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extraordinary, poverty extreme, herbs their food, population is thereby increased; and, with an skins their covering, and the ground their couch: augmentation of population, its necessary conseregardless of man and of gods, they attained to quences, the desire for land to procure the nea very difficult thing, not to have a single wish cessaries of life, and of course an increase of to form.'
rent to the proprietor. These new settlers in the FINNINGIA, or FENNINGIA, in ancient desert wastes of Scotland, like those in America, geography, the proper reading for Eningia in cultivate and improve the soil in proportion as Pliny, which he makes an island, but is more the trees are removed from it. At this moment, truly a peninsula : now called Finland.
it is added, Mr. G. Dempster, who will be long FI'NOCHIO, n. s. A species of fennel; a respected by his countrymen, sees fields on his plant.
estate rapidly converting, in this way, into cultiFIONDA, or Puionda, anciently. Phaselis, vated ground, and yielding him ten or twelve a decayed city of Asia Minor, on the west coast shillings per acre in rent, not only without any of the Gulf of Satalia. It is called Tekrova by expense to himself, but after having derived å the Turks, and is still the see of a Greek bishop. considerable profit from the sale of woods of his It is situated on a small peninsula, at the foot of own planting, which grew upon land that twentythe mountain Yakhtalu. Here are still three five years ago was not worth to him above twoports and a lake, as described by Strabo (though pence the acre, and which might have remained the last is now a mere swamp), together with the in that state perhaps for ages to come, had it ruins of a theatre, 150 feet in diameter, which has not been planted at all. It is contended by the had twenty-one rows of seats. Some large sar same writer, that it is by a judicious managecophagi, of the finest marble, stand on the beach. ment of this sort, that men of large landed Two bear a human figure, in low relief, on the estates, by a little fore-sight, find themselves enlid, and are sculptured with various subjects; abled to provide both employment and subsistbut the sea is making rapid and destructive en- ence, with much profit, to a numerous people, croachments here. Twenty-six miles south of who must otherwise have either remained in a Adalia.
destitute condition, or have abandoned a country, FIORENZO (St.), a sea-port on the northern which did not properly provide for their accomcoast of the island of Corsica, with 1500 inha- modation. bitants; it is fortified, but the air is unwhole It may be remarked likewise that a plantation some from the vicinity of marshes. In 1783 the of Scotch firs may be made at much less expense town was set on fire by lightning, and in great than of any other sort of trees in those northern
It is six miles west of Bastia. parts of the kingdom, as the young plants can Long. 9° 17' 43" E., lat. 42° 41' 2" N.
be afforded at a lower price than any others. FI'PPLE, n. s. Lat. fibula. A stopper.
In Aberdeenshire, where planting is so general as
to have become a sort of occupation, fir plants of You must know, that in recorders, which go with a gentle breath, the concave of the pipe, were it not
two years growth, above which age no experienced for the fipple that staiteneth the air, much more than planter will ever buy them, sometimes will be the simple concave, would yield no sound. Bacon.
sold at the very low rate of fourpence the 1000,
which consists of 1200 plants; and they FIRS ? Sax. finh; Swed. fur ; Dan.
formerly seldom exceeded eightpence; on the FIR-TREE. Styr; Welsh fyur; all perhaps from fire, from its inflammable nature; or from average about sixpence, or one halfpenny the Goth. thar ; Sax. tær, a drop, as Mr. Thomson higher. There are men who make a business of
100; but they have lately been considerably conjectures, which also signifies gum or tar.' forming plantations, who will undertake to comA species of pinus.
plete the whole, enclosing and planting, at the He covered the floor of the house with planks of distance of one yard each way, and uphold them fir.
