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5. Low carte, of the modern system, or com the inside fort of your blade against his foible, mon carte inside the arm, of the ancients, is thus lowering yours about six inches inside the arm, executed. Being on guard, in carte, direct the the wrist in the mean position at the breast point of your sword along, and underneath your ‘height, and return high carte. opponent's wrist; and, when about four inches 2. Ancient prime parade.If when on guard from his body, raise your wrist in supination as your opponent thrusts ancient prime, parry with high as the mouth, and throw the point into the the fort outside of your sword, the wrist in propit of his stomach without extending your body nation being as high as the forehead and opsu much as in the preceding thrust. This thrust posed inside the arm; then extend your arm, and is parried by low carte, the octuve, hulf-circle, throwing your point below his stomach return prime, and seconde. Rolando's Modern Art of ancient prime. Fencing, p. 28.
3. High tierce, or modern seconde, parade. If 6. Quinte, both ancient and modern, was the when on guard your opponent thrusts high tierce, fifth thrust, whence it derives its name. It is parry with a dry beat, fort against foible, outward thus given: the wrist, being in the mean position, from within; wrist nearly in pronation at the should be held as high as the chin, the fort of height of the flank, the arm extended in order your blade opposed to the foible of your adver- better to be able to return with high tierce. sary's, and supporting thus your opposition pass 4. Ancient seconde parade.--If when on guard as it were by stealth your point under his wrist, your opponent thrusts ancient seconde, parry and thrust at his abdomen, still in the attitude of with the inner fort of the blade turned out; the carte with the flat of the blade uppermost. This wrist in pronation breast high, the arm extended thrust is parried by quinte, seconde, octave, and to return ancient seconde. the half circle.
5. Low carte parade. If from the guard your 7. Curte over arm, or modern prime over arm, opponent thrust low carte, parry with a dry beat is a carte thrust, passed over the arm along your from the fort inside of your blade; the wrist in opponent's blade, with the wrist in supination the mean position at the height of the abdomen, three inches above the head; the right arm should the point a little more elevated, and return low be entirely extended, and the other parts of the carte. body placed as directed in high carte. This 6. Quinte parade.—When from his guard your thrust is best parried by pointe volante ; it may opponent makes the thrust of quinte, parry also be parried by tierce, and the cart cover arm with the fort edge of your blade against his foiparade.
ble; lowering your wrist to the mean position, 8. Carte cut outside the arm, is thus executed: perpendicular with your knee, and the edge of when on guard in tierce over your opponent's your sword to the height of the thigh, somewhat arm, lower by stealth your point by means of a inclined inwards, return low carte. half circle outside the arm; adjust your point 7. Carte over arm parade. Upon your oppounder his arm-pit, the flat of the blade upper- nent's thrusting from his guard carte over arm, most, supporting the sword precisely under his parry with your arm bent, with the fort outside elbow; the wrist will then be in the mean po- of your blade against his foible, the wrist being sition with the same position as in low carte. in the mean position at the height of the chest, This thrust is to be parried by the half circle, in the same situation as in carte outside the arm, seconde, quinte, or octave. See Fencing, plate and return with curte over arm. II. fig. 1.
8. Low tierce parade is adapted in the same 9. Flanconnade, so called, because mostly manner either to a tierce or carte over arm touching only the tiank, is thus performed: being thrust, and is thus executed :— Upon your antaengaged in carte, lower the point below your op- gonist attempting either of these, parry with the ponent's wrist, take the foible of his blade with- inner fort edge upon his foible by a dry beat, out quitting it, and plunge your point into his lowering and bending your elbow a little; the flank under his elbow outside the arm; the wrist wrist in pronation at the height of the haunch, raised and supported in the mean position as the point elevated, and return seconde. high as the mouth; oppose suddenly the left 9. The octave parade, so called as having been wrist close to the elbow, the hand open, and formerly the eighth and last of the parades, is stoop at the same time to avoid being touched by thus performed :-Upon your antagonist's thrustseconde. This is parried by seconde and low carte. ing carte cut outside the arm, parry with the fort See plate II. fig. 2.
outside edge of your blade against his foible, the We shall now endeavour to give a short des- wrist in the mean position at the height of the cription of the different simple parades. A pa- breast; the arm bent outwards, the point low; rade, or parry, is formed by giving a dry beat on and then return carte over arm. your opponent's sword, to avoid being touched by 10. Half circle parade upon low carte.-When his point. A dry parade, is the action of striking from his guard your opponent thrusts low carte, his blade with a firm vivid motion, so as to turn parry with a dry beat from the inner fort edge of it aside without following it. There were for your blade against the foible of his, forming a merly only six parades taught; there are now half circle outside the arm ; stretch out your arm, fifteen in use.
