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liis employer's interest, he is liable for the con- act without commission, they are responsible : sequence. For example, if he gives credit when and even in the case of a merchant remitting not empowered, or long credit if not empowered, goods to his factor, and some time after drawing for the sake of a better price, and the buyer a bill on him, which the factor, having effects in proves insolvent, he is liable for the debt. A his hands, is supposed to accept, if the merchant factor has no power to give credit unless author- fails, the goods are seized in the factor's hands, ised: but if the goods consigned be generally for behoof of the creditors, and the factor, it has sold on credit at the place of consignation, the been thought, must answer the bill notwithstandfactor will be vindicated for selling at the usual ing, and only rank as a creditor for the sum, credit, unless expressly restricted. Although which, by his acceptance of the bill, he was opinion will never justify the factor for departing obliged to pay. In case of a factor's insolvency, from orders, necessity sometimes will. If he be the owner may reclaim his goods; and, if they limited not to sell goods under a certain price,' be sold on trust, the owner (and not the factor's and the goods be perishable, and not in a situa- creditors) shall recover payment of the debts. tion for being kept, he may sell them, to prevent The above is principally applicable to factors their destruction, even under the price limited. residing abroad, and acting for merchants, or to A factor is never warranted to deal on trust, ex- supercargoes going a voyage to dispose of a cept with persons in good credit at the time. If cargo, and afterwards returning with another to the employer challenge the debtors, it is incum- their employers; but it is likewise the practice bent on him to prove that their bad circumstances of merchants of the greatest credit in the comwere known at the time of sale; and the factor mercial world, to act mutually as factors for each will be vindicater, if he trusted them at the same other. The business thus executed is called time for goods of his own. If the factor sell his commission-business, and is generally desirable employer's goods on trust, and, after the day of by all merchants, provided they have always payment is elapsed, receive payment from the effects in their custody, as a security for such purchaser for a debt of his own, he becomes matters as they transact, for the account of others. liable in equity for the debt. In case of bank- Those who trade extensively in this manner, ruptcy, the factor ought immediately to lay have current as well as commission accounts, attachments, and advise his employers; and he constantly between them; and draw on, remit to, cannot withdraw his attachments, nor compound and send commissions to each other, only by the debts without orders. If a factor sells goods intercourse of letters, which, among men of belonging to different merchants to the same honor, are as obligatory and authoritative as all person, and the buyer proves insolvent, they shall the bonds and ties of law. bear the loss in equal proportions; and, if the FACTORAGE, the allowance given to factors buyer has paid part before his insolvency, with by the merchant who employs them: called also out specifying for which, the payment ought to commission. A factor's commission in Britain be distributed in equal proportions; but, if the on most kinds of goods is 25 per cent.: on lead days of payment be fixed, and part of the debts and some other articles, 2 per cent.

In some only due, the payment ought to be applied, in places it is customary for the factors to insure the first place, to such debts as were due. If he debts for an additional allowance, and in that makes a wrong entry at the custom-house, and case they are accountable for the debt when the the goods be seized in consequence thereof, he usual term of credit is expired. Factorage on must bear the loss, unless the error be occasioned goods is sometimes charged at a certain rate per by a mistake in the invoice, or letter of advice. cask, or other package, measure, or weight, The owner bears the loss of goods seized, when especially when the factor is only employed to attempted to be smuggled by his orders: but the receive or deliver them. factor complying with an unlawful order, is liable FACTOʻTUM, n. s. Lat. fac totum. It is in such penalties as the laws exact. If a factor used likewise in burlesque French. A servant saves the duty of goods due to a foreign prince, employed alike in all kinds of business : he shall have the benefit; for, if detected, he Scrub in the Stratagem. bears the loss. If a factor sells goods bought by Factotum here, Sir.

Ben Jonson. his employer's orders for his own advantage, the employer may recover the benefit, and the factor

FA'CTURE, n. S.

French. The act or manshall be amerced for the same. If a factor ner of making any thing. receives bad money in payment, he bears the There is no doubt but that the facture or framing, loss; but if the value of the money be lessened is as full of difference as the outward (parts.)

