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would permit, he went to farming service; and, a student there in his thirteenth year, and soon whilst in this humble situation, he begau the became distinguished as a youth of very superior study of astronomy, by laying down from his genius. During his residence at St. Andrew's, he own observations only, a celestial globe. His first gave specimens of his poetical talents. He master, observing these marks of his ingenuity, had been originally intended for the church, but procured him the countenance and assistance of upon the expiration of his bursary, after residing his superiors; and, by their help, he was sent to four years at St. Andrew's, he abandoned the Edinburgh. Here he began to take portraits; an study of divinity. . After residing six months employment by which he supported himself and with his maternal uncle, Mr. John Forbes, he family for several years, both in Scotland and was dismissed from the house, and composed his England, whilst he was pursuing more serious poems on the Decay of Friendship, and Against studies. In London he first published some Repining at Fortune. Not long after this he curious astronomical tables and calculations; and obtained employment, first in the commissary's, afterwards gave public lectures in experimental and afterwards in the sheriff clerk's office, in philosophy, which he repeated (by subscription) which last he remained to the end of his short in most of the principal towns in England, with career. Meantime he continued to indulge his the highest marks of general approbation. He poetical vein, and before he was twenty years of was elected F. R. S. without paying for admis- age had published many of his pieces in Ruddision; and had a pension of £50 a year given man's Weekly Magazine, a periodical work then him, unsolicited, by the late king, who had at- universally read. Those most admired were tended his lectures, and frequently sent for him. written in the Scottish dialect, upon humorous His death took place in 1776, and he left behind and often temporary subjects. As he subscribed him nearly £6000. His principal works are all his poems with his name, from their first apAstronomical Tables and Precepts, 8vo.; Astro- pearance in the Weekly Magazine, his company nomy Explained ; Introduction to Astronomy; soon came to be generally courted, and in the Tables and Tracts; Lectures in Mechanics, Hy- circles of gaiety and dissipation his conversadrostatics, Pneumatics, and Optics; Select Me- t:on never failed to please. But while he rechanical Exercises; The Art of Drawing in Per- ceived these slight marks of general admiration, spective ; An Introduction to Electricity; and he had not the good fortune to fall in with any several papers in the Philosophical Transac- one who was equally qualified by station, inclitions.
nation, and influence, to patronise his merits, FERGUSSON (Adams), a celebrated writer on and ameliorate his circumstances. Among his history and moral science, was born in 1724, at numerous acquaintance there was, however, one Logierait, in Scotland, of which parish his father gentleman, who having contracted a sincere was minister. Educated at Perth and St. friendship for Fergusson previous to his deparAndrews, he removed to Edinburgh, after gra- ture for the East Indies, remitted a draught for duating M.A. to study for the ministry. He £100, accompanied with a cordial invitation to served in the first instance as chaplain in the come over to India and make his fortune. But forty-second regiment of foot, but on the peace the kind invitation arrived too late : poor Fergusof Aix-la-Chapelle returned to Edinburgh, where, son having previously breathed his last. Among in 1759, he was made professor of natural phi- the numerous acquaintance, whom his fame as a losophy, which chair he afterwards resigned for poet and man of humor had attracted around that of moral philosophy. His Essay on Civil him, there were some persons, unfortunately, by Society appeared in 1767, and was very favor- no means celebrated for their regularity of life, ably received. He shortly after received the and against the temptations to dissipation, held degree of LL.D., and accompanied the earl of out to him by such companions, his easy tempes Chesterfield on his travels. In 1776 he replied proved a weak defence. At last the debility of to Dr. Price on Civil Liberty, and was re- his frame produced a total derangement of mind; warded by the appointment of secretary to the and, his mother's circumstances not admitting of mission sent to America in 1778, to effect a re
a proper attendance being paid to him in her conciliation between the two countries. On his
own house, he was removed to the public asyreturn he resumed the duties of his professor- lum, where he died, October 16th, 1774. He ship, and composed his History of the Roman was interred in the Canongate church-yard, Republic, which was published in 1783, in three where Burns erected a monument to him, with volumes, 4to. In 1793 he published his lec- the following epitaph and inscription :
a Treatise on Moral and Political Science, two volumes, 4to. He subsequently No sculptured marble here, nor pompous lay! went abroad, and returning, settled at St. An- No storied urn, nor animated bust! drews, where he died, February 16th, 1816. This simple stone directs pale Scotia's way,
FERGUSSON (Robert), an eminent Scottish To pour her sorrows o'er her poet's dust. poet, born in Edinburgh, in 1750. Though
By special grant of the Managers early laboring under the disadvantages of a deli
To ROBERT BURNS, who erected this stone, cate constitution, which often interrupted his
This burial place is ever to remain sacred studies and attendance, yet he excelled most of
to the memory of his companions at the high school of Edinburgh.