1 Kings. The fir-trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Le- that may take place, at the rate of from ten to
for five years, that is, supply any deficiencies Isa. xiv.
fifteen or thirty shillings the Scotch acre, which The spiring fis and stately box.
is nearly equal to one and a quarter English, Fir, in botany. See Abies and Pinus.
according to the size of the enclosure, and the Fir PLANTATIONS. It has been stated by the nature of the fence. In all cases of this kind, author of the Essays on Rural Affairs that, in it is supposed that the plantations are of the the vicinity of plantations of the fir kind, houses extent of thirty or forty acres or upwards; for, can be raised ai so little expense, and the roofs where the enclosures are smaller, the expense of are so much straighter and better than the ordi- enclosing is proportionably augmented. The nary ones, that settlers in such situations are in- charge is thus not only rendered moderate, but duced to make their houses much neater and the whole of the expense that is to be incurred more commodious than in other places; and, ascertained before the plantation is begun, by besides, rails and other kinds of materials for which the being involved in unforeseen diffidead fences, can be so easily procured, that the culties is fully obviated. poor people are first enabled to have good well
Experience has fully shown that there is fenced gardens, and then cominodious enclosures scarcely any soil so bad, or any exposure so of larger extent; the branches likewise afford bleak, that the fir-tree will not live in, if the fuel to them, which adds greatly to the comforts plantation be of sufficient extent, and not upon of their situation. The cutting and manufac- the very summits of high peaked hills. They turing of the wood into various kinds of utensils do not indeed bear the sea air very well, where furnish employment for a great many persons; they are much exposed to the severity of its
blasts; nor is the wood ever of so good a four feet in a season, and equal, if not surpass the quality
, or the tree long-lived, upon soils of the abele in growth. In his plantations, though tlayey kind. It has been found that in the chiefly confined to chalky banks, in a north-west Jouthern parts of the kingdom, the pineaster exposure, the trees evince, that, when once rooted, rears the sea blast_much better than any other few obstacles will prevent their profitable of the fir tribe. This is a discovery of great progress. From observing the mistakes of importance, and which deserves the attention of others in endeavouring to ornament their improvers in the way of planting. The spruce naked downs too suddenly, he has learnt the fir will however bear a still more exposed situa- necessity of planting firs when only a foot in tion than the Scotch fir; and after a few years height, and by opening the ground some time from the time of planting it shoots up with still before, inverting the turf at the bottoms of the greater luxuriance. This is the case probably holes, and throwing the mould upon it in hillocks only in particular situations. But the cones are to meliorate, his plantations succeeded well: for not to be had in equal abundance; and the though the soil is scarcely six inches in depth, plants being more difficult in the rearing, they the firs set in 1766 are now thirty feet in height, are sold at a much higher price, usually at about and from two feet six inches to two feet in cirsix shillings the 1000, fit for being planted out. cumference, at four feet from the ground; some It is a native of Sweden and Norway. In a few planted at the same time in a deeper soil, good soil the silver fir also prospers well
, and is and warmer situation, are now about three feet a beautiful tree on account of the depth of its round. And spruce firs, planted in 1776, likeshade. A silver fir at Panmuc measured in Sep-wise in a tolerably good soil, are now forty feet tember 1810, at the surface of the earth, eight in height, and from two feet ten inches and a feet four inches; at four feet high, seven feet half to three feet round. But he has seen one inch; length of the stem to the fork, forty- plantations that far surpassed either of these in one feet; total height, eighty feet. Several growth ; they, however, occupied ground which others in the same place are nearly as large. In was infinitely more valuable." See Pinus. the Ray Wood at Castle-Howard, there was at FIRE, n. s., v. a. & v. n. Sax. fyn; Icel. the same time a silver fir, in girth, at four FIRE'-ARMS, N. S.
and Swed. fyr; feet high, eleven feet six inches, with a stem
Belg. foir; leut. eighty feet high; total height, by estimate, 100
feuer; Fr. feu; feet
, and some others in the same wood nearly Fire-BREATHING, adj. Ital. fuoco, fuogo ; as large. The grand silver fir, as it is called, at FIRE-BRUSK, n. s. Span, huego, fueWoburn, is in girth, at the same height, nine
gu; Portug. fogo. feet ten inches, with a stem of seventy-five feet;
* Vox antiquissitotal height, by estimate, 110 feet. Both these FIRE'-ENGINE,
ma Scytho-Phrytrees were measured in the summer of 1810.
gica. Serenius. But the price of the plants is too great to
FIRE-LOCK, admit of large plantations of silver fir being
from made with advantage. Wherever the situation FIRE-MOUTHED, adj. Heb. 758, fire. Mr. is bleak, and much exposed to strong blasts of Fire'-NEW,
Thomson conjecwind, the plantation, however, must not only be FIRE-OFFICE, n. s.
