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F. The letter (Saxon f) is evidently derived ment of Custom-houses; on the Effects of the from the Greek digamma, through the medium of Free Traffic of Raw Material; on Rewards for the Latin language. Some contend that this is the Encouragement of Trade; on the Chemical derived from the to, phi, by first making the per- Action of Metals; on the Value and Reciprocal pendicular stroke, and, in adding the circle at Proportion of Coins ; on the Scales and Steeliwo strokes, carelessly omitting to make them yards of the Chinese; on the Palaces of Spain; poin. This, however, the learned bishop of Salis- and on the ancient Hebrew People. He left bury disputes. He says it was anciently called behind him many unpublished memoirs. He vau, or wau, and is in fact a double vau of the died at Florence in 1823, aged upwards of Hebrew and Syriac, and corresponding in shape seventy. with the vau of the Arabic and Ethiopic. Ains- FABELL (Peter), a reputed magician, and worth, however, derives it from the Hebrew ) native of Edmonton, lived and died there in the phe, or 9, be final, which, if turned, nearly gives reign of Henry VII. In Norden's account of the figure; and he observes, that in changing Edmonton, we read, * There is a fable of one Hebrew words into Latin, 7 is converted into F. said to have beguiled the devell by policie for

Peter Fabell, that lieth in this church, who is Its sound, in English, is very uniform, being money; but the devell is deceit itself. Weever formed by compression of the lips, or a junction supposes Fabell to have been an ingenious man, of the upper teeth with the under lip, and a who amused himself and astonished his neighforcible breath. In the preposition of, indeed, and bours by sleight-of-hand tricks, or chemical exin some few other occasions, it is pronounced periments. There is a very scarce pamphlet, softer, or like v.

entitled — The Life and Death of the Merry As an abbreviation, F, in physical prescrip- Devil of Edmonton; with the pleasant Pranks tions, stands for fiat, i. e. Let it be done, or made of Smug the Smith, &c. In this book Fabell is

Thus f. s. a. signifies fiat secundum artem. styled “ an excellent scholar, and well seene in F, in the civil law, doubled thus, ff, signifies the the arte of magicke.' pandects. See PANDECTS. F, in the criminal

FABER (Basil), a protestant German critic of law, was a stigma put upon felons with a hot the sixteenth century, was born at Sorau in Luiron, on their being admitted to the benefit of satia, and, after studying at Wittemberg, and clergy; by stat. 4 Hen. VII. c. 13. F, as a other universities, was about 1550 appointed numeral, anciently signified 40, and when a

rector of the seminary of Nordhausen. He died dash was added at top (thus F), it stood for rector of the Augustinian College at Erfurth in 40,000.

1576. He was one of the protestant ecclesiasFAABORG, a sea-port town of Denmark, on tical historians, termed the Centuriators of Magthe south coast of the island of Funen. It has deburgh. Faber's literary reputation is founded but an insecure harbour; and its trade, which is on his Thesaurus Eruditionis Scholasticæ, 1571, in provisions, is not considerable. Population folio, of which improved editions were published about 1100. It is seventeen miles south of in 1735 and 1749. Oldensee.

Faber (John), a German divine, born at FABBRONI (Giovanni), a modern Italian Heilbron in 1500. He was created doctor at philosopher of considerable eminence. We find Cologne, and in 1526 was appointed confessor him filling the various posts of secretary to the to Ferdinand king of the Romans, who, when Academia de i Georgofili, director of the Museum he became emperor, gave him the see of Vienna. and Cabinet of Natural History at Florence, one He was called the mallet of heretics, and owed of the forty members of the Societa Italiana his preferment to the zeal which he displayed in delle Scienze, Tuscan deputy for the new system opposition to Luther. He died in 1562. His of weights and measures, member of the depu- works were printed at Cologne, in 3 vols. folio. tation of finance under the government of the Faber, in ichthyology. See Zeus. queen regent of Etruria, a deputy to the corps FABIAN, or FABYAN (Robert), an alderman legislative in France, director, under the Impe- and sheriff of London at the close of the fifteenth ral government, of bridges and highways for the century, was a man of learning, and author of a department beyond the Alps, director of the Chronicle of England and France, entitled the mint at Florence, royal commissary of the iron Concordance of Histories, in 2 vols. folio, beForks and mines, and one of the commissioners ginning with Brute, and ending with the 20th of of taxes for the states of Tuscany. His writings Henry VII. 1504. He was a member of the best known are-Provedimenti Annonarj; his company of drapers, and resigned his gown in Discourses on National Prosperity; on the 1502 to avoid serving the office of lord mayor. Equilibrium of Commerce, and the 'Establish- Dying in 1511, or 1512, he was interred in the VOL. IX.-PART 1