Bacon, by the government, the employer bears the loss. A factor is not liable for goods spoiled, robbed, FACULÆ, Latin, from fax, a torch, in astroor destroyed by fire. If a factor receives coun- nomy, a name given by Scheiner and others, to terfeit jewels from his employer, and sells them, certain bright spots on the sun's disc, that apthe employer is liable to indemnify him for any pear more lucid than the rest of his body. penalties he may incur. If a factor be ordered Hevelius affirms, that on July 20th, 1634, he to make insurance, and neglect it, and the sub- observed a facula, whose breadth was equal to ject be lost, he is liable to make it good, provid- one-third of the sun's diameter. Kircher, Scheiner, ing he had effects in his hands. If a factor and others, represent the sun's body as full of buys goods for his employer, his bargain shall these faculæ, which they suppose to be volcanoes ; be binding on the employer. Factors having and others contend that the maculæ change into obtained a profit for their employers, ought to be faculæ before they disappear. But Huygens and very cautious how they dispose of it; for if they others of the latest and best observers, finding

as

that the best telescopes discover nothing of the Reason itself but gives it edge and power, matter, agree entirely to explode the phenomena As heaven's blessed beam turns vinegar more sour. of faculæ; and attribute the cause of these

Pope's Essay on Man.

He had an excellent faculty in preaching if he appearances to the tremulous agitation of the

were not too refined. vapors near our earth. Dr. Hutton concludes

Swift.

Neither did our Saviour think it necessary to exthat the faculæ are not eructations of fire and fame, but refractions of the sun's rays in the plain to us the nature of God, because it would be im

possible, without bestowing on us other faculties than rarer exhalations, which, being condensed, seem

we possess at present.

Id. to exhibit a light greater than that of the sun.'

The wretched condition, weakness, and disorder of FACULTY, n. s. Fr. faculté ; Ital. facolta; the faculties which I must employ in my inquiries, Span. faculdad; Lat. facultas, from facio, to do. increase my apprehensions; and the impossibility of The power of doing any thing mechanical or amending or correcting those faculties, reduces me almental: hence skill; dexterity; excellence; most to despair, and makes me resolved to perish on quality; power; authority or privilege: a com- the barren rock on which I am at present, rather than pany of skilful or eminent men in any of the venture myself upon that boundless ocean which runs

out into immensity. Hume, On Human Nature. professions. There is no kind of faculty or power in man, or any

Called thee into being when thou wast not; gave creature, which can rightly perform the functions al thee these reasoning and refecting faculties, which lotted to it without perpetual aid and concurrence of thou art now employing in searching out the end and

Hooker. that supreme cause of all things.

Mason.

happiness of thy nature. Lav barb set down to what persons, in what causes,

FADE, v. n. & v. a. Goth. fæda ; Isl. and with what circumstances; almost every faculty or fa- Swed. fata ; Erse, faid ; Arabic, faut: from Fr. your shall be granted.

Id. fade, weak, insipid, says Dr. Johnson; but Mr. I'm traduced by tongues which neither know Todd derives it with more probability, from Lat. My faculties por person, yet will be

vado, Gr. Badw to.move, the primary meaning of The chronicles of my doing.

fade being to disappear quickly. To vanish; Shakspeare. Henry VIII.

disappear rapidly; languish ; change to a weaker This Duncan

color; wither; lose vigor or beauty; die away. Hath born his faculties so meek, hath been

Our older writers use it as an active verb for to So clear in his great office, that his virtues Will plead like angels.

Id. Macbeth.

wear away; reduce. He had none of those faculties, which the other Ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth, and as a had, of reconciling men to him. Clarendon. garden that bath no water.

Isaiah i. 30. I understand in the prime end

The glorious beauty on the head of the fat valley Of nature, her the inferior ; in the mind

shall be a fading flower.

Id. xxviii. 4. And inward faculties, which most excel.

Whose flowring pride, so fading and so fickle,

Milton. Short Time shall soon cut down with his consuming Orators may grieve; for in their sides,

sickle.

Spenser's Faerie Queene. Rather than heads, their faculty abides.

This is a man, old, wrinkled, faded, withered;

Denham. And not a maiden, as thou sayest he is. He, which hath given no man his faculties and graces

Shakspeare. for himself, nor put light into the sun, moon, stars, The stars shall fade away, the sun himself for their own use, hath stored no parcel of earth with Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years. a purpose of private reservation. Bp. Hall.

Addison. Our author found out monarchial absolute power

The greenness of a leaf ought to pass for apparent, in that tex; the had an exceeding good faculty to find because, soon fading into a yellow, it scarce lasts at it himself where he could not show it to others. all, in comparison with the greenness of an emerald. Locke.

