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In thy dark lantborn thus close up the stars called felonia. Sir Edward Coke bas given us That nature hung in heaven, and filled the lamps a still stranger etymology; that it is crimen With everlasting oil, to give due light
animo felleo perpetratum, with a bitter or gallTo the misled and lonely traveller ? Milton.
ish inclination. But all of them agree in the deThe wily fox,
scription, that it is such a crime as works a forChased even amid' the folds ; and made to bleed,
feiture of all the offender's lands or goods. And Like felons, where they did the murderous deed.
this gives a great probability to Sir Henry SpelIn thy felonious heart though venom lies,
man's Teutonic or German derivation of it: in It does but touch thy Irish pen, and dies. Id. which language indeed, as the word is clearly The malign paronychia is that which is commonly of feodal original, we ought rather to look for called a felon.
Wiseman's Surgery. its signification, thau among the Greeks and Then with deep-opening mouth, Romans. Fe-lon then, according to him, is That makes the welkin tremble, he proclaims derived from two northern words; fee, which The' audacious felon.
signifies the fief, feud, or beneficiary estate; and Then bids prepare the hospitable treat, lon, which signifies price or value. Felony is Vain shews of love to veil his felon hate
therefore the same as pretium feudi, the consiPope.
deration for which a man gives up his fief; as But, though the felon on his back could dare The dreadful leap, more rational, bis steed
we say in common speech, such an act is as much Declined the death, and wheeling swiftly round,
as your life, or estate, is worth. In this sense it Or e'er his hoof had pressed the crumbling verge,
will clearly signify the feodal forfeiture, or act by Based his rider, saved against his will. Cowper.
which an estate is forfeited, or escheats, to the Next view in state, proud prancing on his roan,
lord. The golden-crested haughty Marmion,
To confirm this, we may observe, that it is in Now forging scrolls, now foremost in the fight, this sense, of forfeiture to the lord, that the feoNot quite a felon, yet but half a knight,
dal writers constantly use it. For all those acts, The gibbet or the field prepared to grace,
whether of a criminal nature or not, which at A mighty mixture of the great and base. Byron. this day are generally forfeitures of copy-hold
Felony, says Blackstone, in the general estates, are styled felonia in the feodal law : acceptation of the law, comprises every species scilicet, per quas feudum amittitur.' As ' si of crime which occasions, at common law, the domino deservire noluerit; si per annum et diem forfeiture of lands or goods. This most fre- cessaverit in petenda investitura : si dominum quently happens in those crimes for which a ejuravit, i. e. negavit se à domino feudum hacapital punishment either is or was to be inflict. bere; si à domino in jus eum vocante, ter citaed: for those felonies that are called clergyable, tus non comparuerit;' all these, with many others, or to which the benefit of clergy extends, were are still causes of forfeiture in our copy-hold anciently punished with death in all lay, or un estates, and were denominated felonies by the learned, offenders; though now, by the statute feodal constitutions. So likewise injuries of a law, that punishment is for the first offence uni more substantial or criminal nature were denoversally remitted. Treason itself, says Sir Ed- minated felonies, that is forfeitures: as assaulting ward Coke, was anciently comprised under the or beating the lord; vitiating his wife or daughname of felony : and, in confirmation of this, we ter; ‘si dominium cucurbitaverit, i. e. cum uxore may observe that the statute of treasons, 25 Ed. ejus concubuerit:' all these are esteemed felonies, IJI. c. 2, speaking of some dubious crimes, di- and the latter is expressly so denominated, si ferects a reference to parliament · that it may becerit feloniam, dominium forte cucurbitando. there adjudged “whether they be treason or other And as these contempts, or smaller offences, felony.' All treasons, therefore, strictly speak- were felonies, or acts of forfeiture, of course ing, are felonies; though all felonies are not greater crimes, as murder and robbery, fell under treason. And all offences now capital are in the same denomination. On the other hand, the some degree or other felony: but this is likewise lord might be guilty of felony, or forfeit his the case with some other offences which are not seignory to the vassal, l.y the same act as the punished with death; as suicide, where the party vassal would have forfeited his feud to the lord. is already dead; homicide by chance-medley, or 'Si dominus commisit felonian, per quam vasalin self-defence; and petit larceny, or pilfering; lus amitteret feudum si eam commiserit in domiall of which are, strictly speaking, felonies, as num, feudi proprietatem etiam dominus perdere they subject the committers of them to forfeitures. debet. One instance given of this sort of felony So that, upon the whole, the only adequate de- in