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Fez; to another I was the English Am- within the fold, the noise is indescribbassador, and Carleton the German able. Feasting then commences. The Minister, on our way to the capital to Moors love late hours, especially duracknowledge Moulai el Hafid as Sul- ing the hot weather, for the men sleep tan; to others we were consuls, mer: during the day whilst their wives are chants, or Jews,-anything, in fact, out working in the fields, and thus which entered this accomplished liar's they can sit up the greater part of the head.

night to watch over their flocks, and Near our first camping-place we met protect them from cattle-raiders from three soldiers, bearing letters from neighboring villages. Throughout MoMoulai el Hafid to his friends in Al- rocco there is a continual state of open cizar. They became

very friendly hostilities between the tribesmen, and when we told them we were on our raids are frequent. way to visit their master, and sug- After spending a few days in a gested that, as travelling was not safe, Moorish village you are struck by two we should wait for them at our first facts-(1) the laziness of the majority camp, where they would rejoin us af- of the men; (2) the amount of work ter having delivered their letters, and that women have to do. They are kept thus we could make the remainder of hard at toil in the fields throughout the journey together. To this we the day; they are the hewers of wood agreed, so, leaving the oldest of their and drawers of water, they do all the number, who was tired out with the household work, and at the same time speed with which they had travelled, bring up large families.

The men, with us, the other two continued on with the exception of the laboring their way, the present of a dollar se- class who work in the fields with the curing their affection for all time. At women, spend the day sleeping, gossip4 P.M. we crawled into Shimaja, and ing, or riding round to neighboring vilwere greeted by the chief, who gave lages to call on their friends. Thus us a site for our tent, forage for our the richer the Moor the more wives animals, and green tea to cool our

and concubines he has, for they are thirst. This village was typical of his servants, and perform the housemost on the road to Fez: they are

hold duties and all the hard manual really temporary camps placed amidst

labor. The result on the appearance the wheat-fields, and are moved every and physique of the women of Morocco year or two years to cleaner ground. is naturally bad. There are many The houses are miserable hovels, who are born with good looks and good made

mud and straw, and figures, but at an early age their hard blackened with smoke. Children, lives destroy their charms and they dogs, and hens, and even donkeys,

become slovenly and prideless, mere have free access to the huts, and drudges to obey the commands of the all repair there for shelter from master whose former affection has the sun and rain. During the day the passed to younger and more handsome villages are left to the children and rivals. This is one of the great evils dogs; at sunset the women return from of polygamy, for the Moor being contheir work in the fields, and the herds- stantly able to renew the sharers of men drive in the cattle and sheep for his heart and home, takes little trouble food and protection. When all the to preserve in comfort and good health cattle, sheep, goats, mules, horses, and the faithful companions of his early camels, not forgetting the swarms of years. dogs and storks, are safely gathered

But to the weary traveller who has



to be off at sunrise on the following nine o'clock, and these are the coolest morning, this feasting is far from wel- and most pleasant hours of the day. come. At 8 P.M. our host brought be- Then between nine and ten you choose fore us a bleating lamb, and explained a suitable spot, pitch your tent, and that he was about to slaughter it in have lunch. We camped for the night our honor. It is customary to kill the in a large village on the Sebou river animal in the presence of the guests, called Warga. Here the people were but as a concession to our dislike of not so friendly, but the Caid, who blood the lamb was despatched out of knew Carleton, made us very welcome, sight. After waiting hours for our and offered the customary gifts of a meal, I fell asleep. At midnight I was sheep,, chickens, eggs, sugar and tea. aroused, and presented with the liver We had only been in camp a short beautifully cooked on skewers. Then time when the soldiers rejoined us followed another interval of sleep, from Alcizar, bringing Bibi Carleton and at 1 A.M. the Moorish with them, much to our surprise. IIe tional dish, coscous, was brought in. told us he had received a letter from Our servants and the villagers con- Moulai el Hafid asking him to come tinued to feast and to keep up an in- to Fez immediately, as he wished to cessant chattering until 4 A.M. For- consult him. That night we had a tunately we did not have to move off great reunion of Caids and Headmen at an early hour, having promised to in Carleton's tent, and listened to remain a day in camp to await the re- many interesting stories of how the turn of Hafid's soldiers from Alcizar. movement in favor of Hafid was proThis delay was far from agreeable. gressing. Cup after cup of green teil The sun was abnormally hot, and there went the round until a late hour. was not a leaf within miles to which On the following inorning we made one might fly for shade. It is impossi- an early start, and covered nearly fifty ble to sleep or to rest under the cir- miles before camping at the kasbah of cumstances, and you lie in your tent a Caid perched among the hills about cursing the sun and eagerly counting six hours from Fez. The heat was the seconds until it sinks below the very great, and our animals could western horizon. We had promised hardly complete the stage. At dawn the soldiers to wait for them until 1 we were off again, and by 1 P.M., afP.M. the following day, but on ter what seemed an unending passage count of the heat we changed our through the hills, I had my first view minds and decided to move off at of Fez Djedid (New Fez). It was a dawn, and allow them to overtake us cheering sight after our long ride, the on the road. It is a difficult task to pleasure of which had been entirely get your caravan packed and started spoilt by the great heat. We waiteil at the appointed hour. Your Moorish for our tired pack animals to close up, servants have no idea of time or punc- and then rode towards the gate. tuality, and dislike early rising. There- ,Round the town were masses of white fore you must call yourself, kick the tents, where the soldiers of the Malot of them from under their blankets, hallas were camped, and the plain and keep doing so until your tents are was dotted with mounted men in their struck and your mules packed, for if picturesque white robes. Near the you take your eye off them for a mo- gates it occurred to us for the first ment they fall asleep again. You are time that we had nowhere to go to, so well rewarded by an early start, for we stopped and had a consultation, and you can ride four or five hours until decided to make for the British Post



