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tween them. The entrails are boiled into an oil; baskets. The gippers cut their throats, take out 8000 fish will yield ten gallons, valued at one their guts, and fing out the full herrings into shilling the gallon. A vessel of eighty tons one basket, and the shotten into another. One takes out 144 barrels of salt; a drawback of man takes the full basket when they are gipped, 2s. 8d. is allowed for each barrel used by the and carries them to the rower back, wherein foreign exportation of the fish; but there is a there is salt. One boy rows and stirs them duty of 1s. per barrel for the home consumption, about in the salt, and another takes them, thus and the same for those sent to Ireland.' The rowed, and carries them in baskets to the packbarrels are made of oak-staves, chietly from Vir Four men pack the herrings into one ginia; the hoops from several parts of our own barrel, and lay them, one by one, straight and island, and are either of oak, birch, hazel, or wil- even ; and another man, when the barrel is full, low: the last from Holland, liable to a duty. The takes it from the packers. It is left to stand a barrels cost about 3s. each; they hold from 500 to day or more open to settle, that the salt may 300 fish, according to their sizes, and are made melt and dissolve to pickle; after which it is to contain thirty-two gallons. The barrels are filled up, and the cooper completes the work, inspected by proper officers : a cooper examines by heading the casks very light, and stowing if they are good ; if faulty, he destroys them, and thein in the hold. The pickle is to be strong obliges the maker to stand to the loss. Loch enough to sustain a herring; otherwise the fish Broom has been celebrated for three or four cen- decay in it. turies as the resort of herrings. They generally Bishop Watson observes, that the Dutch appear here in July: those that turn into this bay have long been famous for preparing a salt for are part of the brigade that detaches itself from the pickling of herrings, by which they have acthe western column of that great army which an- quired a superiority in that article of commerce nually deserts the vast depths of the arctic circle, over all other European nations. Their princiand come, heaven-directed, to the seats of popu- pal secret in this business consists in evaporating lation, offered as a cheap food to millions, whom the brine made from the solution of bay salt wasteful luxury or iron-hearted avarice hath de- with the gentlest fire, and in mixing with the prived, by enhancing the price of the wonted brine a proper quantity of very sour whey; the supports of the poor. The migration of these acid whey unites itself with the uncombined fish from their northern retreat is regular; their fixed alkali, and thus prevents it from adhering visits to the Western Isles and coasts, certain; to the common salt as it crystallises.
Any other but their attachment to one particular loch, ex mild acid might probably answer the same purtremely precarious. All have their turns: that pose.'—Chemical Essays, vol. 2. p. 63. which swarmed with fish one year, is totally de In the report of the Downs Fishery, the comserted the following; yet the next loch to it may mittee, p. 21, observe, ó that the periodical shoals he crowded with the shoals. These changes of of herrings, in their progress from the North place give often full employ to the busses, who Sea to the Channel, appear in wonderful abundare continually shifting their harbour in quest of ance in their straits, in the early part of Octonews respecting these important wanderers. ber, and remain till the end of November; They commonly appear here in July; the latter about which time they proceed gradually to the end of August they go into deep water, and con- westward, and are caught off the Isle of Wight tinue there for some time, without any apparent till the end of February. S'ich is the profusion cause : in November they return to the shallows, of these fish, while they continue between the when a new fishery commences, which continues Forelands, where they are necessarily condensed till January; at that time the herrings become by the conformation of the straits, that the quanfull of roe, and are useless as articles of com- tities taken on this part of the coast, amount to
Some doubt, whether those herrings that more than double the average catch of our great appear in November are not part of a new mi- fishery at Newfoundland, in proportion to the gration, for they are as fat, and make the same time and number of hands employed in it. The appearance, as those that composed the first mackerel are also found during their season, in The signs of the arrival of the herrings are flocks remarkable abundance in these straits, which of gulls, which catch up the fish while they skim appear to form the limits of their migration up on the surface; and of gannets, which plunge and the channel. In this neighbourhood (Deal) bring them up from considerable depths. Both they generally remain from May to July, affordthese birds are closely attended to by the fishers. ing, like the herrings, a rich harvest that seems Cod-fish, haddocks, and dog-fish, follow the to invite the industry of the fisherman.'-In p. herrings in vast multitudes; these voracious fish 26 and 28, they add, that' Holland has no herkeep on the outsides of the columns, and may con- rings near her own coast, but takes them on the cur in driving the shoals into bays and creeks. , coast of Britain, from Shetland to 'he coast of In summer they come into the bays generally Sussex; commencing at the distance of 250 with the warmest weather, and with easy gales. leagues, and endirg at fifty leagues from her own During winter, the hard gales from north-west ports.' are supposed to assist in forcing them into shel The Downs Society was associated in Noter.