B

church of St. Michael, Cornhill. His Chronicle by his enemies at home, to share the dictatorial is a mere compilation, but it contains several dignity. When he had laid down his office of curious particulars relative to the city of Lon- dictator, his successors, for a while, followed his don, not elsewhere to be found. Stowe calls it plan; but the rashness of Varro, and his con• a painful labor, to the great honor of the city tempt for the operations of Fabius, occasioned and of the whole realm.' Cardinal Wolsey the fatal battle of Cannæ. Tarentum was obliged caused as many copies of it as he could procure to surrender to him after the battle of Cannæ ; to be burned, because the author had made too and on that occasion the Carthaginians observed, clear a discovery of the large revenues of the that Fabius was the Hannibal of Rome. When clergy. It is Fabian's general practice at the he had made an agreement with Hannibal for the division of the books to insert metrical prologues ransom of the captives, which was totally disapand other pieces, in verse. The best of his proved by the Roman senate, he sold all his metres is the complaint of King Edward the estates to pay the money, rather than forfeit his Second, who is introduced reciting his misfor- word to the enemy. The bold proposals of tunes; but this, in fact, is only a translation of young Scipio, to carry the war from Italy to an indifferent Latin poem ascribed to that mo- Africa, were rejected by Fabius as chimerical narch, and probably written by William of Wor- and dangerous. He did not, however, live to cester. In the first edition of Fabian's Chro- see the success of the Roman arms under Scipio, nicle (printed in 1516) he has given, as epilogues and the conquest of Carthage by measures which to his seven books, The Seven Joys of the he treated with contempt, and heard with indigBlessed Virgin, in English Rime: and under nation. He died in the 100th year of his age, the year 1325 there is a poem to the Virgin; after he had been five times consul, and twice and another on one Badby, a Lollard, under the honored with a triumph. The Romans were so year 1409. These are suppressed in the later sensible of his great merit and services, that the editions. In his panegyric upon London, he expenses of his funeral were defrayed from the despairs of doing justice to his theme, even if public treasury. he had the eloquence of Tully, the morality of Fabius MAXIMUS (Quintus), son of the preSeneca, and the harmony of that faire ladie, ceding, showed himself worthy of his father's Calliope.' Fabian's History was reprinted in virtues. During his consulship he received a 1811, 4to.

visit from his father on horseback in the camp. FABIUS, the surname of a powerful patrician The son ordered the father to dismount; and the family at Rome, said to have derived their name old man cheerfully obeyed, embracing his son, from fuba, a bean, because some of their ances- and saying, “I wished to convince myself whether tors cultivated this pulse. They were once so you knew what it is to be consul.' He died before numerous that they took upon themselves to his father, who, with the moderation of a philowage a war against the Veientes. They came to sopher, delivered a funeral oration over his son's a general engagement near the Cremera, in which body. all the family, consisting of 306 men, were slain,

FABIUS MAXIMUS RULLIANUS was the first of A. U.C. 277. There only remained one boy, the Fabii who obtained the surname of Maximus, whose tender age had detained him at Rome, for lessening the power of the populace at elecand from him descended the noble Fabii of the tions. He was master of horse, and his victory following ages. Ovid celebrates the above trans- over the Samnites in that capacity nearly cost action in those lines beginning,

him his life, as he engaged the enemy without

the command of the dictator. He was five times Una domus vires et onus susceperat urbis, Sumunt gentiles arma professa manus.

consul, twice dictator, and once censor. Fasti, lib. ii. 197. triumphed over seven different nations.

FA'BLE, n. s., v.a. & v. n. Fabius MaximUS (Quintus), a celebrated

Fr. fable ; Ital.

FA'Bled, part, udj. Roman, who from a dull and inactive childhood

favola; Span. and FA'RLER, n. s.