ROBERT FERGUSSON. Afer four years spent at this seminary, he studied two years at the grammar-school of FERIÆ, in Roman antiquity, holidays, or Dandee; after which, having obtained a bur- days upon which they abstained from work. sary in the college of St. Andrews, he entered as Proclamation was generally 'nade by the herald,
by command of the rex sacrorum, or famines, FERIANA, the ancient city of Thala, in that all should abstain from business; and who- Africa, taken and destroyed by Metellus in the ever transgressed the order was severely fined. war with Jugurtha. It was visited by Mr. Bruce The feriæ were of two kinds, public and private. in his late travels through Africa, who expected
Ferix Privatæ, the private feriæ, were ho- to have found many magnificent ruins in the lidays observed by particular persons or families place, but was disappointed. The only remarkon account of birth-days, funerals, &c. These able objects he met with were the baths, which belonged to, and were one division of, the dies are excessively warm: these are without the festi.
town, and flow from a mountain named El FERIÆ PUBLICÆ, the public feriæ, were of four Tarmid. Notwithstanding the excessive heat of kinds, viz. feriæ conceptivæ, moveable feasts, the its water the fountain is not destitute of fish: days for the celebration of which were fixed by they are of the shape of a gudgeon, above four the magistrates or priests; of this sort were the inches long; and he supposed that there might feriæ, Latinæ, paganalia, &c., which happened have been about five or six dozen of them in the every year, but the days for keeping them were pool. On trying the water with a thermometer, left to the discretion of the magistrates or priests. he found the heat so great that he was surprised Of these the feriæ Latinæ were feasts at which a the fish were not boiled in it. white bull was sacrificed, and the Latin and
FEʻRINE, adj. Lat. ferinus. Wild; Roman towns provided each a set quantity of
FerI'NĖNESS, n. s. savage : the substantives meat, wine, and fruits; and, during the celebra
mean barbarity; cruelty. tion, the Romans and Latins swore eternal friendship to each other, taking home a piece of The only difficulty is touching those ferine, noxious, the victim to every town. The festival was in- and untameable beasts ; as lions, tygers, wolves,
Haie. stituted by Tarquinius II., when he overcame the Tuscans and made a league with the Latins, A ferine and necessitous kind of life, a conversa. proposing to build a common temple to Jupiter tion with those that were fallen into a barbarous habit Latialis, at which both nations might meet and of life, would assimilate the next generation to bar
Id. offer sacrifices for their common safety. At first barism and ferineness. the solemnity lasted but one day, but it was at He reduced him from the most abject and stupid different times extended to ten. It was held on ferity to his senses, and to sober reason. the Alban Mount, and celebrated with chariot
Woodward's Natural History. races at the capitol, where the victor was treated FERMANAGH, a county in the province of with a large draught of wormwood. Feriæ im- Ulster, Ireland, is bounded on the west by Leiperativa were fixed and instituted by the mere trim, on the north by Tyrone and Donegal, on command of consuls, prætors, or dictators, upon the east by Tyrone and Monaghan, and on the the gaining of some victory or other fortunate south by "Cavan and Leitrim. It abounds in event. Feriæ nundinales were regular market hills, many of them of great height, and boggy; days, one of which fell every ninth day. The but these high grounds afford good coarse pascountry people, after working eight days suc
ture for young cattle. Agriculture is not here in cessively, came to town the ninth to sell their a flourishing condition; and the fact is said to commodities, and to inform themselves of what be well authenticated that, so late as the year related to religion and government. Feriæ sta- 1808, it was the practice in some places to tivæ were kept as public feasts by the whole city plough by the tail ! The farms in the northern upon certain immoveable days appointed in their part are of a large size, and tolerably productive. calendar; such were the compitalia, carmentalia, Oats are the most common grain, and next to lupercalia, &c.