East winds are very unfavorable to the vember, 1815, under the patronage of the earl fishery.'
of Liverpool, and is a gratifying example of the The nets being hauled on board, the fishes are effect of spirited associations for the promotion taken out, and put into the warbacks, which of improvements in our fisheries.
The fish stand on one side of the vessels. When all the which was cured by that society in the preceding nets are thus unloaded, one fills the gippers year (with a very little, though very valuable in
struction from Mr. Sicvers, a fishing merchant of salutary effects. They conclude their statement Loudon) received the first bounty paid under with the intelligence, that the character of the the late act, on that part of the coast. They British fishery is rising both at home and abroad; sent sixty-two barrels of white herrings to Bar- for that, while the quantity of herrings cured badues, Antigua, Jamaica, and other West India gutted is annually increasing, the quantity cured Islands; from whence they received the most ungutted is every year diminishing ; that great favorable and gratifying accounts of the excel- as the amount of fishery had been in the course lence of their fish; which sold at very high of that year, the demand had fully kept pace prices, a third more than those from either the with it; and that, at the end of the season, few United States, or British America. See the Re- herrings remained unsold in the hands of the port of the committee of the Downs Society of curers. They further report, that while the exFisherman's Friends, 17th August, 1816.
portation to the continent of Europe had nearly Since the act of 48th Geo. III., appointing equalled that of the preceding year, and the excommissioners, separate and distinct from the cus- portation to the West Indies and Ireland had toms and excise, to superintend the distribution increased, a new market had opened in the East of bounties, and the stationing of officers versed Indies, to which different shipments of herrings in the trade of the herring fishery, persons who had been made, by way of experiment both froin had experimentally and practically followed that Greenock and London : that, from the former of fishery as a trade, but who are excluded from all these places, upwards of 1300 firkins were exinterest or participation in the trade, the herring ported to Calcutta, all of which they understood fishery has become with us, as it was with the were purchased by Europeans there at 20s. to Dutch, an object of national concern; the good 25s. per firkin; and that it was the intention of effects of which are sensibly felt in every part of the exporter, in consequence of this encourage-, the coast, where it has regularly been established. ment, to ship a larger quantity next season; so By this act, an annual report by the commission- that the cominissioners trust, that India will soon ers, of their proceedings, ending the 5th April, become a permanent and valuable market for the is required to be presented to parliament each consumption of British herrings. The report session : containing the details of the fishery of concludes, it is impossible to state, within the the preceding year, together with such observa- compass of this report, the advantages resulting tions ar.d suggestions as may have occurred, or to the community from the prosperity of the been communicated to the commissioners, in the herring fishery; but the commissioners think it interval between the reports. In their report of their duty briefly to mention that the effects 1816, they state that they have had their atten- thereof are felt in almost every part of the kingtion turned to different matters calculated to im- dom. The fishermen have, in many cases, been prove the cure of herrings, and to raise the enabled, by the produce of their industry, to recharacter of the British fishery in foreign parts; place the small boats formerly used, by new that a communication, made to them by a mer- boats of much larger dimensions, and to provide cantile house of respectability, on the subject of themselves with fishing materials of superior increasing the exportation of herrings to the value. The number of boats and of fishermen continent of Europe, had been printed, and has been greatly increased; while, by the distributed