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the passage of a year or two blunt the laborer, who, after attending a Sunday sharpness of memory.

afternoon service in the village church, Arrived at submarine “A 2," waiting lured into a wood a fellow-worshipper, the signal for descent into the quiet a little girl eleven or twelve years old, sea, I asked the Admiral's permission and cruelly murdered her. In those to go down with her. He hesitated for good old times not only were execua moment. But what was safe for tions public, affording early morning sailors could not be perilous for a entertainment for Lord Tom Noddy and landsman. So he nodded assent, and sightseers of lower degree, but reprein a few minutes I was snug on board. sentatives of the Press were admitted We had a pleasant, uneventful voyage. to sight of the awful mysteries of The hold, running the full length and preparation for the gallows. Followbreadth of the little craft, was bril- ing close on the footsteps of the govliantly lighted by electricity. As in ernor of the prison and the hangman, the case of "A 1," there were a crew of I was one of a group who stood by the nine men and two officers, young lieu- doorway of the pinioning room, and saw tenants, in command. During the voy- the doomed man bound, not to say age one stood on the steps of the lad- trussed. Across the waste of forty der leading to the conning-tower. The years I recall the predominant sensaother was in charge below. There was tion-one of surprise at his stolidity, nothing unusual in the atmosphere, his uncomplaining acceptance of the fresh air being supplied from chambers operation as if it were an ordinary part storing sufficient for twelve hours. of a morning's toilet. He assisted Nor was there anything disturbing in Calcraft to adjust the belt by removing the motion of the boat. As a matter his handkerchief from the breast of fact the landsman was not conscious pocket of his smock, across which it of any movement when the boat sank passed. An ox going to the shambles out of sight of heaven and earth. Nor would have been more resentful. did he know he was speeding under

The gallows were erected outside the water, confounding the cod, hampering county jail, which closely adjoins the the haddock and other sprinters of the railway station. For some hours pasdeep by making the record pace of sengers entering or leaving Shrewsbury eight knots. The only feeling ap- by train, looking up at the prison walls, proaching uncanniness was born of the saw a dark object, some five feet ten silence that prevailed, broken now and

inches in length, dangling from a rope, then by whispered command from the "the blue sky over him like God's first lieutenant in the conning tower, great pity.” It was the mark of civirepeated by the second lieutenant be. lization cut in the sixth decade of the low, and responded to by hoarse “Aye, nineteenth century. aye" from the bluejacket lying full Ten years later Henry Wainwright length on the floor in charge of the was hanged at Newgate, the execution particular piece of machinery that had being the last scene in what was to be adjusted.

known as “the Whitechapel Tragedy."

He killed a girl of whose charms he The first hanging at which I was had grown tired and whose affection present was one of the last under the for him had become boring. He was old barbarous system which brought caught wheeling the body through the a mob to the foot of the gallows, clam- streets of London, with intent to hide orous to see a fellow-creature done to it in the cellar of a house he rented death. The convict was a young farm near the Elephant and Castle. The

proceedings at the foot of the gallows

XIX. were much more seemly than those at

IN JOURNEYINGS OFTEN." tendant on the execution at Shrews- Accompanied by Mrs. Lucy, an exbury. The gruesome ceremony was cellent traveller by sea or land, I have conducted within the privacy of the journeyed round the world, with prison walls. But there were present

shorter excursions to various points of in Chapel Yard at least a hundred the compass.

Ever I was hampered spectators. About a score were, like by the exigencies of the Parliamentary myself, members of the Press attend- session, whose arrangements not only ant upon an undesirable duty assigned arbitrarily determined the period of in the turn of a day's work. The rest setting forth on a journey, but strictly were there by favor of the sheriffs, who limited the duration of the expedition. had delegated to Calcraft the duty, in- The first time I crossed the Atlantic cumbent upon themselves by ancient was in 1878, being commissioned by the statute, of personally conducting the "Daily News" to write a special achanging.

count of the arrival and reception of In one corner of Chapel Yard stood the Princess Louise and the Marquis of a strongly built wooden shed, newly Lorne, the latter appointed to the Vicepainted in honor of the day. It was royalty. Here was opportunity of seegruesomely like a butcher's shop, win- ing Canada under favorable circumdowless, with a skirting in front. An stances. Hardly had the Governoriron beam running its full length about General and the Princess landed at a foot below the roof added to the Halifax, amid the roar of a royal sastructural similarity. From the beam

lute and the acclamations of the popuhung not a row of shoulders of mutton lace, when I received a telegram from or sides of Christmas beef, but a few the “Daily News" manager ordering links of strong chain finished off by a my instant return. War had broken hook. To the chain was knotted a stout out in Afghanistan. Parliament was hempen cord. It was looped, the noose

hurriedly summoned in order to pass thrown with a certain ghastly grace a vote of credit. If I took the first over the hook.