tures that to this of considerable extent, if the trees be expected
word, or the Coptic to thrive, but they must be planted very close
or, or Pers. ur, may together, so that each plant may stand at the
have been prefixed distance of from two to three feet at most from
the Coptic article each other. The more exposed the situation is,
pi or ph. Ignition; the closer they should be planted; as it may be
a supposed igneobserved that until the branches begin to inter
ous element; any mir, and give a mutual support to each other,
thing that burns, the trees never begin to advance with vigor.
or the state of burnWhere the plantations are thus thick, there is a Fire-work,
ing; hence flame; Décessity for beginning to thin them out at a Fı'RING.
light; lustre; and, pretty early period, so that after the tenth to the figuratively, that which provokes or inflames fifteenth year from the time of planting, persons the temper; enlivens the fancy or imagination; taust be constantly employed in thinning them: the passion of love: to fire is to kindle; set on and there are very few situations, indeed, in fire, or a-fire (see letter A); inflame (figuratively), which the thinnings cannot be disposed of to animate; it is also used by Shakspeare for to advantage, or in which such sorts of plantations drive away by fire: as a neuter verb it signifies cannot be made.
to take fire; be kindled or inflamed; to disIt has been remarked, by a writer in the charge fire-arms: a fire-cross was once a Scottransactions of the Bath Agricultural Society, tish or rather Highland signal to take arins, conthat though he does not think that the Scotch fir sisting of a wooden cross, having the ends burnt çan, in this country, ever equal the yellow deal black, and in some parts smeared with blood, from the Baltic, yet it may be worth propagating, carried from one place to another. Upon refuas being useful in ordinary buildings. The, sal to send it forward, or to rise, the person who drier the soil is on which this sort of timber brought it would frequently shoot the other dead: grows, the slower is its progress; but the closer firedrake is a fiery serpent: I suppose the
presits pores, the more superior its quality. When ter, says Dr. Johnson: fireman, an incendiary; planted in rich land these trees will shoot three or a person of fiery temper: firenew, new from the
Minsheu says, à
forge, or the melting-house : firer, an incendiary:
So infamed by my desire, firestick, a lighted stick or brand : fireworks,
It may set her heart a-fire.
Careu, shows offire; pyrotechnical performances : firing, Others burned Moussel, and the rest marched as a fuel : the other compounds do not seem to re- guard for the defence of these firers.
Id. quire explanation
Love no more is made And now an axe is sett to the roote of the tre, and By the fireside, but in the cooler shade. Id. therefore every tre that makith not good fruyt schal
Happy are those that are from under the terrors of be ki. doun, and schal be cast into the fier.
that law, which was given in fire, and in fire shall be Wiclif. Luk. jii. required.
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. His firepans, and all the vessels thereof, thou shalt
Now see I fire-flakes sparkle from his eyes, make of brass.
Erodus xxvii, 3.
Like to a comets tayle in the angrie skies. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire?
Bp. Hall's Satires.
Children, when they play with firesticks, move and
whirl them round so fast, that the motion will cozen
their eyes, and represent an entire circle of fire to
Digby on Bodies.
Nor can the snow that age does shed
Upon thy reverend head,
Quench or allay the noble fire within, With that fire-mouthed dragon, horrible and bright?
But all that youth can be thou art. Cowley. Spenser's Faerie Queene. He that set a fire on a plane-tree to spite his neighHermosilla courageously set upon the horsemen,
bour, and the plane-tree set fire on his neighbour's and set fire also upon the stables where the Turks house, is bound to pay all the loss, because it did all horses stood.
Ammunition to supply their new firearms. A wise riche man is like the backe or stocke of the
Clarendon. chimney, and his wealth the fire; he receives it not for his own need, but to reflect the heat to others
Culinary utensils and ircns often feel the force of good.
Sir T. Overbury.
fire; as tongs, fireshovels, prongs, and irons. Browne. A little fire is quickly trodden out,
The ancients were imperfect in the doctrine of
meteors, by their ignorance of gun-powder and fire-
The fire of love in youthful blood,
Like what is kindled in brush-wood,
Love various hearts does variously inspire,
It stirs in gentle bosoms gentle fire,
Like that of incense on the altar laid ;
Id. King Lear.
