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He that depends
course be saved, nor by any means excluded from life, Upon your favours, swims with fins of lead, observing them.
Hooker. And hews down oaks with rushes.
His resolution, in fine, is, that in the church a numShakspeare. Othello. ber of things are strictly observed, whereof uc lav of He angers me
scripture maketh mention one way or other. e. With telling of the moldwarp and the ant,
Still the fine's the crown ;
Whate'er the course, the end is the renown.
Shakspeare. It is described like sissipedes, or birds which have Your daughter, ere she seems as won, their feet or claws divided; whereas it is palmipedous Desires this ring; appoints him an encounter; or fin-footed, like swans and geese, according to the In fine, delivers me to fill the time, method of nature in latirostrous or fat-billed birds; Herself most chastely absent.
ld, which being generally swimmers, the organ is wisely There be many examples where sea-fights have leen contrived unto the action, and they are framed with final to the war.
Bacon, fins or oars upon their feet.
Browne. Henry spent his reign in establishing himself, and Thus at half-elb a rolling sea
had neither leisure nor opportunity to undertake the Returns, and wins upon the shore ;
final conquest of Ireland. Davies on Ireland, The watry herd, affrighted at the roar,
Not any house of noble English in Ireland was atRest on their fins awhile, and stay, Then backward take their wond'ring way.
terly destroyed, or finally rooted out by the hand of justice, but the house of Desmond only.
The final absence of God is hell itself. New herds of beasts he sends the plains to share ;
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. New colonies of birds to people air ;
And over them triumphant death his dart And to their oozy beds the finny fish repair. I.
but delayed to strike, though oft invoked In shipping such as this, the Irish kern
With vows, as their chief good, and final hope. And untaught Indian on the stream did glide;
Hilton Ere sharp-keeled boats to stem the food did learn,
Sight bereaved Or finlike oars did spread from either side. Id.
May chance to number thee with those They plough up the turf with a broad finned plough. Whom patience finally must crown. Mortimer.
Id. Agonistes. While black with etorms the ruffled ocean rolls, In fine, whatsoever he was, he was nothing but And from the 6sher's art defends her finny shoals. what it pleased Zelmane, the powers of his spirit de
Sidney. With hairy springes we the birds betray ;
In fine, he wears no limbs about him sound, Slight lines of hair surprize the finny prey. Pope. With sores and sicknesses beleaguered round. Their fins consist of a number of gristly bones, long
Dryden. and slender, like pins and needles.
More, By its gravity air raises the water in pumps, siphons, -Her playful sea-horse woos her soft commands, and other engines; and performs all those feats which Turns his quick ears, his webbed claws expands, former philosophers, through ignorance of the efficient His watery way with waving volutes wins,
cause, attributed to a final, namely, nature's abhorOr listening librates on unmoving fins. Darwin. rence of a vacuity.
Ray. But ye were safe, ye finny brood,
Doubtlessly many men are finally lost, who yet have
South. And safely stemmed your native food;
an inen's sins to answer for but their own. Secure around his float to glide,
Your answering in the final cause, makes me beAnd dasb the unbaited hook aside.
lieve you are at a loss for the efficient, Collier.
Sheridan, FINALE, a town of the territory of the king
Oft from out it leaps of Sardinia, once belonging to the Genoese. It The finny darter with the glittering scales,
is situated on the Di Ponente, at the end of a Who dwells and revels in thy glassy deeps ; beautiful valley, and consists of two parts, half
While chance some scattered water-lily sails
, the other Finale
a league distant from each other; the one called tales.
Marino, situated along the shore. The latter FI'NABLE. See Fine.
has an insecure harbour. Both towns are well FI'NAL, adj. Fr. fin, final; Ital. fino ; built, and are defended by three forts. The adFi'nally, adv. Lat. finis, finalis. Ultimate; jacent country, formerly the marquisate of FiFINE, n. s. Slast; decisive; conclusive; nale, is very productive in olives, oranges
, and mortal: finally follows these senses : fine, in fruits. It has repeatedly been the scene of this sense, is sometimes used as a substantive military operations, especially in the outset of for end, conclusion; but more commonly with Buonaparte's career in April, 1796, and at the in, as .in fine;' meaning, adverbially, to con time of the successes of the Austrians in 1800. clude; sum up all.