Boyle on Colours. We shall then use our understanding right, when

His palms, tho’under weights they did not stand, He entertain all objects in that way and proportion, Still thrived'; no Winter could his laurels fade. tbat they are suited to our faculties. Id.

Dryden. Many are ignorant of mathematical truths, not' out

The pictures drawn in our minds are laid in fading of any imperfection of their faculties , or uncertainty colours, and, if not sometimes refreshed, vanish and

Locke. in the things themselves, but for want of application

disappear. in acquiring, examining, and by due ways comparing

Where either through the temper of the body, or those ideas.

Id.
some other default, the memory is very weak, ideas.

Id. Reason ia man supplies the defect of other facul. in the mind quickly fade. ties wherein we are inferior to beasts, and what we The spots in this stone are of the same colour cannot compass by force we bring about by stratagem. throughout, even to the very edges ; there being an

L'Estrange. immediate transition from white to black, and the A power of command there is without all question, colours not fading or declining gradually. though there be some doubt in what faculty this com

Woodward. mand doth principally reside, whether in the will or

Restless anxiety, forlorn despair, the understanding. Bramhall against Hobbes.

And all the faded family of care. Sare it is a pitiful pretence to ingenuity that can be

Garth's Dispensary. thus kept up, there being little need of any other fa

Narcissus' change to the vain virgin shows, culty but memory, to be able to cap texts.

Who trusts to beauty, trusts the fading rose. Government of the l'ongue.

Gay. The fifth mechanical faculty is the wedge used in

The garlands fade, the vows are worn away ; cleaving wood.

Wilkins.

So dies her love, and so my hopes decay. Pope. Nature its motber, habit is its nurse;

-Hence plastie nature, as oblivion whelms Wit, spirit, faculties, but make it worse ;

Her fading forms, repeoples all her realms;

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Soft joys disport on purple plumes unfurled, It has several fine churches with good paintings
And love and beauty rule the willing world. and a cathedral standing in a noble square

Darwin.

Faenza was ravaged by the Goths in the sixtb “ Yet such the destiny of all on earth :

century, and by the Germans in the thirteenth. So flourishes and fades majestic man.

It fell afterwards into the hands of the Venetians, Fair is the bud his vernal morn brings forth,

the Bolognese, and finally of the pope. Its inAnd fostering gales awhile the nursling fan."

Beattie.

habitants carry on the manufacture of linen exThen let the winds howl on! their harmony

tensively. It is twenty miles south-west of RaShall henceforth be my music, and the night The sound shall temper with the owlet's cry,

FAERNUS (Gabriel), a native of Cremona in As I now hear them, in the fading light

Italy, was an excellent Latin poet and eritic of Dim o'er the bird of darkness' native site. Byron. the sixteenth century. He was skilled in all

FADGE, v. n. Sax. gerezan; Germ. fugen; parts of polite literature; and pope Pius IV. parfrom Goth. fagks, fit, accommodated. To suit; ticularly patronised him. He was the author of fit; succeed. Obsolete.

several Latin elegies; of 100 Latin fables, seHow will this fadge? my master loves her dearly,

lected from the ancients, written in iambic verse; And I, poor monster, fond as much on him; and of several pieces of criticism, as Censura Aud she, mistaken, seems to doat on me.

Emendationum Livianarum, De MetrisComicis,

Shakspeare. &c. He was remarkably happy in decyphering When they thrived they never fadged, MSS., and restoring ancient authors to their puBut only by the ears engaged ;

rity: he took such pains with Terence in partiLike dogs that snarl about a bone,

lar, that Bentley has adopted all his notes in the And play together when they've none.

edition he gave of that writer. He died at Rome

Hudibras.
The fox hath a fetch ; and when he saw it would the then unknown fables of Phædrus, for fear of

in 1561. Thuanus charges him with suppressing
not fadge, away goes be presently. L'Estrange.
FÆCES, in medicine. See EXCREMENTS. Ale written in imitation of Æsop. M. Perrault,

lessening the value of his own Latin fables, chemists, who searched every

where for the secret however, who translated Faernus's fables into of making gold, operated greatly on the fæces French, has defended him from this imputation, of men and other animals ; but philosophical by affirming that the first Ms. of Phædrus's chemistry has acquired no knowledge from all fables, found in the dust of an old library, was these alchemical labors. Homberg particularly not discovered till about thirty years after Faeranalysed and examined human fæces, to satisfy nus's death. an alchemical project of one of his friends, who pretended that from this matter a white oil could FAG, v. n., o. a. & n. s. Lat. fatigo ; Goth. be obtained, without smell, and capable of fixing facka, to be weary, or to diminish. To grow mercury into silver. The oil was found, but weary or tired; to outrival; beat: a fag is a mercury was not fixed by it. Homberg's labors drudge; a school-slave. were not, however, useless, as he has related his Creighton with-held his force 'till the Italian began experiments in the Memoirs of the Academy of to fag, and then brought him to the ground. Sciences.

