequent desare at variance. In reference to the fish on the cent to the sea ? shore and in estuaries, Mr. Wilson declares, 'I 2. Salmon remaining in fresh water have their believe they all go up those rivers ; they are upon gills covered and eaten by worms, which fall off the shore, and get up the river if they can;' p. 14. upon their return to the seu.— Mr. Johnstone deSeveral of the other witnesses give it as their clares. They get infested with worms or magopinion, that salmon, before the spawning season, gots in the gills if they remain long in the fresh enter the rivers, and return again to the sea, in- water, which I think would kill them in the end, fluenced by very different instincts from those if they did not go back to the sea to get clear of of spawning. The following proofs are offered:- these worms or maggots;' p. 35. Mr. Halliday
1. It is asserted that salmon, remaining a short says of fish in a bad condition, Some of those time in fresh-water, become weak, and return to the we took had their gills almost eaten through with sea to be recruited. It is stated by some of the wit- maggot worms, by being so long up the river;' nesses, that salmon are fattest at a particular sea- p. 61. Mr. Little declares, “I have seen their
Mr. Little says, “In the month of May I gills entirely eaten off them by the worms in consider they are as good and as perfect as at fresh water; at least the thin and red parts enany one season of the year. From the month of tirely eat away' (i. e. all their organs of respiraMay, they are gradually growing worse till they tion). I do not believe they are ever found in begin to deposit their spawn in the month of that state except in fresh water, and it is necesNovember;' p. 114. Mr. Wilson reckons sal- sary for them to leave the fresh water to get clear mon is at its best at Midsummer, and falls greatly of the vermin which fasten upon them while off after about the middle of July;' p. 12. Mr. there;' p. 108. The worm referred to is the Johnstone considers May and June as the lernæa salmonea of Linnæus, the entomoda salperiod of their greatest perfection, but he adds, monea of Lamarck. We still ask the question, . there may be equal to three months difference If the fresh water be so very exhausting, and the between the quality of fish;' p. 56. Mr. Bell, attacks of the maggot so very troublesome and on the other hand, declares that the fish is full destructive, how can the spawning fish survive as good on the 10th December in the Tay as at during their residence for months in a river? It any other time of the year ;' and 'the Tweed fish is to be regretted that the season of the year, and are good in August; that is their best season;'p. 21. the condition of the fish as to spawning, have not Mr. P.J. Proudfoot says, in reference to the Tay, been determined, as, trusting to the declarations there is a great deal of good fish killed by the of experienced river fishers, we consider that time we commence the season' (on 10th Decem- these worms only appear on the kelt fish, or such ber); p. 27. These opinions are of less value as have spawned, and which are consequently on than those now to be stated respecting the rela- their return to the sea. tive qualities of sea and river fish. Mr. Wilson 3. Salmon are caught in the rivers and estuaries decidedly declares that there is no difference in on their way out to sèa.—In proof of this, Mr. the quality of salmon taken at different parts of Halliday states, “I fished the Annan for many the same river, or in the tideway, or in the sea years; and there is one pool in particular, namely
the Sand Pool; although we had fished this pool or ten days, and where it is in danger of having quite clean of fish before the rain came, yet, its organs of respiration entirely devoured by whenever the rain did come on, we then con the entomoda, or maggot. Another reason astinued fishing constantly, until the water rose so signed by the same witnesses for salmon entering high that we could not manage it, and we got the rivers, is searching for food. Of this, however, salmon and grilses coming down the river all the no proof is offered.