steamer I would get back in time for This was the sight that met Wain- the opening day. No steamer was im. wright's eyes when, a door opening on mediately sailing from Halifax. By the courtyard, he walked out into the travelling night and day through the cool morning air. Bare-headed and snow-clad plains and forests of Canpinioned, he bore himself bravely, even ada we could catch a steamer outwardwith a certain quiet dignity. By his

bound from New York. This we did; side strode a warder, leading the pro

but it was not a complete or satisfaccession. On his left, slightly to the tory way of seeing Canada. rear, with an air suggesting the hope

Five years later we set forth on our that he did not intrude, came a little journey round the world. Crossing the wizened man. This was Calcraft. United States we took ship at San

Francisco for Yokohama, coming back Many years afterwards the hang- through India and the Suez Canal. man called on me--I don't know why The Parliamentary recess afforded only or wherefore and, in my absence from five months for this journey, a period home, left his card. In the circum- one might have profitably spent in Jastances I observed with relief notifica.

pan or India.

But it is wonderful tion that he had “retired from busi- what you can see and learn in five ness."

months if you keep eyes and ears open. In crossing the American Continent ember 3, 1883), an event celebrated by we had the great pleasure of the fre- a review of the troops in an open space quent company of Lord and Lady adjoining the Foreign Office. The Rosebery. They also were making a force consisted of some 8000 men, tour of the world, going by Australia. horse, foot, and artillery.

The openWe did not voyage in company on ing of the day was marked by auguries the Atlantic, but met frequently at that did not seem to forecast the milihalting-places on the long railway tary triumphs that astonished the route, and always dined together. At world a quarter of a century later. San Francisco, sleeping at the Palace The Mikado, driving down in his Hotel, we also enjoyed an earthquake brougham, mounted a safe little bay in common. It did not approach in pouy with yellow reins, and, followed vigor the one which twenty-four years by his staff and the military attachés later destroyed the hotel and partly of the Foreign Ministers, slowly rode uprooted San Francisco. But, like past the ranks standing stiffly at attenJercutio's wound, it served. A large tion. His seat on horseback was penumber of the guests fled into the culiar. Holding a yellow rein in either streets. Lady Rosebery spent the hand, his elbows squared, he sat well night in the corridor, which, compared forward on the pony's neck after a with her bed or her sitting room, did fashion later made familiar at Epsom not seem to afford greatly increased by an American jockey. protection. I reflected that being As soon as the march past comlodged on one of the topmost stories of menced one of the Imperial Princes the lofty building, it was a far journey lost the epaulette from his left shoulto the street. If the earthquake really der, and was nearly thrown from his meant business one would be scarcely horse as he frantically clutched at it. safer in the roadway between two rows Half-way across the review ground the of houses than on an upper floor. AC- Minister of War's horse bolted, deposit. cordingly I turned over and went to ing its rider in the roadway, where he sleep. When I awoke in the morn- was picked up and carried off to a ing the guests were ringing for hot place of safety. After the review the water as if nothing bad happened since Mikado withdrew to his tent. Hearing they went to bed.

there were present two English visitIt was a memorable season for sub- ors, he graciously intimated his desire terranean excitement. Whilst we were that they should be presented At the on the Pacific, steaming eastward, time his Majesty, who lived to see Ja. some island in the Malay Archipelago pan transformed from third-rate disappeared in the volcanic eruption. Power to the position of conqueror of For a period exceeding a month, Russia, equal to the mightiest States, partly when we were at sea, partly was in his thirty-first year. He culwhen travelling in jinrickshas through tivated to the fullest extent the atJapan, we nightly had the most glori- tribute of impassivity. He had gone ous sunsets ever seen on sea or land. out of his way to pay attention to two

At the time of our visit Japan was strangers, but, as through an interpreonly beginning to emerge into the full ter be addressed them, his face belight of Western civilization. Rail- trayed about as much expression as is ways were few, the navy was practi- habitual to a brick wall. cally non-existent, the army an undisci- I was privileged to see a good deal plined mob. We chanced to be at of the two men who are actually the Tokio on the Mikado's birthday (Nov. founders of the modern and marvellous

a

Japanese Empire. Prince Ito, he was way before the mast, they coupselled plain "Mr." in those days, occupied the the Prince to make terms with the post of Minister of the Interior. British. But they were more truly Inouyó was Foreign Minister. In representative of Japanese opinion many intimate conversations I had when, eight months earlier, they sewith the latter he told me the history cretly left their country in search of of his life, which reaches beyond the methods that would enable them to bounds of fancy of the average roman- trample on the foreigner. Their old cist. He and Ito belonged to the friends regarded them as traitors and Samurai class, the nobles of old Japan, sought to take their lives. Ito went privileged to carry and use the two- into hiding. Inouyé, falling into the handled sword. Fifty years ago the hands of the angered Samurai, was youths, just past their twentieth year, slashed with swords and left for dead were in the retinue and confidence of by the roadside. To this day he bears the Prince of Choisiu. He was the on his face a memento of the terrible last leader of the lost cause of old night. Japan. His name lives in history, In 1894 we visited Capetown, and inasmuch as, in defiance of the Ty- were for three weeks the guests of coon, who was dallying with the for- Cecil Rhodes. On Christmas Eve, eigners, he closed the Straits of Shimo- 1902, on the invitation of Sir Alfred noseki against British ships, threaten- Moloney, Governor of Trinidad, we set ing to fire on any that came within out on a voyage to the West Indies. range of his guns. The youths re- Before settling down at Government inonstrated with their hot-headed chief- House, Trinidad, we stayed a week tain, pointing out the futility of op- with Sir Robert Llewelyn, Governor of posing force to Great Britain.