Mackenzie's Lives. The following is the result of a careful analy- The duke of Dorset was my fag at Harrow, and I sis of human fæces by Berzelius in 1806 :- was not a very hard taskmaster.

Lord Byron, quoted by Captain Medwin. Water

733 Vegetable and animal undigested residue 7.0

FAGAN'S (St.), a small town and parish of

Glamorganshire, South Wales, and having a casBile

0.9

tellated mansion built in a comparatively modern Albumen

0.9

style of architecture. Here a sanguinary en-, Extractive matter

2.7 Carbonat of soda

gagement took place in May 1648, between the 0.9

royalists and republicans, in which, after a moMuriat of soda

0:1

mentary advantage, the former were entirely Sulphat of soda

0:05 Ammon. phosphat of magnesia

routed, and left 3000 slain. According to the 0:05

Welsh chronicle, St. Fagan came from Rome to: Phosphat of lime

0:1

Britain about the year 180, being sent by pope Slimy matter, consisting of resin of bile,

Eleutherius to convert the inhabitants to Chris. peculiar animal matter, and insoluble

tianity. It is three miles from Cardiff, and 163 residue

14.0

from London.

FAGARA, iron-wood, a genus of the mo100.0

nogynia order and tetrandria class of plants ;

natural order forty-third, dumosæ : cal. quadriFÆCULENT, abounding with fæces. The fid: cor. tetrapetalous : Caps. bivalved and mo blood and other humors are said to be fæculent, nospermous. Species twelve, all natives of the when without that purity which is necessary to East Indies and the warm parts of America, health.'

rising with woody stems more than twenty feet FAENZA, a city and bishop's see of the ec- high. They are propagated by seeds; but in clesiastical state, in Romagna, anciently known this country must be kept continually in a stove. by the name of Falentia, and noted in modern The chief is F. octandra with pinnate leaves, times for its pottery wares. Hence the French downy each side. It is a tall tree, abounding give to all fine stone ware the name of Fayence. in a balsamic glutinous juice, racemed flowers,

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with white calyxes and yellow corols. Its bal- FAGIUS (Paul), alias Buchlin, a learned sam resembles the gum tacamahac.

protestant minister, born at Rheinzabern in GerFAGE (Raimond de la), an ingenious designer many in 1504. He was a schoolmaster at Isna; and engraver, highly esteemed by Carlo Maratti, but afterwards became a zealous preacher, and was born at Toulouse in 1648. He had no wrote many theological works. During the permaster nor any assistance; but his superior ta- secution in Germany, he and Bucer came over lents supplied the want of them. His perform- to England in 1549, at the invitation of archances on licentious subjects are the most esteemed. bishop Cranmer, to perfect a new translation of It is reported that he never made use of money, the Scriptures. Fagius took the Old Testament, but contracted debts, and when the accounts and Bucer the New for their respective parts; were brought him, he drew on the back of the but the design was frustrated by the sudden bills, and bid the owners sell the drawings to con- deaths of both. Fagius died in 1550, and Bucer Boisseurs for the amount, by which they were did not live above a year after. Their bodies generally great gainers. Several of those draw- were dug up and burned in the reign of queen ings are in the cabinets of the curious. He led Mary. a lodse depraved life, which his repeated de- FÅGONIA, in botany, a genus of the monobancheries put an end to, at the age of forty-two. gynia order and decandria class of plants ; na

FAGEND, From fag and end, says Dr. tural order fourteenth, gruinales : Cal. pentaJohnson, but more probably from Swed. fogan; phyllous; the petals are five and heart-shaped : Sax, fegan, to join. The end of a web of cloth, caps. quinquelocular, ten-valved, with the cells Tope, &c.; hence the refuse of any thing. monospermous. There are four species; natives

I have unpartially ransacked this fag-end of my of Spain, Crete, Arabia, and Persia. life, and curiously examined every step of my ways; FAGRÆA, in botany, a genus of plants of the and I cannot, by the most exact scrutiny of my sado class pentandria and order monogynia : cor. dest thoughts, And what it is that I have done to funnelform, with a very long tube; stigma pelforfeit that good estimation, wherewith you say, I was tate : BERRY two-celled, fleshy: seeds globular: once blessed.

