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with “Prepare to board.” They prefer battleships and armored cruisers. farmers' sons from the heart of the Should I intimate that they land, who never saw salt water, to the picked men I should lay myself open youth of the wharves in seaport towns. to much criticism. It is better to say Boat drill interests little except as a that I am speaking of the spirit of the sport, for it has nothing to do with battleships, which brings us to the sig. hitting the target. "Abandon ship" nificantly weak link in the remarkably driil is a beresy. It suggests to the strong Annapolis system. Elimination mad that such a thing as abandoning of the idle and indifferent ends with a ship really entered an officer's mind. the commission of a youth, when his "Less of the cheerful 'Aye, aye, sir,' character is yet undeveloped. It is and functions, and more hard, intelli- only natural that an officer who pregent work," as one of the watch off- fers easier lines should drift into easier cers put it. One cannot live with berths and find small cruiser service to tbese younger officers without feeling his taste. For the important tasks and that the sudden growth of their navy places there is a kind of selection; or some other cause has given them there must be. But this can be carried an extraordinary military spirit such only so far before it encounters the as you meet with only in epochs of a right, under the present regulations, of nation's life. They would make a bat- an officer to a position in keeping with tleship a factory of ceaseless industry, his rank. The battle efficiency of the and what they are really longing for American Navy to-day is, therefore, is an autocrat who will apply the sur- largely due to the young men. Usually vival-of-the-fittest rule to promotion, the first lieutenant of a battleship enand make a fleet an unsentimental bus- tered the academy just as the first iness institution, never wasting time modern ships were building. He has on any unnecessary formalities and grown with the navy. If the more with no by-products to its output ex. radical of the young men had their cept preparation for war. Moreover, way, I sometimes think that a ship Annapolis men get the habit of hard would always be navigated from her work at the academy. They are pas- conning tower at and always sionate for high scores for their divi. cleared for action. Rank does not insions and ships at target practice. terest them; opportunity for profesMorning and afternoon they drill the sional work does. When an order men until the men are stale, and they comes for shore duty they frequently find more work in studying. Some apply to remain at sea when they are critics say that they overdo it; that a battleship. Recently the fleet they are in danger of getting stale ordnance officer of sixteen battleships, themselves. Mostly they associate expecting to be superseded owing to a little with the people of civil life. They change in admirals, expressed a wish live in a world of itself, a self-ab- to go as ship's ordnance officer so that sorbed, professional world where they he might continue at sea with the work are compelled, according to the Ameri- he loved. However, the new admiral can custom, to know every branch of retained him. the service. And they hold steadfastly At the suggestion that the President to the idea that the naval is not a leis
be given power to choose young admi. urely, gentlemanly occupation, but the rals, the navy rebels against the very most exacting of professions in the ap- thing it has been asking for. It sees plication required.
political influence, which is the goblin I am speaking of the officers of the of its nightmare. When the President
recommends selection, the opposition and of the newer schools. With the press is aroused to demand why a man rapid growth from a navy of insignifiwho has served his country faithfully cant cruisers to second place among for forty years should yield his place naval powers the enlisted personnel to a junior; and the more incapable has also undergone a complete change. officers are in their profession the Hardened seamen of early middle larger the number of representa- age are rare in the American service. tives in Congress which they seem to The average age of the crews of the know. An unbiassed observer might battleship fleet is little over twentyask why, in a service which pays its one. They enlist for a period of four officers' schooling and a wage fit for years. Before the Spanish War the a gentleinau to live on, it is necessary term was only three. Reënlistment to keep any one on the active service was then more common than now. list for life if the nation is better Tbe men were drawn mostly from the served with him on the retired list. seaport towns, while the great middle Without some reform in personnel it is and Western States were untapped. hopeless for the American Navy fully There were many Swedes and Norweto realize the value of its excellent ma- gians, some Germans and some British. terial or to reach that maximum of ef- Occasionally you will hear older officers ficiency of which it is so evidently ca- sigh for these older seamen as boatpable.
swains, though not as gunners. FaThen there is the question of the ma- miliar with all the sailing seamen's rines, who are also a heritage of the housiness, they were more useful in a British service. The line, never abat- whale-boat in a heavy sea than in a ing its Annapolis solidarity, wishes turret. But they were accustomed to them off the ships, where their only a harder life and harder food than the service is to supply orderlies and to present generation will endure. With man part of the torpedo defence guns. the idea of increasing the number of Admiral Evans even gave all the po- native Americans an apprentice system lice patrol work in port to the blue- was at one time established, but has jackets. Wherever they have been since been abolished. In one sense its called on for soldier service the ma- purpose was served with the new class rines have distinguished themselves by of recruits after the Spanish War; in gallantry and preparedness. They another, the service was left entirely have much influence, and they have dependent on four-year men. Look been able to increase their corps rap- over the roster of any ship to-day and idly. But many marine officers now you will find the names of every nathink that it would be wiser if the tionality of the continent of Europe marines were made a special corps in which has sent its stream of emigrants barracks for use when infantry is to America. But with few exceptions, needed for an advanced base or any whether ending in "sky" or "," they sudden emergency over seas.