Lat. fabula, from was raised to the highest offices of the state. In

FAB°U LIST,

for,fari, to speak; his first consulship he obtained a victory over

FABULO'sity,

The Liguria, and the fatal battle of Thrasymenes oc

FAB'ULOUS, adj. casioned his election to the dictatorship. In this

FAB'ULOUSLY, adv. important office he began to oppose Hannibal,

nifies vanity, and

FAB'ULOUSNESS, n. S. not by fighting him in the open field, like his

is considered, by predecessors, but by continually harassing his Minsheu, as the root of the Latin. A fictitious army by countermarches and ambuscades, from story : fiction, generally, see below: a lie. The which he received the surname of Cunctator, or

verb neuter (derived from the noun) signifies to the Delayer. Hannibal sent him word, that" If feign; write, or tell falsehoods : as an active verb, he was as great a captain as he would be thought, to tell a thing falsely: fabled is feigned; and a be ought to come into the plain and give him fabulist is one celebrated in fables: a fabler, he battle.' But Fabius coldly replied, “That if he who composes the specific fictions called fables, (Hannibal) was as great a captain as he would or who deals in fiction or falsehood generally. be thought, he would do well to force him to Fabulosity means abundance of fiction; fabulous battle. Such operations in the commander of invention, or faculty; in which latter sense it is the Roman armies gave offence to several; and synonymous with fabulousness: fabulous is full Fabius was even accused of cowardice.' He, of fables; feigned; invented. however, continued firm in his resolution; and But refuse profane and old wives' fables. patiently bore to see his master of horse raised,

1 Tim. iv. 7.

lle

Gr. φαω.

-sig חבל Hebrew

Id.

Id.

He fabler not: I hear the enemy.

the oldest extant: perhaps that of Nathan is Shakspeare. Henry VI. superior to it in close painting and affecting relo their fabulosity they report, that they had obser- presentation. We find Æsop delivering fables vations for twenty thousand years.

in the most distant ages of Greece; and, in the Abbot's Description of the World. We mean to win,

early days of the Roman commonwealth, we

read of a mutiny appeased by the timely delivery Or turn this heaven itself into the hell Thou fablert. Milton's Paradise Lost.

of the fable of the belly and the members. Ladies of the' Hesperides, they seemed

The earliest collection of fables extant is of Pairer than feigned of old, or fabled since

eastern origin, and preserved in the Sanscrit Of fairy damsels met in forest wide,

language. It is called Hitopadesa, and the auBy knights.

Id. thor Veshnoo Sarma; but they are known in There are many things fabulously delivered, and are Europe by The Tales and Fables of Bidpay, or bo to be accepted as truths.

Pilpay, an ancient Indian philosopher. Of this Broune's Vulgar Errours. collection Sir William Jones takes the following Triptolemus, so sung the nine,

notice : The Fables of Veshnoo Sarma, whom Strewed plenty from his cart divine;

we ridiculously call Pilpay, are the most beautiBut, spite of all those fable-makers,

ful, if not the most ancient, collection of apoHe never sowed on Almaign acres. Dryden. The moral is the first business of the poet: this logues in the world. They were first translated

from the Sanscreet, in the sixth century, by being formed, he contrives such a design or fable as Day be most suitable to the moral. Id. Dufresnoy.

Buzerchumihi, or bright as the sun, the chief It would look like a fable to report that this gen. physician, and afterwards the vizier of the great deman gives away a great fortune by secret methods. Anushirwan; and are extant under various names,

Addison. in more than twenty languages. But their origiA person terrified with the imagination of spectres, nal title is Hitopadesa, or amicable instruction : is more reasonable than one who thinks the appear- and as the very existence of Æsop, whom the ance of spirits fabulous and groundless.

Arabs believe to have been an Abyssinian, apJotham's fable of the trees is the oldest extant, and pears rather doubtful, I am not disinclined to as beantiful as any made since.

The first thing to be considered in an epick poem is suppose that the first moral fables which appeared the fable, which is perfect or imperfect, according as

in Europe were of Indian or Ethiopian origin.' the anion, which it relates, is more or less so.

Mr. Frazer, at the end of his History of Nadir That Saturn's sons received the three-fold reign

Shah, gives us the following account of this curious Of heaven, of ocean, and deep hell beneath, work :—* The ancient Brahmins of India, after a Old poets mention, fabling.