among the curers throughout the general introduction of the practice of gutting, kingdom ; that regulations had been adopted a valuable source of employment has been for improving the construction of barrels intend- opened to thousands of poor people, who now ed for bounty; that the boats of the fishermen annually resort to the coast during the continuhad been properly fitted up for the reception of ance of the fishing season, and there earn a herrings; that bounty had been refused on all decent livelihood in the operations of gutting barrels not full of pickle; and that the strictest and packing. New dwelling-houses and buildorders had been given to the officers of the fish- ings, on a superior construction, for the curing ery, to apply the official brand in no case, unless and storing of the herrings, are erecting at both berrings and casks were in every respect almost every station along the coast; while the such as would do credit to the establishment. demand for home wood for the manufacture of In the year 1817 the commissioners point out barrels, affords a source of profit and employthe great increase that had taken place in the ment to numbers of people in the most inland exportation of British herrings to the continent parts of the country. of Europe, in consequence of the communica The progress of the herring-fishery will best tions made to and the regulations adopted by be seen by a summary view of the quan:ities them, as contained in the preceding report; and, caught, cured for bounty, and exported, from in the year 1818, they observe that they had 1815 to 1819. received a memorial on the subject from Ham By the report of 1815, it appears that the burgh, signed by a number of herring merchants quantity cured gutted was 105,3724 barrels. By of that port, bearing testimony to the improve- that of 1816, it amounted to 135,981 barrels, ment that had taken place in the quality of being an increase in one year's fishery of 30,6081 British herrings, and pointing out the means of barrels. The quantity cured ungutted, in the raising their character still higher. This memor former period, was 54,767 barrels; in the latter rial the commissioners likewise caused to be 26,670% barrels, being a decrease of 28,0964 printed, and distributed among the curers, barrels. The total quantity brought under the which they accompanied with such additional view of the officers in 1815 was 160,1394 barrels. observations as they conceived to be necessary, . In 1816 it was 162,651; barrels, being an increase, and which they state to have produced the most on the whole, of 2512., barrels. The quantity
branded for bounty in 1815, was 83,376 barrels. and of 48,4941 in the quantity gutted; while In 1816 it was 116,436, being an increase of there was a decrease in the quantity cured un33,060 barrels. The exports, on the whole, in gutted of 13,1464 barrels. In this year the 1815, exceeded those of 1816; but the gutted quantity found entitled to bounty was 183,089} herrings exported in the latter year exceeded being an increase of 43,071 barrels. In the same those of the former by 12,606} barrels.
year, the total quantity exported was 162,339) barIn the year 1817 the total quantity caught was rels, whereof 148,147} were gutted, and 14,192 192,3434 barrels, being an increase of 29,6914 ungutted; being an increase in the total quanbarrels. In the same year the quantity branded tity of 23,711 barrels, and of 32,667 in the quanfor bounty was, 140,018} barrels, being an in- tity gutted; while there was a decrease in the crease of 23,5824 barrels. The quantity exported quantity ungutted of 8956 barrels. in 1817 was 138,628} barrels, being an increase But the report of the year ending the 5th of of 30,9404 barrels.
April, 1819, is still more encouraging than any of In the year 1818 the total quantity caught the former ones, as will be seen from the followwas 227,691 barrels, whereof 204,2704 were ing accounts, which exhibit at one view the encured gutted, and 23,4204 ungutted; being an tire state of the herring fishery at the different increase in the total quantity of 35,347} barrels, stations in Great Britain.
Table I.-An Account of the Total Number of Barrels of White Herrings which have been
branded for the Bounty of 4s. and of 3s. 6d. per Barrel, in the year ended 5th April, 1819.