Bp. Hall's account of himself. species one only; a shrub of Ceylon; with thick In the world's fagend

square branches, and large terminal flowers. A nation lies.

Fanshaw.

FAGUS, the beech tree, a genus of the hexWhen they are the worst of their way, and fixt in andria order and monecia class of plants; patuthe fagend of business, they are apt to look not kindly ral order fiftieth, amentaceæ: male cal. quinupon those who go before them.

Collier.

quefid and campanulated : CoR. none: stamina FAGGOT, or Fagot, v. a. Fr. fagot; Arm. from five to twelve: female cal. quinquedenand Welsh fagod; Ital. fagotta ; British hago tated; styles three : Caps muricated and quadriden; according to Casseneuve from Lat. fagus, valved; the seeds two in number. There are a beech tree, the old faggots being mostly made five species, of which the most noted are, of that wood. Others derive it from Lat. fascis ; 1. F. castanea, the chestnut-tree, has a large saksios, a bundle of wood. A bundle of sticks upright trunk growing forty or fifty feet high, or small wood; any one of the pieces in the branching regularly round into a fine spreading bundle: hence ao individual in a muster or list head, garnished with large spear-shaped acutely of soldiers. See below. We only find the verb serrated leaves, naked on the under side, having used by Dryden.

flowers in long amentums, succeeded by round Spare for no fagots, let there be enow; prickly fruit, containing two or more nuts. It Place piteby barrels on the fatal stake.

is chiefly propagated by seeds. Evelyn, says,

Shakspeare. Let the nuts be first spread to sweat, then cover About the pile of fagots, sticks, and hay, them in sand; a month being past, plunge then The bellows raised the newly-kindled Aame.

in water, and reject the swimmers; being dried

Fairfar. He was ton warm on picking work to dwell,

for thirty days more, sand them again, and to the But fagoted his notions as they fell,

water ordeal as before. Being thus treated until And if they rhymed and rattled, all was well.

the beginning of spring or in November, set them Dryden.

as you would do beans. They need only to be The Black Prince filled a ditch with fagots as suc- put into the holes with the point upmost. In cessfully as the generals of our armies do it with winter or autumn, inter them in their husks, fascines,

Addison. which, being every way armed, are a good proMitres or fagots have been the rewards of different tection against the mouse. Being come up, they persons, according as they pronounced these conse- thrive best unremoved, making a great stand for Crated syllables or not.

Watts on the Mind.

at least two years upon every transplanting; if Faggot, in times of popery, was a badge you must alter their station, let it be done against worn on the sleeve of the upper garment of such November.' Millar cautions about purchasing persons as had abjured heresy; being put on foreign nuts that have been kiln-dried, which, after the person had carried a faggot, by way of he says, is generally done to prevent their sproutpenance, to some appointed place of solemnity. ing in their passage. He adds, . If they cannot The leaving off the wear of this badge was some- be procured fresh from the tree, it will be better times interpreted a sign of apostasy.

to use those of the growth of England, which Faggots, among military men, persons formerly are full as good to sow for timber or beauty as hired by officers, whose companies were not fuli, any of the foreign nuts, though their fruit is much to muster and hide the deficiencies of the com- smaller.' He also recommends preserving them pany; by which means they cheated the king of in sand, and proving them in water. In setting

these nuts, he says, the best way is to make a

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drill with a hoe, about four inches deep, in which valuable; not only for swine and deer, but as a place the nuts about four inches distant, with human food : bread is said to have been made their eye uppermost; then draw the earth over