office, which had been left in charge cook was placed at our disposal. At of a Moorish gentleman, Mr. Mikowar, dawn the imperial administrators after the flight of the consuls in Au- knocked at the door, bearing our gust, 1907. The streets were crowded mouna (food) for the ensuing twentywith Moors, Jews, and Berbers, and four hours. The items were: a whole we hurried through them with the sheep, dozen chickens, countless hoods of our jallabs and sulhams loaves of bread, eggs, fresh butter, wrapped round our heads to hide our green tea, coffee, sugar, melons, plum3, faces from the wondering throng. apples, pears, potatoes, tomatoes, and Many of the Berbers who had come onions. This supply was continued up from the south with Moulai el Hafid to the time of my departure. Naturhad never seen a European before, and ally it was more than we required for eyed us with much curiosity, but we our own use, and the inhabitants in were allowed to pass unmolested. On our neighborhood were not long in disarriving at the post office we were in- covering this. Henceforth a crowd of formed, much to our surprise, by Mr. soldiers, friendly but impoverished Mikowar, who is a prosperous banker Caids, poor children, and even Jews, of Fez, that the news of our coming attached themselves to our household had preceded us, and that Moulai el uninvited, and lived on the Sultan's Hatid had ordered him to prepare a generosity. I made repeated efforts house for our use. To this we were to keep some order amongst this unconducted. It was large and airy, ruly throng, which grew to such dihaving five large rooms and a kitchen, mensions that at times we could not all built round a small garden, in the secure sufficient food for our own use. centre of which was the usual tank of It was snatched up before our cook running water. Moulai el Hafid had had the chance of securing the ordered Mikowar to supply us with all choicest portions. Therefore every we wanted, and this gentleman had two or three days I was obliged to filled the house with Moorish carpets, turn everybody out of doors; but it elegant brass bedsteads, sheets and was of little use, for back they came blankets, chairs, tables, and cooking with renewed vigor. utensils. In addition, Hafid had sent When I arrived at Fez I should a Caid and four soldiers to take up have found, according to the newspatheir permanent abode with us, to pers, the city in a state of uproar, with watch over our safety by day when we Moulai el Hafid and his “five hundred sauntered forth into the streets, and ragged followers" holding their own to guard our house by night. But af- with difficulty amidst thousands of the ter the first few days I discarded the supporters of Abdul Aziz. How differescort, and went all over Fez alone ent was the reality! The city was outwith my Moorish guide. It was no easy wardly calm, the officials were permatter to drag the soldiers from their forming their administrative duties, comfortable mattresses; and if you suc- and Hafid was quietly at work estabceeded, it cost you in tips at the rate lishing his government. I spent the of about a dollar a mile per man. On first few days calling upon the Ministhe morning after our arrival I found ters in order to become acquainted we were to be treated during our stay with the leaders of the Hafidist moveas the guests of Moulai el Hafid, and ment. The three most powerful supwere not to be allowed to buy even porters of Hafid are El Glawi, Caid of our own food. Such is the hospitality the Atlas, Si Aissa Ben Omar, Caid of of this barbaric race. Even a special Abda, and Si Abdul-karim Shergui, the Caid of the tribes round Fez. Si Aissa tion, and from the day he entered Fez is Foreign Minister, and El Glawi the the Jews were once again able to walk Prime Minister, or Grand Vizier as outside the Mella in safety. Hafid that official is known in Mohammedan charged nothing for this protection, countries. When one considers that much to the surprise of the Jews, and Hafid had only entered the capital they were merely called upon to pay, three weeks before, he had establisbed equally with the Mohammedans, the a firm hold on all sections of the pop- old imposts on the sale of certain artiulace in a remarkably short time. This cles and the octroi charges at the gates was by no means an easy task, for he of the town, which had been in forca had to deal with the warlike Berbers, under Abdul Aziz. who had come with him from the Nevertheless, for the