Prior. good deal of time and labor, compiled a treatise Quitting Æsop and the fabulists, he copies Boccace. (which they called Kurtuk Dumnik), in which

Croxal. were inserted the choicest treasures of wisdom, Palladius coming to die somewhere in the north and the most perfect rules for governing a people. part of Britain, may seem to give some kind of coun. This book they presented to their rajahs, who tenance to those fables that make him to have lived kept it with the greatest secrecy and care. About many years among the Scots.

Lloyd.

the time of Mahomet's birth, or the latter end of Hail, fabled grotto! hail, Elysian soil !

the sixth century, Noishervan the Just, who then Thoa fairest spot of fair Britannia's isle !

Tickell.

reigned in Persia, discovered a great inclination Oar bard's a fabulist, and deals in fiction.

to see that book; for which purpose Burzuvia, a

Garrick. physician, who had a surprising talent in learning The style of Boethius, though, perhaps, not always several languages, particularly Sanskerritt, was insigurously pure, is formed with great diligence upon troduced to him as the most proper person to be ancient models, and wholly uninfected with monastic employed to get a copy of it. He went to India, bartarity. His history is written with elegance and where, after some years' stay, and great trouble, vigoar, but his fabulousness and credulity are justly he procured it. It was translated into the Pehblamed.

Johnson.

luvi (the ancient Persian language) by him and The arst ages of the Scottish History are dark and Buzrjumehr, the vizier. Noishervan, ever after, fabulous. Robertson's History of Scotland,

and all his successors, the Persian kings, had this Fabulous narrative has accordingly been common in all ages of the world, and practised by teachers of book in high esteem, and took the greatest care the most respectable character. It is . owing, no

to keep it secret. At last Abu Jaffer Munsour zu doubt, to the weakness of human nature, that fable Nikky, who was the second caliph of the Abassi should ever have been found a necessary, or a con- reign, by great search, got a copy of it in the venient, vehicle for truth.

Beattie. Pehluvi language, and ordered Imâm Hassan Believing every hillock green

Abdal Mokaffa, who was the most learned of the Contains no fabled hero's ashes,

age, to translate it into Arabic. This prince ever And that around the undoubted scene

after made it his guide, not only in affairs relating Thine ownbroad Hellespont' still dashes, to the government, but also in private life. In Be long my lot! and cold were he

the

year 380 of the Hegira, sultan Mahmud Who there could gaze denying thee! Byron.

Ghazi put it into verse : and afterwards, in the Fable is generally esteemed the most ancient year 515, by order of Bheram Shah ben Massaud, species of wit; and has continued to be highly that which Abdal Mokaffa had translated, was valued, not only in times of the greatest simpli- re-translated into Persic by Abdul Mala Nasser city, but in the most polite ages of the world. Allah Mustofi ; and this is that Kulila Dumna, Nathan's fable of the poor man (2 Sam. xi. 6) is which is now extant. As this latter had too next in antiquity to Jotham's, and which, as many Arabic verses and obsolete phrases in it, Addison (see the foregoing extracts) observes, is Molana Ali ben Hassein Vaes, at the request of Emîr Sohèli, keeper of the seals to sultan Hossein Rome he was appointed judge of appeals, and Mirza, put it into a more modern style, and gave afterwards inspector of reliques. Pope Alexit the title of Anuar Sohèli. In the year 1002 ander VIII. appointed him Secretary of memothe great moghul, Jalal ô Dîn Mohommed Akbar, rials, and Innocent XII made him keeper of the ordered his own secretary and vizier, the learned archives of St. Angelo. In the midst of this Abul Fazl, to illustrate the obscure passages, business, however, he found time to cultivate his abridge the long digressions, and put it into such favorite study of antiquities, upon which he a style as would be most familiar to all capacities; wrote several tracts in Latin, particularly, 1. De which he accordingly did, and gave it the name Aquis et Aquæductibus Veteris Romæ; 2. De of Ayar Danish, or the Criterion of Wisdom.' Columna Trajana; 3. Inscriptionum Antiquarum Thus far Mr. Frazer, under the word Ayar Danish. Explicatio, &c. He was admitted a member of