The population of the whole is 7000. TwentyForsothe the most soveraine and finall perfeccion of three miles north-east of Oneglia, and thirty-five man is in knowynge of a sothe, withouten any entent south-west of Genoa. decevable, and in love of one very God, that is in FINANCE'. n. s. Fr. finance. Revenue; chaungeable, that is to knowe, and love bis creatour.
Finan’CIAL, adj. (income; the science of na-
Stional income and expendi-
ture: financial is reiating to or respecting finance: Spenser's Faerie Queene.
financier, one skilled in, or a collector of the Some things in such sort are allowed, that they be public revenue. also required as necessary unto salvation, by way of
This sort of finance hath been increased. direct, immediate, and proper necessity final; so that, The residue of these ordinary finances he casual or without performance of them, they cannot by ordinary uncertain ; as be the escheats and forfeitures.
His pretence for making war upon his neighbours age of ninety-five. He wrote on astronomy, was their piracies, though he practised the same trade medicine, and the mathematics. when he was straitened in his finances at the siege of FIND, v.a.
Sax. fyndan; M. Goth. findan; Byzantium,
Find'er,n.s. (Sw. Goth. finna ; Teut. finden; It was thought long justly no small proof of na Find'rault. S Belg. vinden. To discover; tional strength and financial skill.
obtain by search; meet with; feel; know; attain: FI'NARY, n. s. From To fine. In the iron hence to settle; determine by judicial verdict; works, the second forge at the iron mills. supply: to find in one's heart,' is to discover
FINCASTLE, the capital of Bottecourt there : 'to find one's self,' is to perceive, or be county, Virginia, and situated on the east side of conscious of, any particular or general state Catabaw Creek, a branch of James River. It is of one's health or affairs : the adverb gives 116 miles west of Richmond.
intensity to this verb, in the first sense specified. FINCH (Heneage), first earl of Nottingham, A finder is a discoverer ; inventor; one who was the son of Heneage Finch, recorder of the meets with or falls upon any thing. A find-fault, city of London. He was born in 1621, and a censurer. educated at Westminster school, and Christ Seke ye and 'ye schulen fynde, knocke ye and it church, Oxford, whence he removed to the Inner schal be openyd to you. For ech that axith takith, Temple. At the Restoration bis reputation as and he that sekith fyndith : and to a man that knockith : a lawyer raised him to the post of solicitor- it schal be openyd.
Wiclif. Luk. xi. general, in which capacity he exerted great zeal Whereas thou hast searched all my stuff, what bast in the prosecution of the regicides. In 1661 he thou found of all the household stuff ?
Gen. xxxi. 37. was elected member for the university of Oxford,
Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou and obtained a baronetcy. Six afterwards years
Job ii. he took a prominent part in the impeachment of find out the Almighty unto perfection ?
They are glad when they can find the grave. the earl of Clarendon. In 1670 he became
Id. iii. attorney-general, and succeeded the earl of
When he hath found his sheep, he layeth it on his Shaftesbury in 1673, as lord-keeper. In two shoulders rejoicing.
Luke xv. 5. years afterwards he attained the chancellorship. The fox that first this cause of grief did find, In 1681 he was created earl of Nottingham, but 'Gan first thus plain his case with words unkind. survived his elevation little more than a year.
Hubbord. Dryden has handed down to posterity his portrait
In my school days, when I had lost one shaft, in Absalom and Achitophel, under the character
I shot his fellow of the self-same flight
with more advised watch, of Amri. Several of his speeches on the trials
To find the other forth ; by vent'ring both, of the judges of Charles I. have been published,
I oft found both. Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice. as have also some of his parliamentary orations,
His peers, upon this evidence, his powers as an orator having been highly re
Have found him guilty of high treasor.. garded.
Shakspeare. Finca (Daniel), son of the preceding, born We will bring the device to the bar, and crown thee in 1647, was a member of the privy-council for a finder of madmen. Id. Twelfth Night. which caused James II. to be proclaimed; he We are the makers of manners, Kate ; and the li. never, however, sat at the board, or visited the berty that follows our places, stops the mouth of all court during the reign of that monarch. On his find faults.