But raging flames tempestuous souls invade ; Troy must not be, nor goodly Ilion stand ;
A fire which every windy passion blows, Our firebrand brother, Paris, burns us all.
With pride it mounts, and with revenge it glows.
Yet, if desire of fame, and thirst of power,
A beauteous princess with a crown in dower,
So fire your mind, in arms assert your right. Id.
The neighbours are coming out with forks and fireThe king would have me present the princess with
shovels, and spits, and other domestick weapons.
Id. Spanish Fryar. some delightful ostentation, or pageant, or antick, or firework.
In fireworks give him leave to vent his spite : The surest way to prevent seditions is to take away
Those are the only serpents he can write. Dryden. the matter of them ; for, if there be fuel prepared, it I have eased my father-in-law of a firebrand, to set is hard to tell whence the spark shall come that shall my own house in a flame.
L'Estrange. set it on fire.
Bacon. They burn the cakes, firing being there scarce. He sent Surrey with a competent power against the
Mortimer. rebels, who fought with the principal band of them, Firest me, if broke small, and laid on cold lands, and defeated them, and took alive John Chamber, inust be of advantage.
Id, Husbandry. their firebrand.
The fainting Dutch remotely fire, Pour of it upon a firepan well heated, as they do And the famed Eugene's iron tronps retire. rose-water and vinegar. Id. Natural History.
Smith. My judgment is, that they ought all to be despised,
I had last night the fate to drink a bottle with two
Tatler. and ought to serve but for winter talk by the fireside.
of these firemen.
Their fireworks are made
Judge of those insolvent boasts of conscience, gunpowder, wildfires burning in water, and unquench- which, like so many fireballs, or mouth grenadoes, are
Id. able; and also fireworks of all variety.
thrown at our church.
South. They spoiled many parts of the city, and fired the Upon the wedding day, I put myself, according to houses of those whom they esteemed not to be their custom, in another suit firenew, with silver buttons to friends ; but the rage of the fire was at first hindred, it.
Addison. and then appeased by the fall of a sudden shower of Our companion proposed a subject for a firework, rain.
He sent his heralds through all parts of the realm,
and commanded the firecross to be carried; namely,
two firebrands set in fashion of a cross, and pitched Nor of queen Mab be prarling. Drayton. upon the point of a spear.
Did Shadrach's zeal my glowing breast inspire, The opinions of the ancients respecting fire were To weary tortures, and rejoice in fire? Prior. various and fanciful. Ignorant of the leading By his fireside he starts the hare,
facts which a theory is required to account for, And turns her in his wicker chair. Id.
and unassisted by experiments or tools, they geHe brings, to make us from our ground retire, nerally made use of words which conveyed no The reasoner's weapons and the poet's fire. definite ideas. They called it an active fermen
tation, an intestine motion, a repulsive agent, The firestone, or pyrites, is a compound metallic and so forth; but no real attempt towards a fossil, composed of vitriol, sulphur, and an unmetal- rational investigation is to be found in their lic earth, but in very different proportions to the several masses
. It has its name of pyrites or firestone, works. And, though some of their assertions from its giving fire on being struck against a steel
seem to coincide with the more rational modern much more freely than a, fint will do ; and all the theories, yet that apparent coincidence must be sparks burn a longer time, and grow larger as they considered as being accidental; for it is not fall
, the inflammable matter struck from off the stone grounded upon any regular reasoning. It must burning itself out before the spark becomes extin. be acknowledged, however, that almost all the guished.
Hill's Mat. Med. opinions, either ancient or modern, respecting Prime all your firelocks, fasten well the stake. fire, may be divided into two classes; for some
Gay. of them asserted that fire was nothing more than The fireman sweats beneath his crooked arms ; a violent agitation, in some unknown manner, of A leatheru casque his vent'rous head defends,
the parts of burning bodies; whilst others attriBoldly he climbs where thickest smoke ascends.
buted it to something peculiar, and sui generis,
Id, ness; and, upon provocations, might strain a phrase. which is called the mechanical hypothesis, was beHe had fire in his temper, and a German blunt. which either existed in all combustible bodies,
or was communicated to them.