the lord is beating the servant of his vassal, finition of felony seems to be, an offence which so as that he loses his services, which seems occasions a total forfeiture of lands or goods, or merely in the nature of a civil injury, so far as it both, at the common law; and to which capital respects the vassal. And all these felonies were or other punishment may be superadded, ac to be deterinined, “per juramentum sive judicording to the degree of guilt. To explain this cium parium suorum,' in the lord's court; as farther: The word felony, or felonia, is of un with us forfeitures of copy-hold lands are predoubted feodal original, being freqriently to be sentable by the homage in the court-baron. "Femet with in the books of feuds, &c.; but the lony, and the act of forfeiture to the lord, being derivation of it has much puzzled the juridical thus synonymous terms in the feodal law, we lexicographers, Pratæus, Calvinus, and the rest : may easily trace the reason why, upon the intro some deriving it from the Greek onlos, an im- duction of that law into England, those crimes postor or deceiver; others from the Lalin fallo, which induced such forfeiture or escheat of fefelli, to countenance which they would have it lands (and, by a small deflexion from the original
sense, such as induced the forfeiture of goods had for his comfort or delight destroyed. 4 Rep also) were denominated felonies.
Thus it was 124. By stat. 53 Geo. III., c. 162, any court may that suicide, robbery, and rape, were felonies; pass on persons convicted of felony with benefit that is, the consequence of such crimes was for- of clergy (or of grand or petit larceny) sentence feiture; till by long use we began to signify, by of imprisonment to hard labor, either singly and the term felony, the actual crime committed, and alone, or in addition to any other sentence. A not the penal consequence. And upon this sys- former provision, as to passing this sentence on tein or.ly can we account for the cause why felons, by 52 Geo. III. c. 44, is repealed by this treason, in ancient times, was held to be a spe- act. 53 Geo. III. cies of felony; because it induced a forfeiture. Private persons may arrest felons by their own. Hence it follows, that capital punishment does authority, or by warrant from a justice of peace ; by no means enter into the true idea and defini- and every private person is bound to assist an tion of felony. Felony may be without inflicting officer to take felons, &c. But no one ought to capital punishment, as in the cases instanced of be arrested upon suspicion of felony, except self-murder, excusable homicide, and petit lar- there be probabilis causa showed for the ground ceny: as in case of heresy by the common law, of the suspicion. If a felony is not done by a which, though capital, never worked any for- man, but some person else, if another hath profeiture of lands or goods, an inseparable incident bable cause to suspect he is the felon, and acto felony. And of the same nature was the pu- cordingly doth arrest him, this is lawful and bishment of standing mute, without pleading to may be justified. But, to make good such jusan indictment; wbich at the common law was tification, there must be in fact a felony comcapital, but without any forfeiture, therefore such mitted by some person, without which there can standing mute was no felony. In short the true be no ground of suspicion. 2 Hale's Hist. P.C. criterion of felony is forfeiture; foi, as Sir 78. Edward Coke justly observes, in all felonies A private man arresting one for felony, canwhich are punishable with death, the offender not justify breaking doors, to take the party loses all his lands in fee simple, and also his suspected; but he doth it at his peril, viz if in goods and chattels; in such as are not punish- truth he be a felon it is justifiable ; but if innoable, his goods and chattels only. The idea of cent, then it is not. To prevent a murder, or felony is indeed so generally connected with manslaughter, private persons may break doors that of capital punishment, that we find it hard open. 2 Hale 82. Officers may break open a to separate them; and to this usage the inter- house tak a felon, or any person justly suspretations of the law now conform. And there- pected of felony; and if an officer hath a warrant fore, if a statute make any new offence felony, to take a felon, who is killed in resisting, it is the law implies that it shall be punished with not felony in the officer; but if the officer is death, viz. by lianging as well as with forfeiture: killed it is otherwise. unless the offender prays for benefit of clergy; Watchmen and beadles have authority at comwhich all felons are entitled once to have, mon law to arrest and detain in prison for exunless the same is expressly taken away by amination by a magistrate, persons walking in statute. If a statute make the doing of an act fe- the streets at night, whom there is reasonable lonious, and a subsequent act make it penal ground to suspect of felony, aithough there is no only, the latter is considered as a virtual repeal proof of a felony having been committed. 3 of the former.