are of the second generation and born
in the United States. Recruiting parII. THE MEN.
ties now traverse the whole country. An old idea, which seems to die Officers generally agree that the best slowly, that the American man-of- men come from the interior, and par. war's men are mostly foreign born ticularly from the farms and small vilshould be dismissed at once. In a pre- lages. Many of them never saw salt vious article I have outlined the cleav- water till they went to a navy yard. age line between officers of the older The absence of sea habits and sea
training is, in the eyes of the younger effort is made to follow up and arrest officers, little disadvantage. A taste deserters. The American public takes for mechanics is considered far more a lax view of the subject, perhaps, useful aboard a battleship, where sea- while the naval officers are inclined to manship is but an incident to gunnery.
think that a man who will desert is Though the average pay of all the dif- not worth having. ferent ratings is over £5 a month, that Probably 70 per cent of the men in is not the prime, though an important the battleship fleet would not reënlist consideration with young Americans.
in any circumstances except war. Many of them come from families well- Many are boys of only eighteen or to-do in a small way. They go to sea nineteen years. Some are scarcely full to see the world and they are fasci- grown. They will be back in civil life nated by the mechanical training, early in the twenties, with the perfect which many of them put to good use in confidence of success which characterafter life. This brings a much more izes young Americans. As a rule the intelligent class of men, as a rule, than navy man succeeds in civil life. The the army enlists. All of them have a very discipline to which he objects, as good common school education.
a free American, serves him well. He Thongh Americans will enlist with- has been taught habits of temperance out number in time of war—for in no and industry. But, according to the country is the volunteer and militia principle of “being as good as anyidea so strong, they have little inter- body," he has no taste for saluting suest in playing the professional soldier periors all his life. A few years after or sailor in time of peace. In popular leaving the navy he may have as large izing the navy President Roosevelt has an income as the admiral and ride in played a continuously important part an automobile. Everything is possible, ever since he was Assistant Secretary including Harvard or Yale, for his son. of the Navy at the outbreak of the He feels less than any foreign man-ofSpanish War. The recent high tide of war's man could-for he does not come prosperity in the States, with labor of from a designated “class"-were they all kinds in demand, sent few men to both civilians, the sense of any social the recruiting office in search of a live dividing line, which aboard ship is lihood. Hard times and an army of rigidly enforced. Sons of enlisted men, unemployed have helped the celebrity in fact, have received appointment to of the fleet's cruise to fill the ranks to Annapolis and have been good officers. overflowing; and the standard of phy. sical and moral excellence of the enlisted men is higher than ever before.
III. “A GOOD JOB." Desertion is at a minimum, and deser- The officers' relations with their men tion was a serious matter indeed four are simple and unaffected. Discipline or five years ago. When these young which may seem slack in the formalimen who had come to see the world ties works out into a pretty severe tired of routine and discipline, shore system. The officers' higher training liberty meant that many remained in mechanics makes it easy for them where “a job” was not hard to find. to win the natural respect of men meThey saw no particular disgrace in chanically inclined, which is more valtime of peace in an act which a sense uable than mere military form. As a of patriotic honor, let alone fear of rule, the watch officers, though young, punishment, would not have permitted have the shade of a few years of age in time of war. Comparatively little over those whom they command. In
all my experience with the fleet I saw urally alert and quick, it does not take no instance of a man showing surliness him long to understand "what the in receiving an order, let alone talking ' game is” in the modern system of tarback, though there were such instances get practice. as I knew by the records, and the cul- In food and in comforts the Amerprits were most summarily dealt with. ican seaman is the best off of any in The American, whatever his position, the world. Cleanliness of ships and is inclined to "play the game." "I men is remarkable. No disagreeable wouldn't reënlist for a thousand a odors ever assail the nostrils of an month and no desertion for mine, American man-of-war. Fresh water either. I'm in for it, and I'll see it ad libitum for washing seems to be acthrough right up to the mark, accord- cepted as a necessity, along with ample ing to Hoyle. But me for good old bathing facilities. For one thing, it is home and running a lathe for $2.50 a easy to keep the ships clean, because day when I take my hammock and they spend relatively little time in cold beat it," said one blue-jacket, in his ex- climates. In the hot summer of the pressive American slang. “But say, I Atlantic coast they are off Cape Cod wouldn't give up the experience for preparing for target practice; in wintwo thousand."