The former, There is another liberality to the citizens, who had lieved and maintained by the most able philososuffered damage by a great fire. Arbuthnot on Coins. phers of much earlier and much more enlightened
What art thou asking of them, after all? Only to times. The celebrated philosophers of the sixsit quietly at thy own fireside.
Id. teenth century, Bacon, Boyle, and Newton, were Our men bravely quitted themselves of the fire- of opinion that fire was no distinct substance ship, by cutting the spritsail tackle. Wiseman. from other bodies, but that it consisted entirely
Though safe thou thinkest thy treasure lies, in the violent motion of the parts of any body. Concealed in chests from human eyes,
As no motion, however, can be produced withA fure may come, and it may be
out a cause, they were obliged to have recourse Bury'd my friend, as far from thee. Granville.
to a mechanical force or impulse as the ultimate They have no notion of life and fire in fancy and
cause of fire in all cases. Thus Boyle tells us, in words, and any thing that is just in grammar and in that when a piece of iron becomes hot by hammeazare is good oratory and poetry to them. Felton.
mering, 'there is nothing to make it so, except Exact Racine, and Corneille's noble fire, the forcible motion of the hammer impressing a Taught us that France had something to admire.
vehement and variously determined agitation on
the small parts of the iron.' Bacon defines heat, Dim are his torches, and extinct his fires. Id.
which he makes synonymous with fire, to be an Before the use of fire-arms there was infinitely more
expansive undulatory motion in the minute parscope for personal valour than in the modern battles. ticles of a body, whereby they tend with some
rapidity from a centre towards a circumference, The same great man hath sworn to make us swallow and at the same time a little upwards. Sir his coin in fire-balls.
Isaac Newton said nothing positive upon the When
you are ordered to stir up the fire, clean subject; but conjectured thai gross bodies and away the ashes from betwixt the bars with the fire- light might be convertible into one another; and
Id. that great bodies, of the size of our earth, when New charms shall still increase desire,
violently heated, might continue and increase And time's swift wing shall fan the fire.
their heat by the mutual action and re-action of Moore's Fables.
But while the mechanical philoBookseller. The monsters of your Botanic Gar- sophers thus endeavoured to account for the pheden are as surprising as the bulls with brazen feet,
nomena of fire, upon the same principles which and the fire-breathing dragons, which guarded the Hesperian fruit.
they judged sufficient to explain those of the If bleak and barren Scotia's hills arise ;
universe in general, the chemists as strenuously There plague and poison, lust and rapine grow ;
asserted, that fire was a fluid of a certain kind, Here peaceful are the vales, and pure the skies,
distinct from all others, and universally present And freedom fires the soul, and sparkles in the eyes. throughout the whole globe. Boerhaave parti
Beattie. cularly maintained this doctrine; and in support Each at their departure took away a greater or of it argued, that steel and fint would strike less fire-brand, and the remains were scattered to the fire, and produce the very same degree of heat wind, which was to drive away every evil as it dis- in Nova Zembla, which they would do under persed the ashes.