the wrist in supination the height of your mouth, The first is that of high carte, or modern prime, and return carte. which is thus executed: supposing you are on 11. Flanconnade parade.--If from the carte guard, and your opponent thrusts high carte, then engagement your opponent thrust the flanconnade, turn your right side so as to oppose as narrow a turn your wrist suddenly in pronation at the front as possible, and parry with a dry beat from height of the haunch, forming an angle from it
to the point of the sword, the arm bent at the deavour to throw your adversary off his guard by same time that he endeavours to assure himself inducing him to make some thrust for which beof your blade, from the foible to the fort, and re- ing prepared you may return to advantage. This tumn secondo
artifice consists in a lively close stroke from the When this party is used in the attack it is in fort to the foible of his blade to throw it aside, the following manner :- If your opponent from and by giving a stamp with the right foot induce the guard in carte thrust flanconnade, parry him to parry at a thrust you never intended to carte; without quitting his blade, lower your give, or to thrust you at a time when you expect point a little, and pass it immediately under his and are prepared for it. The greatest attention wrist; thus binding his blade, and returning his should however be paid, lest your adversary, answord to nearly the position in which it before ticipating your intention, throw in his thrust at was. This is however a dangerous parade to the very time you are executing your appeal, and use in an attack, as a quick fencer would often, thus seizing the time touch you before you are by disengaging carte over arm with the strong prepared. part of his sword against the foible of yours, Beating.–To beat the foil is to strike the foiührust you at the same time you were thrusting ble of your adversary's blade with the fort edge at him.
of yours, as often with a view to turn his point 12. Pointe volante parade is the twelfth and aside as to open his guard so as to be enabled to last of the simple parades, and is so named from touch him. See Beat, in fencing, in the body of the swiftness with which the point of the sword the work. is thrown over the shoulder When your anta Binding.–To bind and cross an adversary's gonist thrusts carte over arm, parry rapidly by sword is to join by sliding and forcing strongly bending your elbow, and throwing the point of upon it with your edge from the fort to the foible your sword over your shoulder without displacing under his wrist, to drive it away, as it were, so your wrist from the situation in which it was in that you may be sure to touch if not disarm him. the guard in carte; the outside edge of your For this reason it is a method of disarming the sword thus gliding from one end to the other of most advantageous, as, if well executed, it beyour antagonist's will throw it sufficiently aside comes, if not absolutely certain, yet very useful, to enable you to return to your guard.
as being attended with no comparative danger. We have now enumerated the twelve simple Coup de fouet, or lashing, is the act of giving parades commonly in use : there are now three a firm dry beat or jerk upon your opponent's others, of the circular kind, remaining to be no- blade, when he holds it Hat and stifly before ticed, the first of which is,
him, in order to cause him to let it fall. The counter carte parade, the chief of the cir To disengage is to carry or pass the point of cular parades, as it envelopes almost every your sword from one side to the other over your thrust in fencing, either inside, outside, over or antagonist's, by joining it without forcing. under the arm. It is in fact describing a small Glizade is the act of sliding your blade upon circle round your adversary's blade to throw it the foible of his : the body must be well effaced aside when you join it.
and firm upon the left haunch; the sword diThe counter of tierce is neither so easy nor so rectly before you ; and when you close slide certain a parade as the last, and ought only to be upon your adversary's blade by the fort of your used when out of measure.
The circle parade is performed by wheeling Volting.–To volte is to turn your back almost your sword closely and rapidly round from right entirely upon your adversary, by a half wheel to to left so as to throw off your adversary's point the left to about the distance of the guard, from the centre of attack. This is the most diffi- throwing back your point at the same time to his cult to perform of all the parades now in use, body. The volte is only useful when you are and is eminently useful as it embraces all the engaged with one, who, without any knowledge thrusts that can be aimed at you in retreating. of fencing, rushes upon you with a curved arm, Indeed, if it could be continued as long as it not suspecting the danger; or who, being acmight be necessary to join an adversary's blade, quainted with the danger, cautiously uses this who possesses both vivacity and address, it method of fighting, with the view either of surwould be general against every attempt; but, as prising or disconcerting you. the arm and wrist after the fourth or fifth round • It is not a little surprising,' says Mr. Forsyth become considerably deranged, a quick fencer, in the treatise we have already quoted, that in order to follow you, will describe a smaller such dangerous manœuvres have been invented circle and easily come within its central point. and adopted, so diametrically opposed to the To effect this parade with certainty, extend your true principles of fencing, which only require art, the wrist in supination being as high as firmness of the body and legs, a requisite that the mouth, the point of the foil very low, and can never be supplied in the action of volting, by the motion of the wrist alone describe from which too evidently and too frequently exposes right to left, in an oblique manner, the figure of us to be hit, before we can completely coma cone in as small a compass as possible. See mand this hazardous and uncertain evolution, plate II. fig. 3.