"The the beautiful island of Grenada. thing to do," they said, "is to beat Our third visit to the United States, England ou her own ground. We must paid in the winter of 1903, was planned learn to build ships, sail ships, and fight in response to an invitation from Sir them in a fleet of our own. Then we Thomas Lipton to be his guest on the shall be able to keep our coast invio- “Erin" during the race for the Amerlate."

ica Cup. We had made some preparaThey volunteered to go to England, tions for the voyage, when it chanced spy out the land, master the secret of

afternoon in July I met Mr. naval supremacy, bring it back to Ja- Choate, the American Minister, at the pan, create a fleet, and then let boast- house of Mr. White, Secretary to the ful Western nations look to them- Legation. He had heard of our inselves.

tended journey and strongly dissuaded In 1858, when this project was sub- us from going to New York in August, mitted, it seemed childish in its audac- the month in which the race was to be ity. As we know, it has been literally run. His graphic picture of its horrealized. Under great difficulties, suf- rors in the hot weather made such an fering much privation, the two young impression that we resolved to forego men made their way to London. They Sir Thomas's hospitality and the pleashad not been there more than three ure of the boat race, deferring our visit months when they were convinced of by a couple of months. For this we the helplessness of the attitude their were ever grateful, since we not only Prince had assumed towards the had better weather, but were present mighty Western islanders. Returning through the interesting turmoil of a home, for lack of money working their general election and were at WashingLIVING AGE. VOL. XLI.

2174

one

ton on the opening day of the new cial signed article for the “Herald," Congress.

describing my experiences and impresI have somewhere read or heard it sions. Here was the little plot dissaid that the world-wide popularity of closed. This was the explanation of “Punch" is damped in the United the marked attention and the well apStates. It is explained that American pointed motor car. Not disposed to humor so entirely differs from British spoil sport, I wrote the article and taste that Americans do not appreciate promptly received a cheque in pay. Punch. I can testify that, if it be true ment. Mr. “Punch" has no vogue in the Among the questions showered upon United States, the reception accorded me by the eleven reporters who awaited to one of the humblest of his young my arrival on the wharf one demanded men is incomprehensible. Desiring a instant definition of the grounds of diflittle quiet and rest before commencing ference between English and American our tour, we went straight off from the humor. Oddly enough, of a series of wharf to Larchmont, to the country articles the "Herald" commissioned me house of a friend some twenty miles to write one was on this interesting distant from New York. We left no but abstruse topic. Probably the quesaddress behind, and looked forward to tion is put to every literary man landat least a few days' seclusion.

We

ing on the American shore. counted without the host of New York From Larchmont we went on a visit papers. All the Sunday journals had to Mr. Whitelaw Reid's country house, columns reporting interviews with modestly named Ophir Farm. In the "Toby M.P." and other innocent mate- stateliness of its outward appearance rial for sensational articles.

it reminded one curiously of Windsor On Sunday one of the news editors Castle. The interior presents realizaof the “New York Herald," by some tion of absolute luxury controlled by occult means, traced us to our hiding- good taste. When shown my dressingplace. New York was already in the room I thought, from its proportions, throes of the election. The after- furnishing, and general adornment, noon caller brought a courteous mes- that I had strayed into one of the sage from the editor to say that pre- smaller drawing-rooms. I marvelled liminaries of the election campaign when some months later I heard that would be in full force on the following Mr. Whitelaw Reid had accepted the evening, and he desired to place at my post of American Minister at the Court disposal a motor car and a member of of St. James's, a position that involved nis staff to show me round the city. his quitting this perfect home lodged This was exceedingly kind. I reflected in a woodland whose wildness cultured with embarrassment that no leading taste left almost untouched. Another London paper would pay a similar at- charming visit we paid-indeed, there tention to an American journalist en were two, for we were asked againtour. I gladly accepted the offer, was to Bourke Cockran's house on Long was driven through the Bowery and Island. Nothing could exceed the hosother densely populated quarters, ob- pitality of the New Yorkers, it being serving with interest the animated extended in many cases by people I scene. When my personal conductor met casually at luncheon or dinner. brought me to the railway station to With the Chinese Minister I was the catch the last train for Larchmont he joint guest at one of the famous Lotus remarked, quite incidentally, that per- Club Saturday night dinners. As I haps I should be able to write a spe- knew a speech would be expected, and

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