'In the year 1709,' says Dr. Wilkins, the the academy of Assorditi at Urbino, and of the Kulila Dumna, the Persian version of Abul Mala Arcadi at Rome; and died 7th January, 1700. Nasser Allah Mustofi, made in the 515th year of FABRIANO (Gentile Da), a celebrated histhe Hegira, was translated into French, with the torical painter, was born at Verona, in 1332, and title of Les Conseils et les Maximes de Pilpay, became a disciple of Giovanni Da Fiesole. He Philosophe Indien, sur les divers Etats de la Vie. was employed to adorn a great number of This edition resembles the Hitopadesa more than churches and palaces at Florence, Urbino, any other then seen; and is evidently the im- Siena, Perusia, and Rome, but particularly the mediate original of the English · Instructive and Vatican ; and one picture of his, representing the entertaining Fables of Pilpay, an ancient Indian Virgin and Child, attended by Joseph, which is Philosopher, which, in 1775, had gone through preserved in the church of St. Maria Maggiore, five editions. The Anuar Soheli, above men- was highly commended by Michael Angelo. tioned, about the year 1540, was rendered into By order of the doge and senate of Venice he the Turkish language; and the translator is said painted a picture in the great council-chamber, to have bestowed twenty years' labor upon it. which was considered as so extraordinary a perIn the year 1724_this edition M. Galland began formance that his employers granted him a pento translate into French, and the first four chap- sion for life, and conferred upon him the priviters were then published; but, in the year 1778, lege of wearing the habit of a noble of Venice, M. Cardonne completed the work, in three the highest honor the state could bestow. He volumes, giving it the name of Contes et Fables died in 1412. Indiennes de Bidpai et de Lokman; traduites Fabriano, a town of the Papal states, at the d'Ali Tcheleby ben Saleh, auteur Turc: Indian foot of the Appennines in the Marca d'Ancona. Tales and Fables of Bidpay and Lockman, trans- The inhabitants trade chiefly in wool and its lated from Aly Tcheleby ben Saleh, a Turkish manufactures; also in paper.' Population 4000. author.'

Thirty-three miles south-west of Ancona. The Fables of Lockman were published in FAB'RIC, n. s. & v. a. French, fabrique ; Arabic and Latin, with notes, by Erpenius, 4to., FAB'RICATE, v. a. Belg. fabryke; Ital. Amstel. 1636; and by the celebrated Golius, at FA'BRICATION, n. S. Span. and Lat. fathe end of his edition of Erpen's Arabic Gram- brica, from faber (i. e. faciber à facio, to do), a mar, Lugd. Bat. 1656, with additional Notes; workman. A building or edifice: hence any and also in the edition of the same Grammar, by system or combination of things: the verb, formed Albert Schultens, Lugd. Bat. 1748, 4to. They after the noun, signifies to build, construct, or are only thirty-seven in number.

frame, as does the more common verb to fabriOf the Hitopadesa, or Fables of Vishnoo Sar- cate: the latter is also used, figuratively, for to ma, we have two very elegant English translations invent, construct, or frame a fictitious, as disfrom the original Sanscrit: one by Sir William tinguished from a true account of any thing. Jones, printed in his works, 4to. vol. VI, Lond.

Like the baseless fabric of this vision, 1799; the other by the father of Sanscrit litera

The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palacer, ture in Europe, Dr. Charles Wilkins, of the

The solemn temples, the great globe itself, India House, 8vo., Bath, 1787, with a collection Yea, all which it inherits shall dissolve ; of very important notes.

And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Fable, as a mode of conveying moral instruction, Leave not a wreck behind.

Shakspeare. is allied both to all other kinds of similitude and

There must be an exquisite care to place the com to parable: but, in the strict use of it

, at least, lumns, set in several stories, most precisely one over it differs widely from both. Every subject of the another, that so the solid may answer to the solid, inanimate creation may be employed in similitude and the vacuities to the vacuities, as well for beauty and parable; but the grand objects in fable are as strength of the fabrick.

Wotton. borrowed from the animate and rational creation This fabrication of the human body is the immeonly: and the best fables consist of human diate work of a vital principle, that formoth the first

Hale. actions, spirit, and intelligence, attributed to rudiments of the human nature. brute and irrational creatures.

Still will ye think it strange, FABRETTI (Raphael), LL. D. a learned That all the parts of this great fubrick change; Italian author and antiquary, born at Urbino, in Quit their old station and primeval frame. Prior. 1619. He studied at Cagli, and took his degree

Shew what laws of life at Urbino in his eighteenth year. Cardinal Im- The cheese inhabitants observe, and how periali sent him into Spain, where he continued Fabrick their mansions,

Philips. thirteen years, and was for some time auditor How may the poet now unfold, general of the Nunciature. On his return to What never tongue or numbers told,

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