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new story, "I and My True Love,“ of the sane, wholesome elements of Mrs. H. A. Mitchell Keays has taken the American body politic. He reprefull advantage of the liberty open to sents those whose honorable ancestry her, and has employed the units cre- may easily be traced for generations, ated by a divorce after the birth of a capacity to rise above the average level daughter as her hero and heroine. being a constant characteristic; those The former, an unformed and appar- who submit to authority until obediently dull boy at the time of his mar- ence confers upon them the knowledge riage, has become a successful drama- necessary to command; those indifferent tist when the story opens; the wife to public approval or conscious of harwho left him to wed a rich profligate ing earned their own; those who, lookand sensualist is a rich widow, socially ing backward at even time, see light conspicuous in a city in which gentle- upon their pathway and doubt not. women call out of the windows to The type is quite as truly representasmall children in the street; and the tive as that of the doubter, the boaster, daughter is old enough to wish to the trickster, the insatiable wealthmarry a young man of whom her gatherer, the shallow joker, the Iralffather does not approve. Feeling that fledged citizen willing to sell his new she needs a mother's advice, he sends country if thus he may assault the enher to his former wife for a long visit, emy of the old land, but it is so quiet. to the great edification of both, as each and the others are so noisy, and so represents her generation fairly well, eager to silence it, that foreigners and as the girl's freedom of speech is hardly perceive its existence, but henceonly to be compared with that of a forth they may be referred to General physician addressing medical students. Draper's “Recollections of a Varied CaAfter trying to force herself to marry reer" for evidence of its concrete exthe governor of the State, and finding istence. The book was begun as a the prospect more and more disagree. legacy to the author's descendants, but, able as her wedding day approaches, as he wrote, he perceived that as solthe girl decides to return to her true dier, legislator, diplomatist, and manlove and the husband and wife concur ufacturer, and in youth a dweller in a in wishing to re-marry, he finding her Community, his interests had been so very fascinating and she thinking him multifarious that his life was excepfar preferable to the man for whom tional, and he decided to publish its she left him. Tersely put, the events record. Written in this way, the book seem absurd: clothed in many hesita- has a character entirely different from tions and much debate they puzzle and autobiographies prepared for magainterest, and, most influential element zines, and is doubly interesting because in the success of a story, they cause of its independent spirit. The most discussion. Now without the divorce valuable passages are those describing law's such a book could not be. Small, the author's business career. AutoMaynard & Co.

biographies of soldiers and diplomat

ists are countless, but the business man General William F. Draper might rarely writes of himself. The closing very well assert his right to be called chapters, which deal with State and a representative American, not the national politics are also valuable, and creature seen by Mr. Kipling, the repre- worthily complete a story which it is sentative of Castle Garden rather well should be given to the whole peothan of Bunker Hill or New Orleans, ple, rather than to a single family. or Chattanooga, but the representative Little, Brown & Co.

No. 3359 November 21, 1908.



1. John Delane and Modern Journalism.


Rome Then and Now. By Gerald S. Davies CORNHILL MAGAZINE 466
Sally: A Study. Chapters VI and VII. By Hugh Clifford, C. M. G.

(To be continued.)










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An Anthology.

By G. L. Strachey

Nat's Wife. By Ellen L. Grazebrook
The Apocalyptic Style.


The Kaiser's Overtures.

Science and the Supernatural.

Mektub. By R. B. Cunninghame Graham
November, 1907: November, 1908. A Contrast.
Discursions: Hooks and Eyes.

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XIII. Ad Novam. By Filson Young
XIV. The Chance. By Furnley Maurice

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FOR SIX DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, THE LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage, to any part of the United States. To Canada the postage is 50 cents.

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Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office or express money order if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, express and money orders should be made payable to the order of THE LIVING AGE Co.

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she sets

But when She comes-(ah, will she

ever come?) And whispers in your hearts the

things I say, You will cry each to each: "One

passed this way And spake just thus; but now his lips

are numb, Sealed with the wicked earth; but had

we known How deeply true his lore, then not

Unfriended to the Vast

Had the great spirit passed-
And so on-ah, Some-day!

Furnley Maurice. The Spectator.


mean a

Journalists have been described as it was the blessing and the glory of the Sophists of modern life; and, within Athens that every man could speak out

his sentiments and criticisms with a certain limits, the parallel may be said to hold good.

freedom unparalleled in the ancient By a "journalist” we

world, and hardly paralleled even in man who seeks to influence

the modern, in which a vast body of public opinion in this direction or that

dissent both is, and always has been, through the columns of a daily or a condemned to absolute silence, weekly paper, not the invaluable and indispensable person

who purveys the exaggeration is pardonable. Eng. “news," properly so-called, and the data land, it is said, is governed by talk; upon which “the policy of the paper" and, when we remember that the Sophis based. Bearing this in mind, and ists were the immediate heirs of the remembering that the proprietor, the teachers of rhetoric and dialectic, we editor, and the leader-writer are not perceive how real the parallel is. That absolutely independent of one another, there were some Sophists whose docbut represent in most cases a combina- trines and methods were elevating and tion cemented by "the policy of the beneficial, and others whose influence paper,” we can trace, not unprofitably, was pernicious, is as true as the truism the parallel between the typical Athe- that there are some newspapers which nian Sophist and the typical English instruct and enlighten their readers, journalist.