ter they are at Guantanamo in Cuba, That same desire of any young preparing for battle practice. With a American of the working class to get drop in the thermometer the steam a place to run a machine rather than heat is turned on and the ship becomes work outdoors makes the American as warm as an American hotel or rail. bluejacket keep on the guns. For road train. Ample cold storage facili. qualifying as a gun pointer he gets £5 ties preserve supplies or fresh fish and additional a month. Turret crews get meat. In fact, Jack lives better than prizes. The whole system of ratings he usually does at home. If he did looks to monetary rewards and hon- not, enlistment would fall off. A winors and is based on every possible form ter in the English Channel or the of competition to keep up interest to- North Sea with unheated ship ward the field day, where the year's would be a positive hardship to him. work tells, at the annual target prac. Moreover, he must be amused. He is tice. Nobody likes to win better than no automaton to do nothing but drill. the American. He keeps his eye on When desertions were heaviest and he that, sometimes to the expense of gen- was rarely given shore leave a new eral efficiency, critics may say. Gun policy
begun under Admiral is set against gun and turret against Evans, who could have the satisfaction turret, and the guns' crews are always of knowing, when he hauled down his ready to bet against one another. flag in San Francisco, that he was
In the gunnery there is the intensity leaving a "contented fleet.” A fleet of sporting interest which the whole athletic officer was attached to his practice of the American Navy induces. staff to make the development of sports Drudgery without reason, simply be- and arranging of games his special cause it is the rule, seems to be as un- duty. When Jack goes ashore in numnatural to the American youth as it is bers at every port for his national natural to the Germans and the Jap game of baseball, bats and balls and
The American seaman wants gloves are furnished by the nation. to know why he does things. It is no Frequently midshipmen who business of his to ask his officer, but if crack players at the academy play in he cannot see why, he gets listless. Nat- the nines, without any of the preju
dice to discipline that was at first teur bouts I have ever seen have been feared by older officers.
between American bluejackets. They Boxing has been promoted under never fail to "go in" for all their worth, strict regulations of six rounds, with as the honor of their ships and the temyounger officers as referees, who decide per of the audience demand. Care is strictly on points. For most of the always taken that men who are in the men a good bout is the best show they same class as sparrers for their weight know. In any difficulties ashore, they are pitted against each other. The always use their fists. A man who name of the new champion heavydrew a knife would find himself an weight of the battleship fleet is sugoutcast. On the forecastle the ring is gestive of how completely the sport of built, with seats around it for the of. the British and their American deficers, and Jack crowding behind them scendants is ingrained in the American, upon the deck and the turrets. Cheers whatever his ancestry. It is Schlossare allowed, but no cat-calls, and one berg, of German origin, while Altieri, groan over a decision means that all the old champion, is of Italian origin, the rest of the contests that evening and both American born, of course. are called otr. Some of the best ama
There is a sense of silence. How very tangible phenomenon to us, this can be true of that which thing that appears, has attributes, an is imperceptible, necessarily impercep- external character of its own. What tible since it is nothing, only the ab- this is one can only tell from that sence of something else, one does not which is said of silence, and that which know. But we know there is a sense is said points unmistakably to a comof cold, and that too is nothing, ouly mon feeling which silence moves in us the absence of something else. And all. We invest it with constant attri. if we say there is not a sense of cold; butes which show that, be the how that it is only heat that can be felt, and why as it may, silence has bodily and cold is purely a moral or psycho- reality for us, almost bodily shape. logical thing; that we feel it only figu. These ascriptions, and descriptions, ratively, or we are feeling after a feel- may perhaps be figures, metaphors, ing we have lost, that cold is partly a what you will; but it is very certain memory, partly a desire, the mind that we do not consciously use them stretching forward or backward to as figures. We feel we are describwhat was or would be, we may be ing facts for the senses, and if we more correct, but it is a barren correcti. borrow adjectives for silence from tude, for it leaves us where we were. other things plainly seen or heard or If we feel what we do feel, what good felt by the body, it is only as we speak to tell us that really we only think that of one art or one sense in terms borwe feel? Apprehension may be the rowed from another: a pretty song, cool right philosophic term for cold as for grays, harmonious coloring, highly colsilence; but how strongly we do feel ored description, purple rhetoric. that silence is sensible is shown by the When we speak of a great silence or peculiar ways in which we speak of it. a deep silence, we mean something. Whatever it be in itself, silence is a We are not conscious of speaking rhe