Shakspeare. abdication he exerted himself strongly in favor
If he have several dwellings, let him sort them so, of a regency. But this did not prevent his that what he wanteth in the one he may find in the other.
Bucon. acting as secretary of state under William and
They would enforce them to find as they would di. Mary, though he is said to have declined the chancellorship. In 1704 he went out of office, rect; and if they did not, convent, imprison, and
Id. but acted as one of the lords justices on the
A war with Spain is like to be lucrative, if we go death of queen Anne, in whom the administra- roundly on at first ; the war in continuance will find tion of affairs was vested till George I.'s arrival. itself.
Id. In 1716 he retired from public life, and died in
Some lewd squeaking cryer, 1730, having been the author of an eloquent May gall the finder's conscience, if they meet. reply to Whiston on the subject of the Trinity.
Donne. FINCK (Thomas), a celebrated Danish
O yes ! if any happy eye mathematician, was a native of Flensburg in
This roving wanton shall descry, South Jutland, and received his education at
Let the finder surely know
Mine is the wag ; 'tis I that owe Strasburgh. After visiting other universities he
The winged wand'rer.
Crashaw went to Basil, and there published a geometrical
How oft will he treatise which established his fame. He afterwards studied at Padua and Pisa, and returning
Of thy changed faith complain!
And his fortunes find to be to Basil took the degree of M.D. in 1587.
So airy and so vain!
Cowley. Having travelled in Germany and the north of Europe, he settled at Gottorp, as a physician. 'Tis but because there was no wind.
They build on sands, which if unmoved they find,
Id. In 1591 he was appointed professor of mathe
Some men matics in the university of Copenhagen: in 1602
The majks of old and catholick would find. Id. he was made professor of rhetoric; and in 1609
A bird that flies about, professor of medicine. He was likewise presi
And beats itself against the cage, dent and administrator of the Royal Economical
Finding at last no passage out, School and Corporation, and died in 1656, at the
It sits and sings.
While she proudly marched about,
Do not therefore shut your eyes against your ar. Greater conquests to find out,
ling sin, or be averse to find it out.
Id. She made the cleverest people quite ashamed,
And even the good with inward envy groan,
Finding themselves so very much exceeded To find her, or for ever to deplore
In their own way by all the things that she did.
FINDY, adj. Saxon gepindig. Plump;
weighty; firm; solid. Not used. Thus the
proverb, The sun that barren shines,
A cola May and a windy,
Makes the barn fat and findy;
means that it stores the barn with plump and firm
FINE, adj. & v.a. า Sax. fijn ; Goth. fin, In mentioning the joys of heaven, I use the expres FINE'DRAW, v. a. thyn ; Belg. Syn ; Teut. sions I find less detractory from a theme above our FINE'FINGERED, adj. fein ; Swed. and Fr. praises.
Boyle. Fine'ly, adv. fin; Ital. fino; French In these last three weeks, I have almost forgot
FINE'Ness, n. s. Yfien; Icel. fynner (powhat my teeth were made for : last night, good Mrs.
lished, beautiful). Dr. Bibber here took pity on me, and crummed me a mess
Johnson says perhaps of gruel, with the children, and I popt and popt my
FINE'SPOKEN, adj. from Lat. finitus, comspoon three or four times to my mouth, before I could
FINE'spun. find the way to it.
pleted : Minsheu, à Gr. Dryden. The wild Gallant, act i. sc. 1. paivw, to shine. Pure, clear, subtle; pellucid, Physicians
transparent; nice; delicate in texture; slender: With sharpened sight some remedies may find. hence skilful; elegant; beautiful; and, by easy
Dryden. transition, over-wrought ; tawdry ; showy; The principal part of painting is to find out, and wretched ; mean; and, metaphorically, artful, thoroughly to understand, what nature has made sly; fraudulently subtle : as a verb, to tine is to most beautiful.
purify; make pure or transparent; make less Pray, sir, how d’ye find yourself? says the doctor.
coarse; embellish. To finedraw is to sew up
rents with nicety; fine-fingered is nice; artful; He finds no reason to have his rent abated, because
delicate: a finer is applied particularly to a pua greater part of it is diverted from his landlord.
rifier of metals: finery is show; tawdry display; When first found in a lie, talk to him of it as a gaiety of colors : fine-spoken; and fine-spun, exstrange monstrous matter, and so shame him out of it. press respectively and contemptuously, abun
Id. dant in fine words contrived ingeniously. He was afraid of being insulted with Greek; for
There is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold, which reason he desired a friend to find him out a
where they fine it.