and others which tend, deliberately or Let us note first that the prototype unconsciously, to lower the tone of puband the counterpart are only possible lic opinion. There is not more differunder a system of government which ence between the best journal of the recognizes and protects an absolute day-whichever that may be—and the freedom of thought and expression of worst, than there was between Isoopinion. Further, let us admit, on crates and Thrasymachus as depicted the one hand, that the Sophists, as a in the first book of the “Republic.” It class, did not exercise the corrupting must be borne in mind that Plato himinfluence attributed to them by Aris- self, as he becomes more Platonic and tophanes and by Plato in the more So. less Socratic, changes his attitude tocratic passages of the various dialogues wards the Sophists. In the earlier in which they are introduced; and, on books of the “Republic” they the other, that they were not always charged (as indeed was Socrates himthe disinterested advocates of political self) with being the corrupters of soand social reform that Grote repre- ciety, while in the later they are desented them to be. Grote, in his pas- scribed as the products of a society sionate admiration-idolatry would which was itself corrupt, and invoked hardly be too strong a word-for de- the aid of intellectual drugs to stimumocracy in all its forms, and especially late its depravity. One or other of in its Athenian form, is naturally prone these views is taken by pessimists with to exaggerate; but, when he says (ed. regard to journalism. It is said, for 1888, vol. vii, p. 30)

instance, that newspapers have created


* 1. “John Thadeus Delane, Editor of the « Times'; his Life and Correspondence." By A. I. Dasent. Two vols. London: Murray, 1908.

2. “ The Great Metropolis." By James Grant.

First series, vol. II. Third edition. London:
Saunders and Ottley, 1838.

3. “The Government of England." By A. Lawrence Lowell. Two vols. London: Macmillan, 1908.

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a craving for sensationalism, or that, finding this morbid appetite in existence, they have pandered to it. This criticism is at best a gross exaggeration when applied to seriously conducted newspapers, but it indicates a real danger to which we will presently revert.

To continue the examination of our parallel: the object of the Sophists, as it is set forth by Isocrates, was to teach young men “to think, speak, and act" with credit to themselves as citi

If for "youth" we substitute the English political equivalent "untrained," the motto of Isocrates is one which all serious journalists would gladly adopt. It is worth while to recall a passage from the criticism of Grote's History which appeared in the "Quarterly Review” (No. clxxv), cited by Grote in a footnote (vii, 80) as "able and interesting."


It is enough here to state” (said the reviewer) "as briefly as possible the contrast between Mr. Grote's view and the popular representation of the Sophists. According to the common notion, they were a sect; according to him, they were a class or a profession. ACcording to the common view they were the propagators of demoralizing doctrines, and of what from them are termed 'sophistical argumentations. According to Mr. Grote, they were the regular teachers of Greek morality, neither above nor below the standard of the age.

According to the common view, Socrates was the great opponent of the Sophists, and Plato his natural successor in the combat. According to Mr. Grote, Socrates was the great representative of the Sophists, distin. guished from them only by his higher eminence and by the peculiarity of his life and teaching. According to the common view, Plato and his followers

These irreconcilable judgments find their echoes to-day in the extreme views taken by different schools of the value and the dangers of the press. It will probably be recognized that while, as regards both Sophists and journalists, the views referred to are exaggerated, the favorable opinion stands, in both cases, nearer the truth than does the other.

One of the charges levelled against the Sophists—a charge especially dainaging in a cultivated democracy resting upon slave-labor--was that they took money, often large sums, for teaching. It was "banausic," and in the eyes of Socrates and Plato it was simony or worse to sell “the true, the beautiful, the just." 1 Down to the very eve of the Victorian epoch there was the same disposition to regard paid journalism with the same aversion as a vocation not fit for gentlemen. We find this fact very explicitly stated by Mr. Grant, himself a working journalist, who was responsible for a dozen volumes or so of “chatty gossip" in the thirties of the last century. His judgments do not perhaps amount to much, though he, a Liberal in politics, anticipated a great future for Disraeli when the conoscenti believed him to be a spent squib; but his value as a contemporary witness is unquestionable. We shall have several occasions for

' Prof. Rhys Davies reminds us that in the sixth century B. C., just before the birth of the Buddha, there existed in India teachers called the “ Wanderers," who resembled in many ways the Greek Sophists. Like them, they differed much in intelligence, earnestness and honesty. Some are described as "eelwrigglers, hair-splitters," and this not with

out reason. But there must have been many of a very different character. . . . So large was the number of such people that the town communities, the clans and the râjas vied one with another to provide the Wanderers with pavilions, meeting halls, and resting-places. where conversations or discussions could take place. (“ Early Buddhism," p. 1.)

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