Brand'o Antiquities. the equator. Other arguments were drawn from Fire. Under this popular name for what is the increased weight of metalline calces, which dow more usually treated in works of science they supposed to proceed from the fixing of the under the titles of caloric, heat, or combustion, element of fire in the substance whose weight we may still classify a few exploded speculations, was thus increased. By these experiments Mr. important only for the names attached to them. Boyle himself seems to have been staggered : as
he published a treatise on the possibility of that fire is composed of dephlogisticated air and making fire and flame ponderable; though this phlogiston. But it is now ascertained beyond was directly contrary to his own principles dispute, that the result of such a combination is already quoted. For a long time, however, not fire, but fixed air: so that this hypothesis the matter was most violently disputed; and the would have been altogether untenable, even inechanical philosophers, though their arguments though this discovery had not been made; bewere equally inconclusive with those of their ad cause the dephlogisticated air itself is not a versaries, at last prevailed, through the prejudice simple but a compound substance; and in all in favor of Sir Isaac Newton, who, indeed, had cases of combustion the one part of the air is sescarcely taken any active part in the contest. parated from the other. It was long ago obThe first of the chemists who attempted to form served by Sir Isaac Newton, that heat was cercheinistry into a regular system, was John Joa- tainly conveyed by a medium more subtile than chim Becher; but the famous George Ernest common air; because two thermometers, one inStahl (who was born in the year 1660, and cluded in the vacuum of an air-pump, the other died in the year 1734), by following Becher's placed in the open air, at an equal distance from plan, continued to raise the edifice, endeavouring the fire, would grow equally hot in nearly the to collect the principal facts then known into a
The consequence of this, had he coherent system, by connecting them by means pursued the thought, was, that fire itself was of general principles. This intelligent man, equally present in all places, and as active amongst other improvements, formed the fa- where there was no terrestrial matter as where mous phlogistic theory of fire (see the article there was. New improvements in the air-pump COMBUSTION), which was almost universally have enabled succeeding philosophers to make adopted, notwithstanding its insufficiency to ac more perfect vacuums, such as it has been supcount for some of the most essential phenomena posed even the electric matter cannot pass of combustion. This theory continued in vogue through. It is not to be doubted, however, that until towards the close of the last century. The even there the thermometer would be heated by experiments on which the modern theory of com a fire as well as in the open air. See Heat and bustion was first developed were those of Dr. COMBUSTION. Black, concerning what he called latent heat; on The word fire has also been used both figu. which some other names, such as absolute heat, ratively and incorrectly. The allegorical exspecific fire, &c., have been bestowed. See pressions, of the fire of the imagination, the fire Chemistry. From these discoveries it appeared of youth, the fire of contention, and so forth, do that fire may exist in bodies in such a manner not fall under the cognizance of natural philosoas not to discover itself in any other way than by phy,--but the scientific nse of that word for exits action upon the minute parts of the body; pressing heat without light, or light without heat, but that suddenly this action may be changed or lastly, things which have neither heat not in snch a manner as no longer to be directed light, is in want of correction. Thus, phosphoupon the particles of the body itself, but upon rescent substances, like certain pieces of deexternal objects: in which case we then per- cayed wood, fish, &c., are frequently said to be ceive its action by our sense of feeling, or disco- on fire, whereas they are not attended with any ver it by the thermometer, and call it sensible degree of heat. Also the heat of fermenting subheat. It is certain, from the experiments just stances, and of other kinds of chemical combinamentioned, that fire may exist in substances tions, has often been called their fire. actually cold to the touch. From this discovery Fire, St. Anthony's. Erysipelas was first so made by Dr. Black, along with many others in called, it seems, in the south of France, in the electricity, and recorded at length in various twelfth century, where, and when, this disorder articles of this work, it is now almost universally was exceedingly prevalent, from the success of allowed that fire is a distinct Auid, capable of the monks of St. Anthony (whose profession it being transferred from one body to another. But was to attend the sick, and who therefore carried when this was discovered, another question no the figure of a crutch upon the left shoulder) in less perplexing occurred, viz. what kind of a curing it. They made great use of lard in these fuid it was? or whether it bears any analogy to cures, hence their pigs were allowed to range those with which we are better acquainted ? Here free through the neighbouring grounds; and that we find two fluids, viz. the solar light, and the they might be distinguished from other pigs, bells electric matter, both of which occasionally act as were hung round their necks. These circumfire, and which therefore seem likely to be the stances account for the gure of St. Anthony,
See ELECTRICITY. By the vulgar, in- the Egyptian hermit of the fourth century, being deed, the matter has long ago been determined, represented with the piz, the bell, and the letter and the rays of the sun as well as the electrical tau upon his shoulder. Paquot in Molunum, fluid have been promiscuously denominated ele- de Imaginibus. mentary fire. Philosophers, however, have with Fire, in theology. God has made several reveheld their assent. The most strange suppositions lations of Himself under the appearance of fire: have been made concerning the nature of both He appeared to Moses under the form of a fire these fluids; and on the most slender grounds, burning in a bush; the Holy Ghost descended or rather on no grounds at all, they have been on the apostles in tongues of fire; and the camp supposed to be phologiston itself. or to contain of the Israelites was guided and conducted in a large proportion of it. Mr. Scheele went so the night-time by a pillar of fire. The Jews far in this way as to form an hypothesis, which he kept up the holy fire in the temple. This boly endeavoured to support by some experiments, fire descended from heaven, first upon the altar