Job xxviii, 1. clergyman rather of plain sense than much learning.
The fining pot is for silver, and the furnace for gold.
Take away the dross from the silver, and there with the character, and to try if we can find out in his
shall come forth a vessel for the finer. Id. xxv. 4. looks and features either the haughty, cruel, or merciful temper.
The most fine fingered workman on the ground,
Arachne by his means was vanquished. Spenser. She drilled him on to five-and-fifty, and will drop Hugh Capet, also, who usurped the crown, him in his old age, if she can find her account in To fine his title with some shows of truth, another.
Conveyed himself as heir to the lady Lingare. There are agents in nature able to make the particles
Shakspeare. of bodies stick together by very strong attractions, and
That same knave, Ford, her husband, hath the it is the business of experimental philosophy to find finest mad devil of jealousy in him, master Brook, them out.
In fortune's love. Id. Troilus and Cressida.
Those, with the finoness of their souls,
By reason guide his execution. Shakspeare.
The wisdom of all these latter times, in prince's
Id. gers and mischiefs, than solid and grounded courses
to keep them aloof.
Bacon. Suspicion with her eyes behind.
Great affairs are commonly too rough and stubborn Dodsley's Miscellanies. to be wrought upon by the finer edges or points of When we are old our friends find it difficult to please wit.
Id. us, and are less concerned whether we be pleased or He was alone, save that he had two persons of
Swift. honour, on either hand one, finely attired in white. Pride is a vice, which pride itself inclines every
Id. New Atlantis. inan to find in others, and to overlook in himself. I am doubtful whether men have sufficiently refined
Johnson. metals; as whether iron, brass, and tin be refined to
the height : but when they come to such a fineness as Next to clothes being fine, they should be well serveth the ordinary use, they try no farther.
made, and worn easily : for a man is only the less
id. Natural History. genteel for a fine coat, if in wearing it he shows a re, Are they not senseless then, that think the soul gard for it, and is not as easy in it as if it were a plain Nought but a fine perfection of the sense ? Davies.
Chesterfield. you black lead, sharpened finely. Peacham. Be upon your guard against finc-dressed and fineEvery thing was full of a choice fineness, that, if it spoken chevaliers d'industrie.'
Id. Facted any thing in majesty, it supplied with increase
I think the sermons published in his life-time in pleasure ; and if at the first it struck not admira
are fine, moral discourses. They bear indeed the tion, it ravished with deligbt.
Sidney. character of their author, simple, elegant, candid, Saltpetre was but grossly beaten ; for it should not clear, and rational.
Warburton to Hurd. be finely powdered.
Boyle. There is no wonder, now one sees the fountain Whether the scheme has not been pursued so far Milton drew from, that, in admiration of this poetical as to draw it into practice, or whether it be too fine to philosophy (which nourished the fine spirits of that be capable of it, I will not determine. Temple. As the French language has more fineness and other speaker in the scene cry out, as in a fit of ex
time, though it corrupted some), he should make the smoothness at this time, so it had more compass, tacy, spirit, and force in Montaigne's days.
Hurd. To call the trumpet by the name of the metal was
Let the wine without mixture or stum be all fine, fine.
Id. If you will go with us, you shall have a share, It fines the grass, but makes it short, though thick. If not, you shall have neither apple nor pear. Mortimer.
Cowper. It is good also for fuel, not to admit the shavings
FINE, n. s., v. a. & v. n. 1 Barbarous Lat. of it for the fining of wine. Id. Husbandry. FINI'ABLE, adj.
finum ; Old Fr. Let laws be made to obey, and not to be obeyed; fin. A payment; forfeit; mulct; pecuniary and you will find that kingdom finely governed in a short time.
penalty : to fine is used both for impose, or The irons of planes are set fine or rank: they are
punish with, fines, as well as to pay a fine. set fire when they stand so shallow below the sole of Finable is, admitting or discovering a fine. the plane, that in working they take off a thin shaving.