these barley. In some quarters, when calcuFerie, in the Romish breviary, is applied to lating a profitable crop, they estimate four stone the days of the week ; thus Monday is the feria of barley, and six of oats, to a gallon of whisky. secunda, Tuesday the feria tertia. The occasion Potatoes are common. of this was, that the first Christians used to keep In 1809 about 5000 Irish acres were supthe Easter week holy, calling Sunday prima posed to be sown with flax. The grazing tenures feria, &c., whence the term feria was given to are from 100 to 300 acres. Mr. Wakefield says, the days of every week. They have also extra- thatEnniskillen market is attended weekly by ordinary feriæ, viz. the last three days of passion about thirty or forty farmers from the vicinity, week, the two following Easter day, and the se- whose circumstances enable them to eat meat cond feriæ of rogation.
daily, and to drink port wine'! This is the prinFE’RIAL, adj. ? Lat. ferialıs. Respect- cipal or rather the only town of note in the
FERIA’tion, n. s. ) ing the ordinary days of county. See ENNISKILLEN. the week; sometimes respecting holidays: feria- A considerable part of the county is occupied tion is the act of keeping holiday.
with dairies. There is also a small breed of As though there were any feriation in nature, this cows here similar to those of Down: but no season is commonly termed the physician's vacation.
focks of sheep. The linen manufacture and the Browne.
rearing of black cattle are the great sources of Concerning the ferial character. The ecclesiastical year of old began at Easter, the first week whereof wealth here. The linen produced is what is was all holiday, the days being distinguished by pri- called seven-eighths. Illegal distillation is carried ma, secunda, tertia, &c., added unto feria. Gregory.
on to a considerable extent. There are mills for In the statute 27 Hen. VI. c. 5. ferial days are grinding oats, but none for grinding wheat. taken for working days; all the days of the week ex- This county also contains rich iron ore and cept Sunday.
Tomlins. coal. On lord Enniskillen's estate, west of
Lough Erne, there are quarries of marble. It is winding channel of about six miles The entire brown and white, beautifuliy veined, and of a site occupied by Lough Erne is supposed to be fine grain.
eighty-five square miles. The scenery around is The laborer is generally paid in money. In remarkably striking. On its bosom are between 1811 the prices of labor, provisions, &c., were: 300 and 400 islands, some of them large, fertile, for a man, the year round, 1s. and a woman 6d. well-wooded, and inhabited ; and the whole of per day; a carpenter, per day, 3s. 6d. and if them disposed in a very picturesque manner. constantly employed, 2s. 6d.; a mason, per day, The Erne runs into it at the north-west end by a 2s. 6d.; a thrasher, per day, 1s. 1d., or, by piece- current of about seven miles, and at length prework, from 6d. to 8d. per barrel of oats, 8d. to cipitates itself over a grand cataract into the sea 10d. per ditto of barley, and 1s. 1d. to 18. 8d. per at Ballyshannon. The falls of Belleek are esditto of wheat; a car and horse, per day, 25. 2d.; a teemed very beautiful, and deserving of the trasaddle-horse per ditto 58. 5d.; a plough per ditto veller's attention. Lough Erne contains almost 11s. 4fd., and, for ploughing and sowing an acre, every kind of fresh water fish. The salmon grow from 26s. to 365.;a blacksmith, per stone of work, very rapidly: some young ones have been found 1s. 6d., or per day 2s. 60.; turf, per kish, 2s.; sea to increase at the rate of a pound a week. Near coal, per barrel, 4s. to 5s.; culm, per ditto, Enniskillen large quantities of eels are caught. 