Ayr, Irvine, and Saltcoats
1,314} 7,029 15,949) 10,851 8,987 6,073 10,368
7,969 28,983 7,694) 5,979; 6,927 24,761)
391 3,692} 7,3611 24,175} 19,564 10,677 13,495 13,811 11,770 35,136 12,5603
8,162 11,236 34,533)
34 359 557 3951
332) 8,226 8,713 1,690 7,422 3,197 3,801 6,153 4,866 2,182) 4,309 9,772
34 359 517
414 16 0 505 0 0
38 1 6 2,279 0 0 4,663 0 6
732 1 0 263 17 0 304 190 220 00
220 8 0 1,733 16 230 17 0 300 14 0 458 16 0 38 12 0 78 4 0 732 17 0 1,472 6 0 4,835 2 0 3,912 16 0 2,135 8 0 2,6990 0 2,756 10 2,354 0 0 7,027 4 0 2,512 2 0 1,632 8
0 2,247 4
0 6,906 14
6 16 0 71 16 0 111 8 79 2
O O O O O
185,983 82,802} Year ended 5th April, 1818. 131,123} 50,875 Difference, year ended 5th April 1819.
54,8594 31,9271 Increase.
86,933 £17,332 19 0
Table II.-An Account of the Total Number of Barrels of White Herrings, which have been landed
from the Fishery, or cured on Shore, in the Year ended 5th April 1819 ;-in so far as the same has come under the cognizance of the officers of the Fishery.
2,806 & Saltcoats Campbeltown 3,543 Fort-William 1533 Glasgow : 16,525 Greenock. 24,667 Inverary
10,020 Stornoway 1,2301 Stranraer
187 Liverpool St. Ives
404 Whitehaven 3,481 Anstruther
18,1811 Fraserburgh 19,482 Helmsdale 21,752)
3,301 Lybster 19,6281 Orkney
8,714 Port Gordon 14,299 Wick
TABLE III.-An Account of the Total Number of Barrels of White Herrings which have beer.
Exported from Great Britain, in the year ended 5th of April, 1819 ;—in so far as the same have come under the cognizance of the Officers of the Fishery.
Ayr, Irvine, and Saltcoats
385 5829 3821,
165 1105 1186 3216 969 134 172 655 2069 4031 2855 2258 1770 4439 2062 9674
465 3452 2600 17,869 4707
445 6543 31,7171
225 1105 1480 4599 6175 3649
172 3554 3039 14,853 8570 3423 1770 9141 5642 34,644
3635 21,559 47,889
500 10,822 5463 500
Sect III.-OF THE PILCHARD AND ANCHOVY and regulated signs, direct the boats and vessels FISHERIES.
how to manage their seins, and, when their comThe pilchard and the anchovy are, in fact, mands are properly given and obeyed, they have only a distinct species of the genus clupea. been known to take 100,000 pilchards at a Some naturalists consider the former as a variety draught. It is a common saying of the Cornish of the herring. It is, however, much less and fishermen, when talking of the pilchard, that it thicker than the herring, the nose turns up, the is the least fish in size, most in number, and under jaw is shorter than the upper, the dorsal greatest in gain. In Scotland they sometimes fin is placed exactly in the centre of gravity-for appear among the berring shoals, but in the if you take a pilchard by the back it will hang Frith of Forth there are no established fisheries even, which a herring will not—and the scales for them. are firm, and adhere very closely, while those of Anchovies are caught in May, June, and July, the berring come off with the least rubbing. on the coasts of Catalonia, Provence, &c., when
The pilchard swims in large shoals which they constantly repair through the straits of Gibralarrive on the coasts of Bretagne, Cornwall, and tar into the Mediterranean. See Clupea. ColDevonshire, from June to September, although lins says, they are also found in plenty on the they are sometimes caught about Christmas. west coasts of England and Wales. The fishMen are set on the cliffs of the coasts of De- ing is chiefly in the night, when, a light being put vonshire and Cornwall, whom they call huers, to upon the stern of the fishing-vessels
, the anwatch their coming; the purple color of the chovies flock round, and are caught in the nets. water in the day, and its shining appearance in But it is said to have been found by experience, the night, giving certain indications of their ap- that anchovies take us by fire, are neither so vroach. Then the huers, according to settled good, so firm, nor so proper for keeping as