and which, should we fai, in our design, leaves Having now enumerated the principal thrusts us without a resource with a stroug quick fencer, and parades, we shall give some account of the who will seldom fail to take advantage of the common artifices in fencing, and a definition of disorder into which these dangerous experiments some of the common terms.
are sure to involve us.' For SPADROON EXERThe appeal.- Marking an appeal is an en- cise, and Sword ExercISE, see those articles.
FEND, v. a. & v. n. Latin fendo. See a natural and flowing elocution, and the power FEND'Er, n. s. Fence. To keep off; of making himself understood upon all subjects.
FEND'ER-BOLT. shut out; to dispute; No man inspired stronger attachments; and such shift off (a charge): the sea phrase is exempli- was the respect borne to his character, that the fied by Dr. Rees: the household fender is a well duke of Marlborough, and the other generals of known protection of the floor from coals falling the allies, expressly excepted the archiepiscopal out of the fire, says Dr. Johnson : we should lands of Cambray from pillage when in pussesadd from the scene around us, and of childrension of that part of Flanders. His principal from falling into it.
works not already mentioned, are-Dialogues of Spread with straw the bedding of thy fold,
the Dead, 2 vols. 12mo.; Dialogues on EloWith fern beneath to fend the bitter cold.
quence, 12mo.; Philosophical Letters, a DemonDryden.
stration of the Existence of a God, 12mo.; LetThe dexterous management of terms, and being ters on different Religious and Metaphysical able to fend and prove with them, passes for a great Subjects, 12mo.; Spiritual Works, 4 vols. 12mo.; part of learning : but it is learning distinct from Sermons, and controversial pieces. Fenelon died knowledge.
Locke. from a fall received in the overturning of his Fend, in the sea lang uage, imports the same as de- carriage in 1715; a collection of all his religious fend. Hence the phrase fending the boat, &c.;
that works was afterwards printed at Rotterdam, is, saving it from being dashed against the rocks, under the care of the marquis Fenelon his grandsbore, or ship's side. Hence also fenders, any pieces nephew, when ambassador to the states general. of old cable-ropes, or billets of wood, &c., hung over
FENERATION, n. s. Lat. fæneratio. Usury; the ship's side, in fend or keep other ships from rubbing against her; or to prevent her from striking or
the gain of interest; the practice of increasing rubbing against a wharf or quay.
Dr. A. Rees. money by lending. Fend, or fender-bolts, made with long and thick The hare figured not only pusillanimity and timi. heads, struck into the outermost bends or wales of a dity from its temper, but feneration and usury from ship, to save her sides from bruises and hurts.
its fecundity and superfetation.