Even this ill night your breathing shall expire, Moron's Mechanical Exercises. Paying the fine of rated treachery. Plutarch says very finely, that a man should not Two vessels of fine copper precious as gold. Ezra. allow bimself to hate even his enemies ; because if
Shakspeare. King John. you indulge this passion on some occasions, it will The spirit of wantonness is sure scared out of him : rise of itself in others.
Addison. if the devil have him not in fee-simple, with fine and The softness of her sex, and the fineness of her recovery, he will never, in the way of waste, attempt genius, conspire to give her a very distinguishing us again.
Prior. This is the order for writs of covenant that be The ancients were careful to coin their money in finable.
Bacon. dae weight and fineness, only in times of exigence The killing of an Irishman was not punished by our they have diminished both the weigbt and fineness. law as manslaughter, which is felony and capital ;
Arbuthnot on Coins.
but by a fine of pecuniary punishment called an He was not only the finest gentleman of his time, ericke.
Davies on Ireland. but one of the finest scholars. Felton on the Class. He sent letters to the council, wherein he ac
It is with a fine genius as with a fine fashion ; all knowledged himself favored in bringing his cause those are displeased at it who are not able to follow it. finable.
Hayroard. Pope. There have been ways found out to banish minisThe satirical part of mankind will needs believe, ters, to fine not only the people, but even the grounds that it is not impossible to be very fine and very and fields where they assembled in conventicles. filtby. Swift.
Marvell. The capacities of a lady are sometimes apt to fall What poet ever fined for sheriff? or who short in cultivating cleanliness and finery together. By rhymes and verse did ever lord mayor grow? Id.
Oldham. Though Diogenes lived in a tub, there might be, To fine men one-third of their fortune, without any for aught I know, as much pride under his rags, as crime committed seems very hard.
Locke. in the fine-spun garments of the divine Plato. Id. Besides fines set upon plays, games, balls, and
Dress up your houses and your images, feasting, they have many customs which contribute to And put on all the city's finery,
Addison. To consecrate this day a festival. Southern. How vain that second life in other breath, They taught us, indeed, to cloath, to dwell in The',estate which wits inherit after death! houses,
Ease, health, and life, for this they must resign, To feast, to sleep on down, to be profuse :
Unsure the tenure, but how vast the fine! Pope. A fine exchange for liberty. Philip's Briton. They want to grow rich in their trades, and to formal conveyance of lands or tenements, or of
Fine, in law, has divers applications: as 1. A maintain their families in some such figure and degree of finery, as a reasonable Christian life has no oc
any thing inheritable, being in esse temporis casion for
finis, in order to cut off all controversies. 2. A The fineness of cloaths destroys the ease : it often final agreement between persons, concerning any belps men to pain, but can never rid them of any : the lạnds or rents, &c., of which any suit or writ is body may languisb under the most splendid cover. depending between them in any court. 3. A
Decay of Piety. sum of money paid for entering lands or tene
ments let by lease; and 4. a pecuniary mulct and so it is designated by some to be an acknowfor an offence committed against the king and ledgment, in the king's court, of the land or his laws, or against the lord of the manor. other things to be his right that doth complain:
Fines for ALIENATION, in feudal law. One and by others a covenant made between parties of the attendants or consequences of tenure by and recorded by the justices; and by others a vassalship, or knight-service, was that of fines friendly, real, and final agreement amongst pardue to the lord for every alienation, whenever ties, concerning any land, or rent, or other thing the tenant had occasion to make over his land to whereof any suit or writ is hanging between them another. This depended on the nature of the in any court: and by others more fully an infeudal connexion; it not being reasonable, nor strument of record of an agreement concerning allowed, that a feudatory should transfer his lands, tenements, or hereditaments ; duly made lord's gift to another, and substitute a new tenant by the king's license, and acknowledged by the to do the service in his own stead, without the parties to the same, upon a writ of covenant, consent of the lord: and, as the feudal obliga- writ of right, or such like, before the Justices of tion was considered reciprocal, the lord also the common pleas or others thereunto authocould not alienate his seignory without the con- rised, and engrossed of record in the