of it. them with a rake, and make a second drill a foot 2. F. pumila, the dwarf chestnut tree, or chindistance from the former, proceeding as before, kapin, rises eight or ten feet high, with a branchallowing three or four rows in each bed. In April ing shrubby stem, and oval spear-shaped and these nuts will appear above ground; keep them acutely serrated leaves, hoary on the under side. clear from weeds, especially while young : in It is propagated from seeds, brought from Amethese beds they may remain for two years, when rica. These should be planted in drills, as soon you should remove them into a nursery at a as they arrive, in a moist bed of rich garden wider distance. The best time for transplanting mould. If good, they will come up pretty soon these trees is in October, though some prefer the in the spring. After they appear, they require end of February; the distance these should have no trouble, except keeping them clean from in the nursery is three feet between, and one foot weeds, and watering them in dry weather. They in the rows. If these trees have a downright tap may stand in the seed-bed two years, and be afroot, it should be cut off, especially if they are terwards planted in the nursery ground, a foot intended to be removed again; this will occasion asunder, and two feet between the rows. When their putting out lateral shoots, and render them strong, they are fit for any purpose. less subject to miscarry when finally removed. 3. F. sylvatica, the beech tree, rises sıxty or The time generally allowed them in the nursery seventy feet high, and has a proportionable thickis three or four years, according to their growth; ness, branching upward into a fine regular head, but the younger they are transplanted, the better garnished with oval serrated leaves, with flowers they will succeed. Young trees of this sort are in globular catkins, succeeded by angular fruit very apt to have crooked stems; but when they called mast. It is very easily raised from the are transplanted out and have room to grow, as mast or seed. For woods,' says Evelyn, the, they increase in bulk they will grow more up- beech must be governed as the oak: in nurseries, right, and their steins will become straight as the ash; sowing the mast in autumn, or later, llanbury recommends that the young plants, a even after January, or rather nearer the spring, year after they have been planted in the nursery, to preserve them from vermin. They are likebe cut down to within an inch of the ground; wise to be planted of young seedlings to be which, he says, “will cause them to shoot vigo- drawn out of the places where the fruitful trees rously with one strong and straight stem. There abound. Millar says, “the season for sowing the is one material objection against sowing chestnuts mast is any time from October to February, only in drills, that they serve as guides to the field- observing to secure the seeds from vermin when mouse, who will run from one end to the other of early sowed. The sooner they are sown the a drill without leaving a single nut : we rather better, after they are fully ripe.' Hanbury orders recommend setting them with a dibble, either a sufficient quantity of mast to be gathered promiscuously, or a quincunx, at about six inches about the middle of September, when they begin distance. Evelyn says, that coppices of chestnuts to fall; these are to be spread upon a mat in may be thickened by layering the tender young an airy place six days to dry; and after that shoots : but adds that such as spring from the you may either sow them immediately, or put nuts and marrons are best of all. There is a them up in bags to sow them nearer the spring ; striped-leaved variegation which is continued by which method,' says he, ‘I would rather advise, budding ; and the French are said to graft chest- as they will keep very well, and there will be less nuts for their fruit; but Miller says, such grafted danger of having them destroyed by mice or trees are unfit for timber. The chestnut-tree will other vermin.' They must be sown in beds thrive almost upon any soil which lies out of the properly prepared, about an inch deep. In the water's way; but disaffects wet moorish land. first spring many of the young plants will appear, It sometimes grows to an immense size. The whilst others will not come up till the spring largest in the known world are those which grow following. Having stood two years in the seupon Mount Ætna in Sicily. At Tortworth, in minary, they should be removed to the nursery, Gloucestershire, is chestnut tree fifty-two feet where they may remain till wanted. In stateliround. It is proved to have stood there ever ness and grandeur the beech vies with the oak. since 1150, and was then so remarkable that it Its foliage is peculiarly soft and pleasing; its was called the great chestnut of Tortworth.' It branches are numerous and spreading; and its fixes the boundary of the manor, and is proba- stem waxes to a great size. The bark is remarkbly near 1000 years old. As an ornamental, the ably smooth, and of a silvery cast ; which, added chestnut is well worthy the gardener's attention. to the splendor and smoothness of its foliage, Its uses have been highly extolled. As a sub- gives a striking delicacy to its general appearstitute for the oak, it is preferable to the elm : ance. The beech, therefore, standing singly, for door-jambs, window-frames, and some other and suffered to form its own natural head, is purposes, it is nearly equal to oak itself; but highly ornamental; and its leaves, varying their there is a deceitful brittleness in it which renders hue as the autumn approaches, render it still it unsafe to be used in beams, or in any other si- more desirable. In point of use the beech foltuation where an uncertain load is required to lows next to the oak and the ash; it is almost be borne. It is excellent for liquor casks; not as necessary to the cabiner-makers and turners, being liable to shrink, nor to change the color of as the oak is to the ship-builder, or the ash to the the liquor : it is also recommended as an under- plough and cart-wright. Evelyn, however, obwood for hop-poles, stakes, &c. Its fruit too is serves, that “where it lies dry, or wet and dry,

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