W.P. Taunton, 14. Persons indicted of felony, Felonies are several, and cannot be joint; so &c., where there are strong presumptions and that the pardon of one felon cannot discharge circumstances of guilt, are not replevisable; another; though the felony of one man may be but for larceny, &c., when persons are commitdependent upon that of another. Henry I. was ted who are of good reputation, they may be the first who ordered felons to be hanged, about bailed. 2 Hawk. P.C. The former part of the the year 1108. The judgment against a man position must be, with an exception to the power for felony has been the same since the reign of of the court of king's bench. that king, i. e. that he be hanged by the neck If one be committed to prison for one felony, till dead; which is entered suspendatur per col- the justices of gaol delivery may try him for anlum, &c., 4 Inst. 124. As well as loss of life, other felony, for which he was not committed, felony is punished with forfeiture of lands not by virtue of their commission, 1 Lil. 602. In entailed, goods and chattels. Heretofore felony the higiiest crime, and in the lowest species of worked corruption of blood; unless a statute felony, viz. in petit larceny, and in all the mismaking an offence felony ordained it otherwise, demeanors, standing mute hath always been an as many statutes did ; and at last, by stat. 54 equivalent to conviction. But upon appeals or Geo. III. c. 145, no corruption of blood takes inaictments for other felonies, or petit treason, place for any felony (not treason) except mur- the prisoner was not by the ancient law looked der or petty treason.
upon as convicted, so as to receive judgment for The punishment of a person for felony, by the felony, but should, for his obstinacy, have our ancient books, is 1. To lose his life: received a terrible sentence of penance, or peine , 2. To lose his blood, as to his ancestry, and so forte et dure. See MUTE, STANDING. 3 to have neither heir nor posterity; 3. To luse Where a married woman comri.its felony, in his goods ; 4. To lose his lands, and the king company with her husband, it shall be presumed shall have annum diem et vastum, to the intent to be done by his command, and she shall be that his wife and children be cast out of the excused. 3 Inst. 310. Where one steals anhouse, his house pulled down, and all that he other's goods, and a third person feloniously
takes them from him, he is a felon as to both the ters, third offence.-Collieries, destroying engines others. There is also a pretence of title to things to drain.-Commons, destroying enclosures of.unlawfully taken, which maybe only a trick to color Copper, removing from a house to steal it, assistfelony: the ordinary discovery of a felonious in- ing therein, or buying it when stolen.—Corn, tent is, if the party doth it secretly, or being destroying granaries ; second offence.- Customs ; charged with the goods denies it. If a person to harbouring smugglers, and assisting to run whom goods are delivered, on a pretended buy, goods.- Deer stealing:-Dikes, cutting in marsh ing them, runs away with them, it is felony: and land.— Fishing in enclosed pond, &c., with ina guest stealing plate set before him at an inn, tent to steal; or buying stolen fish.-- Foreign &c. is felony; also persons who have the charge State, going out of the realm to serve without of things, as a servant of a chamber, &c., may taking the oath of allegiance.- Forests, destroybe guilty of felony: and the least removing of a ing enclosures in; third offence.- Forgery of thing in attempts of felony, is felony, though it bank bills, foreign bills, customs debentures, be not carried off. 3 Inst. 308. Raym. 275. stamps for marking plate, &c.— Frume-work