Brordne. FENELON (Francis de Salignac de la Motte), FENESTRA, in anatomy, a name given to two was of an ancient and illustrious family, and born small holes in the cavity of the tympanum, which at the castle of Fenelon in Perigord, in 1651. In are distinguished from each other by the epithets 1689 he was appointed tutor to the dukes of rotunda and ovalis. Burgundy and Anjou ; and in 1695 was conse FENESTRELLE, a fortress of France, in crated archbishop of Cambray. But a publica- Piedmont, on the Clusone, near the borders of tion of his, entitled An Explication of the Max. Dauphiny, consisting of three distinct erections, ims of the Saints concerning the Interior Life, built on eminences, and communicating with each in which he seemed to favor the extravagant other by covered ways cut in the rock. In the notions of Madam Guyon, and the principles of valley below lies the village of Fenestrelles, with Quietism, compelled him to quit the court ; to 860 inhabitants. Seven miles S. S. E. of Susa, which he never returned. A controversy was for and twenty N. N. W. of Pignerol. some time carried on between him and M. Bos
FE'NNEL, n. 3. Lat. fæniculum. A plant of suet, bishop of Meaux; which terminated in an strong scent. appeal to the pope, who condemned the arch
A sav'ry odour blown, more pleased my sense bishop's book, March 12th, 1699, and our prelate Than smell of sweetest fennel, or the teats had what was wittily called the coquetry of hu Of ewe, or goat, dropping with milk at even. mility to read his own condemnation from his own
Milton. pulpit. Some allege that there was more of FENNEL, in botany. See ANETHUM. court policy than religious zeal in this affair; be FENNEL FLOWER.. See NIGELLA. this as it may, the archbishop submitted pa FENNEL FLOWER or CRETE. See GARItiently, and, retiring to his diocese, performed the DELLA. duties of his station, and led a most exem Fennel, Giant. See FERULA. plary life. The work that gained him the greatest FENNEL, Hog's. See PEUCEDANUM. reputation, and which will render his memory FENNEL, SCORCHING. See THAPSIA. immortal, is his Telemachus; the style of FENTON (Elijah), descended from an ancient which is natural, the fictions well contrived, the family, was born at Shelton near Newcastle. He moral sublime, and the political maxims ex was the youngest of twelve children, and was incellent. Louis XIV. is said never to have ap- tended for the ministry; but embracing political proved of the appointnient of Fenelon to the principles contrary to the measures of governpreceptorship of the princes, and to have re- ment, while at Cambridge, he declined entering garded Telemachus as a satire upon his own into holy orders. He was secretary to the earl government. He stopped therefore the printing of Orrery; but seems to have spent most of his of the work, and the archbishop could never re time among his friends and relations. His cover his favor, notwithstanding his writings elder brother had an estate of £1000 a year. against the Jesuits, and munificent distribution When his engagement with lord Orrery ceased, of corn in a season of scarcity to the army. Fe- he obtained, through the recommendation of nelon is also said to have given unpardonable Pope, a situation with Mr. secretary, Craggs, who, offence by his honest advice to Louis not to aware of the deficiences of his own education, marry madame Maintenon. In person, manners, wished to have a man of taste and learning for a and general character Fenelon is universally. companion. He next undertook, for Pope, the represented as having been one of the most en- translation of the first, fourth, nineteenth, and gaging of men ; uniting, with a noble politeness, twentieth books of the Odyssey, for which he re
ceived the sum of £300. His tragedy of Mari FE'OFF, v. a. & n. s. Old Fr. feoffee ; Low amne rendered him more known; it was per FEOFFEE', n. s. Lat. feoffare. To put formed in 1723, with very great applause, and
in feodal possession; a produced him £1000. • An instructive compa
fief: a feoffee, is one rison,' says Dr. Johnson, ‘between the patronage put in possession : feoffer, one who gives posof the public, and that of a king or minister.' session and feoffment, the act or form of He died in 1730 of indulgence and want of ex- giving it. ercise. His pupil, lord Orrery, says of him, The late earl of Desmond, before his breaking Poor Fenton died of a great chair and two forth into rebellion, conveyed secretly all his lands bottles of port a day. He adds, he was one of the to feoffees in trust, in hope to have cut off her maworthiest and modestest men that ever belonged jesty from the escheat of his lands. Spenser. to the court of Apollo. Pope wrote upon him
Any gift or grant of any honours, castles, lands, or the following beautiful but not very veracious other immoveable things, to another in fee simple, epitaph:
that is, to him and his heirs for ever, by the delivery *This modest stone, which few vain marbles can,
of seisin of the thing given : when it is in writing, May truly say, bere lies an honest man;
it is called a deed of feoffment ; and in every feoffA poet blessed beyond the poet's fate,
ment the giver is called the feoffer, feoffator, and he Whom heaven kept sacred from the proud and great ;
that receiveth by virtue thereof the feoffee, feoffatus. Foe to loud praise, and friend to learned ease,
The proper difference between a feoffer and a donor Content with science in the vale of peace.
is, that the feoffer gives in fee-simple, the donor in Calmly he looked on either life, and here
Cowell. Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear;
FEOFFMENT, in law, from feoffare, to give one From nature's temperate feast rose satisfied,
a feud, is still directed and governed by the Thanked heaven that he had lived, and that he died.' feodal rules: insomuch that the principal rule
Feston (Sir Geoffry), privy counsellor and relating to the extent and the effect of the feodal secretary in Ireland, during the reigns of queen grant, tenor est qui legem dat feudo, is the maxim Elizabeth and king James I., is well known for of the law with relation to feoffments, modus his translation of Guicciardin's History of the legem dat donationi. And therefore, as in pure Wars of Italy, dedicated to queen Elizabeth in feodal donations, the lord, from whom the feud 1579. He died at Dublin in 1608, after having moved, must expressly limit and declare the married his daughter to Mr. Boyle, afterward eari continuance or quantity of estate which he meant of Cork.