same court; sent of his tenant, which consent of his was to end all controversies thereof, both between called an attornment. This restraint upon the themselves which be parties and privies to the lord soon wore away ; that upon the tenant con- same, and ali strangers not suing or claiming in tinued longer. For, when every thing came in due time. Shep. Touchst. c. 3. and the authoriprocess of time to be bought and sold, the lords ties there cited. would not grant a license to their tenants to The distinguishable properties of a fine are, aliene, without a fine being paid; apprehending 1. The extinguishing dormant titles by barring that, if it was reasonable for the heir to pay a strangers; unless they claim within five years
. fine or relief on the renovation of his paternal 2. Barring the issue in tail immediately. (But estate, it was much more reasonable that a not barring the remainders or reversions, which stranger should make the same acknowledgment depend on the estate-tail barred; except where on his admission to a newly purchased feud. In the tenant in tail has the immediate reversion in England these fines seem only to have been ex- fee in himself. (See Cruise on Fines, 2d edit. 176. acted from the king's tenants in capite, who were 1 Show. 370. 1 Salk. 338. 4 Mod. 1.) 3. never able to aliene without a license: but as to Binding Femmes Covert, see post, IV.- These common persons they were at liberty, by Magna constitute the peculiar qualities on account of Charta, and the statute of quia emptores (if not which a fine is most usually, if not always, reearlier), to aliene the whole of their estate, to be sorted to, as one of the most valuable of the holden of the same lord as they themselves held common assurances of the realm ; being now it of before. But the king's tenants in capite, in fact a fictitious proceeding to transfer or senot being included under the general words of cure real property by a mode more efficacious these statutes, could not aliene without a licence; than ordinary conveyances. 1 Inst. 121. a note for, if they did, it was in ancient strictness an 1, 2, for which see at full length, Mr. Hargrave's absolute forfeiture of the land; though some excellent abridgment of the History of Fines and have imagined otherwise. But this severity was their purposes. mitigated by statute 1 Edward III. c. 12, which Fines being agreements solemnly made in the ordained that, in such case, the lands should king's courts were deemed to be of equal notonot be forfeited, but a reasonable fine be paid to riety with judgments in writs of right; and therethe king. Upon which statute it was settled, fore the common law allowed them to have the that one-third of the yearly value should be paid same quality of barring all who should not claim for a license of alienation; but, if the tenant within a year and a day. See Plowd. 357. Hence presumed to aliene without a license, a full year's we may probably date the origin and frequent value should be paid. These fines were at last use of Fines as feigned proceedings. But this totally taken away by statute 12 Car. II. c. 24. puissance of a fine was taken away by stat. 34 See KNIGHT-SERVICE.
E. III. c. 16; and this statute continued in force FINE of Lands. The law on this subject,' till stat. 1 Ric. III. c. 7, and 4 H. VII. c. 24, which says Tomlins, of itself very extensive, is also revived the ancient law, though with some closely implicated with that of recoveries. A change; proclamations being required to make fine, finis, or finalis concordia, from the fines more notorious, and the time for claiming words with which it begins (and, also from its being enlarged, from a year and a day to five effect in putting a final end to all suits and con- years. See post, 1.
The force of fines on the tentions,) is a solemn amicable agreement or rights of strangers being thus regulated, it has composition of a suit (whether that suit be real ever since been a common practice to levy them or fictitious) made between the demandant and merely for better guarding a title against claims, tenant, with the consent of the judges; and en- which, under the common statutes of limitation, rolled among the records of the court, where the might subsist with a right of entry for twenty suit was commenced; by which agreement free- years and with a right of action for a much hold property may be transferred, settled and longer time. 1 Inst. ubi supra, and see post. limited.' See Cruise on Fines, 1st. edit. 4. 89. Fines, for offences, or pecuniary punishment, 92.
or as a recompense for an offence committed Shepherd says, Sometimes it is taken for a against the king and his laws, or against the lord final agreement or conveyance upon record for of a manor. In these cases a man is said finem the settling and securing of lands and tenements; facere de transgressione cum rege, &c. Origi