3s.; lime, per ditto, 1s. 8d. to 25.; a car, At Belleek is an eel weir, which lets at £120 per · mounted, £4 10s.; potatoes, per stone, 2d. to annum, and three others in the vicinity, which let 4d.; salt butter, per cwt. £4 138. 4d.; fresh ditto, at £100 each. On the east of Lough Erne, per lb. 1s.; hay, per ton, £3 to £4; whisky, per Fermanagh has five baronies, and on the west gallon, 78. 9d. to 10s; strong ale, per quart, 4d.; three. It sends three members to parliament, porter, per gallon, 1s. 3d.; beef, per lb., 6d.; two of these being from the county, and one from mutton 1d.; pork 3d. ; lambs, per score, £18 the burgh of Enniskillen. The county freeto £22", eggs, per score, 6d.; cheese, per lb., 1s. holders amount to 5000. 6d.; bacon, per ditto, 6d.; shoeing a horse, 4s. ; Of the eighteen parishes of the county, fifteen shoes, per pair, 11s. 4fd.; salt, per stone, 1s. are in the diocese of Clogher, and the other three 54.; undressed 'flax, per cwt. £4' 10s. to £5; in that of Kilmore. The Catholics are in the wool, per stone, 225. to 20s.; fowls, per couple, proportion of three to one. Dr. Beaufort sup15. to is. 6d.; wheat, per barrel, £2 3s. ; barley, poses that Fermanagh contains 719 square miles, ditto, 198.; oats, ditto, 138. 6d.; quartern loaf of or 455,298 acres English measure, the length wheaten bread, 1s.; flower, firsts, per cwt., £1 being forty-three miles, and the breadth thirty98.; seconds, ditto, £1 8s.; thirds, ditto, £1 4s.; three. Of these, Lough Erne occupies 76,311. catmeal
, per cwt. 168.; labor in harvest of hay Mr. Wakefield makes the superficial contents and corn, per day, 2s. to 3s.; mowing grass, per 694 English square miles. Excluding Lough acre, 58.; rabbits, per couple, 1s. 8d.; milk, per Erne, there are about thirty-one English acres to quart, 2d.; corn acre of oats (tithe free to the a house, or five acres and one-sixth to each indivitenant), per acre, £6 to £8; ditto, meadows (ac- dual. cording to weight.of grass, ditto), £6 to £9; ditto
FERMAT (Peter), a French mathematician, potatoe land, ditto, £6 16s. 6d. to £8 8s.; ditto, was born at Toulouse in 1590. He was bred to flar, per rood (tithe free), ditto £2 5s., to £2 10s. the law, and became counsellor to the parliaThe wood of this county is an important ment of Toulouse, where he died in 1664. His product. Ash-trees are common, running along mathematical works were printed in 2 vols., folio, the edgerows; they are, however, of modern in- 1679, under the title of Opera Varia Mathematroduction. At Lough Erne, the yew grows to tica. He was the intimate acquaintance of Desa large size : beech, grows in this county to a cartes, Torricelli, Pascal, Huygens, &c. His good height and bulk: here are also oaks, firs, son, Samuel Fermat, was the author of several sallows, and hazels.
works. Mr. Wakefield reckons the average rental of this county at £1 5s. per green
At Flo- FER’MENT, v. a., v. n. & n. s. Fr. fermenrence-court, land lets at £i 10s. per acre: near
ter; Lat. ferFERMENTAL,
mento. To raEnniskillen, at £8 8s. per corn acre. In general the leases run for three lives, or thirty-one years :
FERMENTA'TION, n. s.
rify; change of late the period adopted is twenty-one years
chemically, and one life. There are here a few estates by internal commotion. See the more scientific whose rental is from £1500 to £2000; but by far explanation of this word in our article: fermentthe greatest number of the estates are large, and able, is capable of fermentative: fermental, there is no intermediate step between the
having the pro
to cause it: fermentative, ac
power prietors and the leaseholders. Lord Enniskillen tually causing fermentation. has an estate of £13,000 per annum.