to confer, ne quis plus donasse præsumatur, FENUGREEK, n. s. Lat. fænum Græcum. quam in donatione expresserit: so, if one grants A plant.
by feoffment lands or tenements to another, and FEOD, n. s.
Fr. fief, of Old Latin limits or expresses no estate, the grantee (due Feodal, adj. feodum. Fee; tenure; pos
ceremonies of law being performed) hath barely FEODAL'ITY, n. s. session held under a su
an estate for life. For, as the personal abilities FEODARY, FEODA'TORY, adj. dal is ,
or principal inducements signifying possessed by fee: a feodary, is one feoffment, the feoffee's estate ought to be confined who holds under a feudal lord or superior: feo- to his person and subsist only for his life; unless dality, the possession of divers feoffs.' — Cot- the feoffer, by express provision in the creation
and constitution of the estate, has given it a grave.
Any beneficiary or feudatory king. Bacon. longer continuance. These express provisions The feodal discipline extended itself every where. are indeed generally made; for this was for ages
Burke. the only conveyance whereby an estate was The leaders teach the people to respect all feoda- created in fee simple, by giving the land to the
Id. feoffee, to hold to him and his heirs for ever; Feod, or Feud, is defined to be a right which though it serves equally well to convey any other a vassal hath in lands or some immoveable thing estate of freehold. But by the mere words of of his lord's, to use the same, and take the pro- the deed the feoffment is by no means perfts thereof, hereditarily, rendering unto the lord fected: a very material ceremony remains to be such feodal duties and services as belong to performed, called livery of seizing; without which military tenure, &c., and the property of the soil the feoffee has but a mere estate at will. See always remaining to the lord. Pontoppiddan Seisin. says, that odh in the northern languages is the FER DE FOURCHETTE, in heraldry, a cross same with proprietas, and all with totum in the having at each end a forked iron, like that Latin. Hence, odhall signifies right: and hence formerly used by soldiers to rest their muskets we may conjecture, that the udal right in Finland on. It differs from the cross fourche, the ends is derived. By transposing these two syllables, of which turned forked: whereas this has that we form the word allodh; whence we have the sort of fork fixed upon the square end. See Etymology of the allodium or absolute property HERALDRY. claimed by the holders of fiefs or feuds; and by Fer de Moulin, Millind, or INKE DE Moucombining odb, signifying property, with the Lin, in heraldry, is a bearing supposed to repreword fee, signifying a conditional stipend or re sent the iron-ink, or ink of a mill, which sustains Fard, we have the word feodh, signifying a pro- the moving wheel. perty given by way of stipend or reward upon a FERABAD, or Feralat, a town of Persia, Certain condition. See FEUDAL SYSTEM. in the province of Mezanderan, twelve miles
FEODAL SYSTEM. See FEUDAL SYSTEM. from the Caspian Sea, seated among the moun
fee if the chiedere were originally presumed to be the
tains which bound its south coast. The environs 8vo.; An Account of Mines in the Cantons of produce sugar, cotton, and silk. Shah Abbas Deux Ponts, the Palatinate, and Nassau, Berlin, often spent the winter in it. It lies 122 miles 1776, 8vo.; An Attempt towards an Oryctowest of Asterabad ; 140 north-east of Gilan, graphy of Derbyshire, Mittau, 1776, &c., &c.; and 270 north of Ispahan.
all of which are written in the German lanFERABAT, a town of Persia, one mile and a guage. half from Ispahan, extending nearly three miles FERDINAND V. king of Spain, who married along the banks of Zenderoad. It was built by Isabella of Castile, whereby that kingdom was Shah Abbas, who brought Armenians to it, from united to the Spanish crown. This illustrious Ferabad, after they had revolted from the Turks. pair laid the foundation of the glory and power
FERÆ, in zoology, an order of the class of Spain. The conquest of Granada, and the mammalia; thus characterised: foreteeth conic, discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, usually six in each jaw; tusks longer than the make his reign a celebrated era in history. He other teeth; grinders with conic projections; feet died in 1516, aged sixty-three. See Spain. with subulate claws; food carcases, and other FERE, n. s. Sax. fera. A mate or companion. animals attacked while alive.