But base kinds of goods, such as dogs, &c., knitting machines, destroying.– Gaoler, forcing being stolen, cannot constitute a felony: nor a prisoner to become an approver (impeacher). feræ naturæ, as deer, hares, &c., except they be – Hawk, stealing.-- Hunting, in the night or in made tame, when it will be felony to steal them. disguise.— Jewels and plate stolen, receiving of. If any turkeys, geese, poultry, fish in a trunk, - Iron bars fixed to buildings, stealing.--King &c., are taken away, it is felony. 3 Inst. 309, or his council, conspiring to destroy.--Laborers; 310. Stealing of tame peacocks is felony; so confederacy of masons against the statute of laof herons and young hawks in their nests; it is borers.-- Lead; entering black-lead mines with otherwise of pheasants, partridges, conies, &c., intent to steal; stealing lead affixed to buildings; although they be so kept that they cannot or buying or receiving it when stolen.—Locks, escape; if they be not reclaimed and known. foodgates, sluices or banks, destroying - MaimThe owner of goods stolen prosecuting the feloning another.— Murriage, clandestine, solemnisto conviction, cannot recover the value of them ing.— Miscarriage, attempting to procure though in trover from the person who purchased them the woman be not quick with child.- Money; in market overt, and sold them again before exporting silver, importing false money, blanchconviction, notwithstanding the owner gave him ing copper, putting off counterfeit money, or notice of the robbery, while they were in his counterfeiting copper money, or tokens issued possession; but he has a right to restitution of by the bank.-- Mutiny and desertion in seamen the goods in specie. 2 Term Rep. K. B. 750. or soldiers. - Oysters and their brood, taking
Under the term felony, in commissions, &c., from beds.— Palaces of the king, entering with are included petit treason, murder, homicide, intent to steal.- Pewter, stolen, buying or reburning of houses, burglary, robbery, rape, &c., ceiving.- Plague, persons infected with, going chance-medley, se defendendo, and petit larceny. out of doors.-- Polygamy, or bigamy.- Post-office, All felonies punishable according to the course frauds in, as to postage of letters.-- Privily steal of the common law, are either by the common ing from the person.-Process, opposing execulaw or by statute. Piracy, robbery, and murder tion of, in pretended privileged places.-- Public on the sea, are punishable by the civil statute works, injuring or damaging.— Records, withlaw. 1 Inst. 391.
drawing or secreting.-- Resucing prisoners for Felony, by the common law, is against the treason or felony; or offenders against statutes life of a man ; as murder, manslaughter, felo de concerning spirituous liquors; or offenders conse, se defendendo, &c. Against a man's goods, demned to hard labor; or bodies of murderers. such as larceny and robbery: against his habita- – Robbery, of furniture from lodgings; assaulttion, as burglary, arson or house-burning : and ing with intent to rob.-Rogues, incorrigible, against public justice, as breach of prison. 3 escaping from the house of correction or offendInst. 31. It is not easy to recapitulate the vast ing a second time.---Servants taking their master's variety of offences which are made felony, by goods at his death; assaulting master woolthe almost innumerable statutes which have comber or weaver; embezzling goods to the vabeen from time to time made on this subject : lue of 40s.--Sheep, exporting alive; second of which we are happy to believe is, at the period fence.-Ships, destroying; forcibly preventing we are writing, undergoing important revision in the lading, sailing, &c., of ships by seamen, the highest quarter. But we copy from Sir T. keelmen, and others. Smugglers, assisting, &c., E. Tomlyn's Law Dictionary the following gen- - Stamp duties, frauds respecting.–Stolen goods, aral account of felonies, by statute; within clergy, buyers or receivers of, or person taking reward and without.
to discover.- Stores, government, embezzling.com FELONIES WITHIN CLERGY.