Cucumbers, being waterish, fill the veins with crude quis of Ely, lord Belmour, and Sir James Cald- and windy serosities, that contain little salt or spirit, well, have property of from £6000 to £7000 per and debilitate the vital acidity and fermental faculty annum each. There is also a large church pro- of the stomach.
Browne. perty herè, belonging to the see of Clogher. The most remarkable geographical feature of The juice of grapes, after fermentation, will yield a
Boyle. this county is Lough Erne; consisting of two spiritus ardens. lakes, the upper being nine miles long, and from
As these politicians of both sides have already one ano a mait to five wide, and the lower one worked the nation into a most unnatural ferment, about ten miles in length, and from two to eight shall be so far from endeavouring to raise it to a in breadth. They are connected by a broad greater height, that, on the contrary, it shall be the
chief tendency of my papers to inspire my country- employed. Thenard mixed sixty parts of yeast men with a mutual good-will and benevolence. with 300 of sugar, and fermented them at
a temperature of 59o. In four or five days, A man, by tumbling his thoughts, and forming he informs us, that all the saccharine matter had them into expressions, gives them a new kind of fer- disappeared.' The quantity of carbonic acid mentation ; which works them into a finer body, and
evolved amounted, by weight, to 94:6 parts. It makes them much clearer than they were before.
Collier on Friendship.
was perfectly pure, being completely absorbed Subdue and cool the ferment of desire. Rogers.
by water. The fermented liquid, being distilled The dewlapt bull now chafes along the plain,
yielded 171.5 parts of alcohol, of the specific While burning love ferments in every vein ;
gravity •822. When the residue of the distillation His well-armed front against his rival aims, was evaporated, twelve parts of a nauseous acid And by the dint of war his mistress claims. Gay. substance were obtained; and forty parts of the
The semen puts females into a fever upon impreg. yeast still remained ; but, upon examination, it nation; and all animal humours which poison, are had lost the whole of its azote. This experiment putrefying ferments.
gives us the following quantities :Digestion is a fermentation begun, because there are all the requisites of such a fermentation; heat, air,
Substances fermented. and motion : but it is not a complete fermentation, be
300 cause that requires a greater time than the continu
60 ance of the aliment in the stomach : vegetable putrefaction resembles very much animal digestion.
360 Arbuthnot on Aliments. Aromatical spirits destroy by their fermentative
Products of fermentation. heat.
94.6 And lively fermentatim, mounting, spreads
12.0 All this innumerous coloured scene of things.
40-0 Thomson. Secrets are so seldom kept, that it may be with
318:1 some reason doubted, whether the quality of retention be so generally bestowed, and whether a secret has
41.9 not some subtile volatility by which it escapes,
imperceptibly, at the smallest vent, or some power of
The loss here amounts to about a ninth part fermentation, by which it expands itself, so as to burst of the whole, and must either be ascribed to the heart that will not give it way.
Johnson. waste, or to the formation of water. The first The same yields a stercoraceous heap,
is the more probable supposition. From this empregnated with quick fermenting salts,
experiment we learn that 100 parts of sugar, And potent to resist the freezing blast. Cowper. supposing the yeast not to furnish any thing, It is remarkable, that all the diseases from drink
would yield, ing spirituous or fermented liquors are liable to become
57:16 hereditary, even to the third generation, gradually
31.53 increasing, if the cause be continued, till the family
Nauseous residue. 4:00 becomes extinct.
Darvin. Thus heat evolved from some fermenting mass
92.69 Expands the kindling atoms into gas;
7:31 Which sink ere long in cold concentric rings, Condensed, on Gravity's descending wings. Id, Here the produce of alcohol is greater than
FERMENTATION. The phenomena and pro- that obtained from wort of barley; but the products attendant on this process are of considerable
duce of carbonic acid is somewat less. The well importance. Its general application to the manu
known experiment of Lavoisier corresponds facture of malt liquors, will be found under Ale pretty well with the result obtained by Thenard. and Beer brewing.