Also written pheer; and applied to both sexes. FEʻRAL, adj. Lat. feralis. Funereal ; deadly.
Clarissa to a lovely fere By the wan moon how oft the bird of night Was linked, and by him had many pledges dear. Lengthens her feral note. Headley.
Spenser. FERALIA, in antiquity, a festival observed This king unto him took a pheere, among the Romans on the 21st of February, or,
Who died and left a female beir. Shakspeare. according to Ovid, on the 17th of February, in FERENTINUM, in ancient geography, a town honor of the manes of their deceased friends and of the Hernici in Latium, which the Romans, relations. Varro derives the word from inferi, the after subduing that nation, allowed to be goshades, or from fero, to carry; on account of a verned by its own laws: now called Ferentino. repast carried to the sepulchres of such. Festus FERÉTRUM, among the Romans, the bier derives it from ferio, on account of the victims used in carrying out the bodies of the dead, sacrificed. Vossius observes, that the Romans which duty was performed by the nearest male called death fera, cruel, and that the word feralia relations of the deceased : thus, sons carried out might arise thence. Macrobius refers the origin their parents, brothers their sisters, &c. of the ceremony to Numa Pompilius. Ovid, in FERG, or Fergue, Francis Paul, an emihis Fasti, goes back as far as Æneas for its insti- nent landscape painter, born in 1689, at Vienna, tution. He adds, that on the same day a sacri- where he learned the first principles of his art. fice was performed to Muta, the goddess of He practised under Hans Graf, Orient, and dumbness; and that the persons who officiated Thiele. He first went into Saxony, and painted were an old woman attended with a number of for the duke of Brunswick, and for the gallery young girls. During the continuance of this of Salzdahl. From Gerniany he came to Lonfestival, which lasted eleven days, presents were don, where he was involved in difficulties. His made at the graves of the deceased, marriages necessities compelled him to diminish the prices were forbidden, and the temples of the gods of his paintings, in order to procure immediate
While the ceremonies continued, support; and by a series of misfortunes he was they imagined that the ghosts suffered no punish- always overwhelmed with debt. He died sudments in hell, but that their tormentors allowed denly in the street one night in 1738, at the door them to wander round their tombs, and feast of his lodgings. He had formed a style of his upon the meats which their surviving friends had own from various Flemish painters, though reprepared for them. For a more particular ac- sembling Poelemburgh most in the enamelled count of the offerings, sacrifices, and feasts for softness and mellowness of his coloring; but his the dead, see INFERIÆ and SilicERNIUM. Some- figures are greatly superior; every part of them times at the feralia public feasts were given to is sufficiently finished, every action expressive. people at the tombs of the rich and great, by He painted small landscapes, fairs, and rural their heirs or particular friends.
meetings; his horses and caitle are not iuterior to FERBER (John James), a Swedish minera- Wouvermans; and his buildings aridi distances logist and physician, born at Carlscrona in 1743. seem to owe their respective softness to the inHe was brought up under his father, also a phy- terveaing air not to the pencil. The greatest sician, and early became distinguished as a na. part of his works are in London and Germany; tural philosopher. He set out in 1765, on a mi- and they now bear a high price. neralogical tour to inspect the mines of Germany, FERGANA, or FERGANAH, a mountainous France, Holland, England and Italy; and on his province of Samarcand, abounding in mines of return accepted an invitation to become professor gold, silver, copper, iron, and coals. of natural history at Mittau. He removed to FERGUSON (James), an eminent experiSt. Petersburgh in 1783, as professor of Natural mental philosopher and mechanic, born in 1710, Science in that capital, whence he removed in at Keith, a village in the shire of Banff in Scot1786 into the service of Prussia. He died in land. At the earliest age bis extraordinary 1790 at Berne in Switzerland. His works are— genius began to exert itself. He first learned to Letters from Italy, respecting the most remark- read, by overhearing his father, who was in low able Natural Productions in that Country, 1773, circumstances, teach his elder brother : and his 8vo. ; Collections towards a History of the Mines taste for mechanics was first shown by his making of Bohemia, Berlin, 1774, 8vo.; Å Description a wooden clock after having once only been of the Quicksilver Mines at Idria, Berlin, 1774, shown the inside of one. As soon as his age