Armour, the Trees, shrubs, &c., destroying in nurseries or king's, embezzling.— Assaults, with intent to garders to the value of 58.--Turnpikes, gates, spoil persons' dress; or with intent to rob.- Bail, toll-houses, &c., destroying.– Warrens, entering personating: before commissioners.-Bank pa- in the night and killing conies.--- Watermen,carryper, forging or preparing.- Bigany.--Bills of E.x- ing too many passengers, ifany drowned.— Woods. change, foreign, forging. - Bleaching grounds, setting fire to. robbing.-Bridges
, destroying, several specified FELONIES WITHOUT CLERGY. Abortion, proin different statutes. — Burning ricks of corn, curing.-- Accessaries, in certain cases.-
- Aliens nay, &c.--Cattle, sheep, &c. killing in the night returning from transportation.- Arson.-- Bail
, maliciously, or slaughtering horses withont no- personating.— Bank of England,clerks embezzling tipe - Child-stealing.–Cloth, stealing from ten notes ; altering dividend warrant: &c.; paper
makers unauthorised using moulds for notes (See pay. Ships of war, and others, wilfully destroypost, Forgery).— Banks, of the sea, destroying. ing.--Shooting at another.Silk ; destroying any
- Bankrupt, not surrendering; concealing his silk or velvet in the loom, or the tools for manuestate, &c.—Bastard, murdering, &c.— Black facturing thereof.—Smuggling, and assembling act, offenders under.- Bridges, wilfully damaging armed for that purpose. ---Sodomy.- Soldiers; dethose of London, Westminster, and Fulham. – serting, wandering without testimonials, perBurglary.- Burning houses, or barns with corn. sonating them.-Stabbing maliciously.-South -Cattle, stealing or maiming.—Challenging ju- Sea Company; servants embezzling their effects. rors, above twenty, in felonies ousted of clergy. Stamps, counterfeiting.–Stolen goods, helping to
- Cloth, stealing from the teniers.—Coal mines, a reward in certain cases. -Stores, government; setting fire to.-Coining.–Cottons, selling, with embezzling, or burning, or destroying, in dock forged stamps.- Customs; smugglers shooting at yards.-- Transportation, returning from, or being or wounding officers of the navy or custom at large in the kingdom after sentence.— Turnhouse; harbouring transported offenders; not dikes, gates, weighing engines, locks, sluices, sorrendering on proclamation.—Cutting, mali- &c., destroying. — Wool; destroying woolien ciously.—Deeds, enrolled, acknowledging in the goods, racks, or tools, or forcibly entering a name of another robbing.–Fences of commons, house for that purpose.-Women, stealing, and destroying.— Fish ponds, Fens, destroying works marrying.-- Wreck of ships, causing by stealing for draining of.-Fines, acknowledging in an- pumps, &c., stealing shipwrecked goods, or kill other's name. - Forgeries of deeds, transfers of ing shipwrecked persons. stock, stamps, bills, notes, wills, registers, &c. FELOOPS, a people of Western Africa, in&c.— Highway robbery.— Hops, cutting the habiting the south side of the Gambia. Their binds.- Horse stealing.–Judgments, acknow- country is extensive, and abounds with rice and ledging in another's name.—Letters, threatening, bees' wax, with which, as well as with goats and sending; or rescuing offenders so doing.- Li- poultry, they supply the European traders. hen, stealing from bleaching grounds; or cutting They also make their honey into an intoxicating or destroying. — Mail, robbing, or stealing let- liquor, similar to mead. They are described as ters from post- office. – Maiming ; maliciously wild and unsociable, and have a language of lying in wait for that purpose. - Malicious in- their own. Their trade is generally conducted juries, viz. shooting at, stabbing, &c., giving by a Mandingo factor, who speaks a little Enmedicine to procure miscarriages : setting fire to glish. houses, out-houses, &c.—Marshes ; setting fire to FELSPAR, in mineralogy, Germ. feldspath. engines for draining.Mariners wandering with. Of this mineral there are five sub-species, out testimonials, and see stat. 39 Eliz. c. 17, sec. viz. adularia, common felspar, continuous fel4 (post, Seaman). — Murriage, forcible. — Mines, spar, Labradore felspar, and compact felspar. damaging. Miscarriage, procuring, when the 1. Adularia, or moonstone of Kirwan. . Cowoman is quick with child.- Money, uttering lor greenish-white; and when thin, pale fleshfalse money; third offence.-Murder.- Mute, red by transmitted light. Massive and crysstanding on trial for treason or felony.- Northern tallised. Primitive form an oblique four-sided borders, thieves and spoilers in Cumberland, prism, with two broad and two narrow lateral Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham.- planes ; the lateral edges are 120° and 60°. Outlawry, for felonies without clergy.- Perjury, Lustre splendent, intermediate between vitreous convicts for escaping, breaking prison, or return- and pearly. Cleavage threefold. Fracture iming from transportation.—Personating bail, sea- perfect conchoidal. Semitransparent. Refracts men, pensioners, nominees of annuities, &c.- double; softer than quartz, and easily frangible. Piracy; under which is included, sailors hinder- Specific gravity 2.5. It melts before the blowing the captain of a ship from fighting, by forci- pipe, without fux, into a white transparent ble restraint.- Poisoning of malice prepensed, glass. Its constituents are sixty-four silica, and administering with intent to murder