But in reference to estime into the pool. Some of those we took tuaries, Mr. Halliday has taken a great many coming down the water of Annan were what we salmon,' with worms passing through them; call moffatmen, a term used for exhausted fish such worms as are to be seen on the banks ;' which had been at the bead of the water;' p. 61. p. 61. • I have had thousands of them dissected, But the fish may have come up the water to this when I have seen small sea-fish in their sto pool; or, if they came down with the flood, they machs;' p. 90. may have been kelts,-their gills were infested At what season do salmon enter rivers for the
This is the only proof in the re- purpose of spawning ?-We have already seen that port of the descent of salmon in rivers before the milt and roe make their appearance in a very spawning, and it refers to a length of course from obvious manner, so early as the month of May; the sea not exceeding a salmon day's journey. p. 35. Mr. Johnstone states,
6 that some are The point in question can only be determined at getting full of spawn in July;' p. 56. In Ausalmon leaps. Do fish ever recross these before gust, the great proportion of them are getting they have become kelts? The proof in the es- full of roe and milt; they always get full as they tuary and sea is still more defective. Mr. John- get near spawning;' p. 40. Mr. Wilson states, stone declares the fish seldom go against the that in August they get considerably advanced tide;' p. 44. “They run backwards and forwards with spawn; and in the end of August and bewith the tide in all directions ;' p. 45. Mr. Hal- ginning of September they get very full of spawn;' liday admits that it is common for salmon to p. 12. William Bell, in reference to the Tay, ebb and flow with the reflux of the tide;' p. 91. states, that eight or ten days before the fishingWith these admissions, the last two witnesses season closes, they are very full of roe ;' p. 32. consider the salmon taken in stake-nets, with an J. Proudfoot says, • I have seen the fish, partiebb court for taking fish with the ebb tide, were cularly the female, beginning to get very large by such as had been in the river or estuary, and the 25th August;' p. 27. In September and were leaving it for the sea. But if the salmon October they are so full of roe and milt as to be were inactive, the motions of the ebb-tide would unmarketable. Mr. Halliday says, “ Last year carry them into the nets, in the same manner as some of the fish sent from Montrose before the the flood-tide carried them past. The fish do not ' 10th October were seeded, and condemned in enter rivers until the water is in a state to re- the London market as being unfit for use; and ceive them, and they are in a condition to enter. I have seen them frequently take them by the Hence, on the shore and in estuaries, when not 1st October that I considered were very uninclined to migrate, the motions of the tide will wholesome and improper fish to be taken;' p. control them, and the ebb-nets will, from their 83. Even in February and March last year very nature, be most likely to secure them. Even (1824), in the North Esk, 'I caught them upon in the driest seasons, when the fish were not the spawning-beds in the night-time;' p. 84. Mr. Entering the river, Mr. Halliday states that the Little declares, in August, September, and Ocebb-nets were most successful; p. 72. Could tober, in general, they get large in the belly, and they be other fish than such as passed by with the full of roe and milt; and he adds, that, for the flood?
purpose of spawning, they begin to ascend in If fresh waters be so exhausting to salmon, the months of August and September, and couand promote the growth of parasitical maggots tinue to the end of the year;' p. 107. In Jaso rapidly, how comes it to pass that they ever nuary, February, and even March, some of the leave the sea, unless for the necessary purposes fish are unspawned. Mr. Little states, that` last of spawning? The three witnesses, who consider season my tenant commenced fishing at my that salmon run out of rivers to get rid of the fishery in the Nith on the 11th March. He then Forms which infest their gills, have a similar killed, as I am informed, upwards of 200 salmon, hypothesis for explaining their leaving the sea. some of them positively not spawned; p. 116. Mr. Little says, . It is instinct which induces Fish ready to spawn seem to enter the rivers them to return to the rivers, and, as I consider, directly, and in the friths to keep the depth of for the purpose of getting rid of a vermin which the stream: hence, neither shore "stake-nets nor çets upon them, called sea-lice.' The animal estuary stake-nets are successful in capturing here referred to is the monoculus piscinus of red fish. Even Mr. Bell, a witness obviously Linnæus, and the caligus curtus (mixed probably hostile to stake-nets, declares, in reference to the with C. productus) of Müller, but usually con- capture of red fish in the estuary, that “none' founded with the lernæa salmonea of Linnæus, are caught, and qualifies his assertion by saying, by a blunder of Mr. Pennant. This animal is there may be one, accidentally, in a year or common to the saimon, whiting, cod, and floun- two;' p. 23. In ascending the river, Mr. Hallider. The last three do not enter rivers to escape day declares, the fish run must in the morning from its attacks. The salmon, when most infected and evening;' p. 86. The general time of spawny it
, is in the fattest and healthiest condition; ing, according to all the witnesses, is during the out still, in order to have it removed, this fish, months of November, December, and January; in the opinion of these witnesses, enters rivers, pp. 61. 108: though 'stragglers may be found in where it is certain of being exhausted in a week March.