100 pounds of sugar and ten pounds of yeast The term fermentation is employed to signify yielded, the spontaneous changes which certain vegetable
57.70 solutions undergo, placed under certain circum
35.34 stances, and which terminate either in the pro
6.59 duction of an intoxicating liquor, or of vinegar ; the former termination constituting vinous, and
99.63 the latter the acetous fermentation.
These experiments are sufficient to show us, The principal substance concerned in vinous that by far the greatest part of the produce is fermentation is sugar; and no vegetable juice obtained from the sugar; and the yeast acts can be made to undergo the process, which does chiefly by inducing the decomposition of that not contain it in a very sensible quantity. In substance. the production of beer, the sugar is derived from Messrs. Vauquelin and Fourcroy, after a series the malt; in that of wine, from the juice of the of very minute experiments, came to the followgrape.
ing conclusions relative to the fermentation of When sugar is dissolved in four times its weight grain :of water, and mixed with yeast, it speedily fer- Two pounds of ground germinated barley, ments, and yields peculiar products. It has been placed with six pounds of water heated to 13° employed, therefore, by chemists as a less com- Fabr. in a matrass furnished with a crooked plicated means of ascertaining the phenomena tube, fermented in four hours in a heat of 72o. of fermentation, than grain which is usually The fermentatior continued thirty-six hours. The
gas disengaged and collected was partly formed observe these ingenious chemists, that it is
The same ground and germinated barley, but heated, and added water to favor the disengage-
submitted to distillation, did not yield alcohol Brewers' mash, exposed in the same apparatus but an acid liquor.' to the same temperature of 72°, fermented more The farina of wheat, therefore, does not form quickly with a more rapid effervescence, and its alcohol by fermentation : yeast is indispensable 825 was merely carbonic acid, without hydrogen for this fermentation, although it does not ente: g2. Thus the better depends upon the farina into the composition of alcohol; by accelerating mixed with flower.
the alcoholic fermentation, it opposes the forma: The farina of germinated barley, with water, tion of vinegar. When, on the contrary, the fermen.. exposed in the matrass to the temperature of tation is very slow, the alcohol becomes acetous 59', did not ferment until the end of five hours; in proportion as it is formed; perhaps even then and its gas was condensed by potash. Upon sugar and the other fermenting substances pas: raising the temperature to 22°, there came off a into the acid state with alcoholizing. mixture of gas not soluble and inflammable, the Air is not absorbed in the vinous fermentation pmportion of which was soon equal to that of although its oxygen is in the acetous. Wher the carbonic acid. Thus it is necessary that wine is manufactured in close vessels it is there should be a heat of upwards of 68° before stronger, if the process is slower, because a por: there can be any liberation of hydrogen gas in tion of the alcohol escapes from the vats : and the farina of barley which is fermenting. this is now understood in our malt distilleries.
Six pounds of ground barley, not germinated, That alcohol is held in solution in the carbonic treated at three several times with twelve pounds acid which is generated ; and thus, it appears, to of warm alcohol, furnished one ounce two intoxicate more rapidly, as is well known in the drachms of pure sugar; while six pounds of wines of Champagne. Under pressure, this germinated barley, treated in the same manner, compound is united to the fuid ; and, being yielded four ounces and two drachms, or about disengaged, produces the well-known effervesfive
per cent. ; which is four times what the bar- cence. The practice of fermentation is partly ley contained previous to germination. Thus regulated by this consideration. The violent germination forms sugar, as we have announced. stage of that process in wine-making is allowed
They put twenty-four pounds of farina of bar- to take place in an open vat; the next is parley, not germinated, into a tub with seven times tially checked by an occasional bung, and, in the is weight of hot water at 158°, and four pounds last of all, the vessel is completely closed. In of mild beer yeast.
Fermentation immediately strong still wines the whole process may be con-
Twenty-four pounds of germinated and ground ripening of wines. Champagne would be de-
ebullition. The liquor then becomes turbid, a • It must be concluded from these results,' rariety of solid matters are disengaged, some