, &c. twenty alumine, two lime, and fourteen potash. Popish recusants, priests and jesuits in certain It occurs in drusy cavities, in granite and gneiss,
· Post-office; robbing mail, secreting in the island of Arran, in Norway, Switzerland, letters, &c.— Prisoners forswearing themselves France, and Germany. The finest crystals are under insolvent acts, refusing to deliver up, or found in the mountain of Stella, a part of St. concealing their effects; escaping from confine- Gothard. Rolled pieces, exhibiting a most ment to hard labor; second offence.—Privy beautiful pearly light, are collected in the island Counsellors, attempting to kill.—Quarantine, of Ceylon. Moonstone adularia is found in Deglecting the regulations for performing. Greenland ; and all the varieties in the United Rape.- Rescuing convicts from transportation, or States. Under the name of moonstone it is murderers.— Rebels returning from transporta- worked by lapidaries. tion, their aiders and correspondents.— Recog 2. F. vulgare, common felspar, spath. fusible ritance or recovery, acknowledging in another's of Desmaretz, spath. etinulant. spathum pyroname.- Riots, and destroying buildings. Rob- machum.--Its color is most commonly flesh-red, bery, of churches, on the highway, in booths in sometimes bluish-gray, oftener yellowish-white, fairs, dwelling-houses, shops, ware-houses, coach- or milk white, or brownish yellow, rarely blue, houses, or stables : on board vessels; in wharfs; or olive green; and lately, in one instance, in lodgings, if'above 12d. value; stealing exche- black. Amorphous and interspersed, sometimes quer orders, bank notes, navy bills, promissory crystallised in rhomboids, or six or eight sided notes, &c.--Sca; treasons, robberies, murders, prisms; seldom right angled, very seldom in &c. upon. -Seamen, personating to receive their pellucid needles, tables, or polygons. Its lustre
when broke across, 0; in other directions, 3. Continuous felspar. Its color is reddish2.3.1. Its transparency, 2-1. Its fracture dis- gray, or Aesh-colored; or pale reddish-yellow, covers a straight foliated texture. The lamellæ or olive-green. It occurs in mass, and generally polished, and shining often on four sides, cross contains common crystallised felspar dispersed fracture uneven. Its fragments rhomboidal, or through it in various proportions. It is sometending to that form. It generally presents times dull, but generally possesses a feeble glimgranular distinct concretions, either large or mering lustre; it is translucent on the edges; its small. Its hardness, from nine to ten. Its fracture is fine splintery, passing into uneven specific gravity, from 2,437 to 2,600; the earthy; its fragraents are indeterminately angreenish seem to extend to 2,70. The yellow gular; its hardness is fully equal to that of com felspar of Port François, in North America, is mon felspar, and it is less brittle. Įt frequently so brittle as vot to bear the slightest friction; consists of granular concretions, easily separawhen heated it becomes red. When heated, the ble. A specimen of this sort, melted at 150° 5, crystallised frequently decrepitate:a quadrangular into a porous porcelain mass, glazed on the surprism of crystallised felspar of Baveno, of a face. It differs from the amorphous stones of reddish-white color, and whose specific gravity the first family in this, that the last has a foliated was 2,437, melted at 130°, into a gray semi- texture, and more lustre, and the fragments tend transparent porous glass, and at 154° into a com more to the rhonhoidal shape; and also in fusipact semi-transparent glass. Another from bility. Silesia, which was not crystallised, and whose 4. Labradore felspar Its color is of a light specific gravity was 2,554, and of a gray ye!- or dark gray, or bluish, or blackish gray; but, lowish white color, melted at 119°, into a gray, in certain positions and spots, reflecting blue, smooth, almost compact, semi-transparent glass; purple, red, green, &c. It chiefly occurs in and, being mixed with an equal weight of Car- blunted fragments. Its lustre 2:3. Its transrara marble, it melted at 105°, into a white parency 1.2.3. Its fracture straight foliated. Its opaque, almost compact mass of a silky lustre. fragments 2. Rhomboidal, with four polished The green becomes pale reddish when heated. faces, or tending to that shape. Sometimes Alkalies flux this stone with great difficulty; without distinct concretions; sometimes with microcosmic salt, and particularly borax, is more large or coarse grained, rarely with thick lameleffectual.
lar. Its hardness 10. Its specific gravity from According to Gerhard, the purest felspar 2.67 to 2 6925. · At 130°, a specimen of the found in granites contains 0•46 silex, 0:30 ar bluish gray, whose transparency was barely 1, gill, and 0.06 calx. Here 0.18 parts are miss- and its specific gravity 2.672, was barely glazed ing, a loss too great to be imputed to the escape on the outside ; and at 155° the white part sepaof air and water. Vauquelin analysed the green rated itself from the brown, and was melted. Liberian felspar, and found it to consist of The brown was also impertectly melted into an Silex.
opaque porous brown porcelain. Alumine
5. Compact felspar. Colors, white, gray,
Massive, disseminater, and green and red.
3: Oxide of iron
crystallised in rectangular four-sided prisms. 1:
Lustre glistening, or glimmering. Fracture Potassa
splintery and even. Translucent only on the
edges. Easily frangible. Specific gravity 2.69. 96.85
It melts with difficulty into a whitish enamel.
Its constituents are, 51 silica, 30.5 alumina, Magnesia was indicated in felspar by Mr. 11.25 lime, 1.75 iron, 4 soda, 1.26 water.--Bergman, and though not found by many of the Klapr. It occurs in mountain masses, beds, subsequent analysts, Monnet found it jointly and veins : in the Pentland hills, at Sala, Danwith silex, argill, and calx, in the felspar he ex nemora, and Hallefors in Sweden; in the Saxon amined ; and Chaptal observed it to exist in Erze-gebirge, and the Hartz. The blue comgreater plenty in the red than in white felspar. pact variety was discovered by Widenmann, at
Scopoli, in felspar of Baveno, found 0:63 Krieglach, in Stiria, forming a granitic mass with silex, 0.17 argill, 0.06 magnesia, 0·02 calx, and white quartz and silvery mica : the green va0:07 of iron, loss 0.05. With respect to iron, rieties occur in green porphyry and greenstone. it is highly improbable that this felspar, which is
FELT, n. s. & v.a. ? Sax. felt; Ital. feltro; of the purest kind, should contain any. That
FELT'RE, v.a. Dan. and Swed. filt; which appeared may most probably be ascribed Belg. vilt. Woollen stuff or cloth made without to the Prussian alkali he employed in the weaving; the basis of hats : to felt or feltre, is to analysis.
unite without weaving; to clot together. From these different analyses it appears that
It were a delicate stratagem to shoe any compound of silex and argill, in which
A troop of horse with felt. silex predominates, and to which a sufficient,
Shakspeare. King Lear. but smaller proportion of calx and magnesia, or His feltered locks, that ou his bosom fell, of calx, magnesia, and barytes, is added to ren
On rugged mountains briers and thorns resemble. der the whole fusible in a heat not exceeding
Fairfas. 140°, may form a felspar, and will undoubtedly The same wool one man felts into a hat, another be so called, if at the same time it presents a weaves it into cloth, another into kersey. Hale. foliated texture ; but iron appears to be a foreign To know whether sheep are sound or not, see that iugredient.
the felt be loose.