first two south, ever ready to loot; with the months after Hafid entered the capital townspeople who, since the departure there was an Azist party in the town, of Abdul Aziz, had enjoyed complete hardly formidable enough to make freedom from taxation and were their presence felt, but who worked therefore somewhat out of hand, and quietly in the interests of their old with the fifteen thousand Jews in the master. They were to be found among Mella. But he succeeded in reconcil. the business class, who had enjoyed ing the conflicting interests and mak- 'special trading rights under Aziz, and ing himself popular with all classes. who had made large sums of money So assured was Hafid of his position, by catering to the many weaknesses that he set aside nearly all the condi- of that monarch and his corrupt gang tions under which the people of Fez of advisers. These gentlemen knew had consented to receive him as Sul- that their bright day of spoliation and tan. One of these was that no Euro speculation was at an end with the adpeans should be allowed to enter the vent of a man who is above making capital, yet here

his money at the expense of his country; guests. The Jews were delighted to so they schemed to bring about his see a Sultan once again established at downfall. The agents of this party the Marzhen. For a year, ever since filled the French press with false retheir friend and emancipator Abdul ports, which they sent off in shoals to Aziz had gone south, their lot had not Tangier day by day. You found thenu been a happy one. They were denied at the palace eating the Sultan's bread the privileges granted them by Aziz, and enjoying his protection and favors, were jostled and insulted in the yet doing all in their power to blacken streets, and lived, or professed to live, his character, and to make Europe bein hourly terror of their lives. I am lieve that his success was purely teninclined, however, to think that they porary, and that any moment his exaggerated their dangers. When Ha- downfall might take place. One of fid entered Fez they trembled all the these men, the agent of the French more, for they argued, like others, post office, native Algerian wlio “Here is a fanatic, determined to close spoke French perfectly, came to see his country to the foreigner, who will me day by day. His conversation albe wanting money, and who will grind ways opened up in the same manner. us down with heavy taxation, as well Drawing me into a dark corner (beas curtail the rights and privileges loved by the conspirator), he would granted by Abdul Aziz.” These whisper in my ear, “Je vous assure, fears were groundless, for Hafid's first monsieur, que la chute de Hafid est step was to ensure their proper protec- seulement une question des jours. Il









n'a pas des armes ni d'argent ni d'am- reorganization of the Moorish Army, munition, Les Fasis le détestont. La declaring that in his able hands it ville est prêt de proclamer Abdul Aziz would become a splendid fighting male moment qu'Hafid quitte Fez.” Day chine. The Commandant was one of after day this gentleman would come the most pessimistic on the subject of to me with this same story. Another Hafid. He came to me day by day strange character at the court of Hafid with the tale that his downfall was

certain French Commandant certain, and frankly advised me to fly called Benomar. He wore a gay uni- before it was too late. When I left form of his own design, and on his Fez he told me he corresponded not breast were displayed medals for hot only with the French Government, but service in Tunis, Algeria, and Tonkin, also with General D'Amade! as well as Khedivial stars and British I had only been in Fez a few days medals for various campaigns in the when I received summons from Soudan. No one could state accu- Hatid to visit him at the palace. The rately his nationality. He professed palace is composed of a jumble of to be an Algerian-born French subject buildings covering a huge area, and as who had served in the Coastguard difficult to traverse as a maze. Mixed Service in Egypt after leaving the in hopeless confusion are mosques, reFrench Army. He said he had served ception rooms, private apartinents, under Kitchener ("homme terrible"), courtyards, and the harem. The exunder Hunter (“homme gentil"), and terior is a uniform white, and the palunder Wingate (“homme très intelli- ace having been unoccupied for a year gent”). On Hafid's arrival at Fez, the was sadly in need of repair. On the Commandant offered his services as occasion of my first interview I went military instructor. The Sultan ac- to the Grand Courtyard, where I found cepted them, and every day the Com- the Moroccan Army assembled, the mandant went out to drill troops, who guns drawn up, and the band playing refused to obey him on the grounds lively and familiar military airs. The that he was French. The Command- Army was delightful. It looked as if ant also prepared a scheme for the re- a committee composed of Lord Lansorganization of the Sherefian Army, downe, Arnold Foster, Brodrick, and which he tried to get the Sultan to Haldane had been unable to come to a adopt. The latter had by this time be- decision as to what was the most suitacome suspicious of Benomar, having ble uniform, and therefore each had heard he was a spy, and resolutely re- clothed a portion according to his fused to receive him. From that time fancy. Some of the soldiers wore red forth the Commandant was a pathetic coats, some green, some blue, and some figure, hanging round the palace wait. yellow, whilst the infinite variety and ing for his audience which never came. color of the breeches added to the cirHe had red hair, a nose which had cus-like effect. The rifles were of suffered from a violent collision, huge many patterns-Gras, Martinis, Maured side whiskers, a gigantic mous. sers, Remingtons, and Lee-Metfords. tache, a light blue uniform, baggy The bayonets were stuck through belts white knickers, bare legs, patent- and buttonholes, or down the back to leather shoes, a red turban, a gold protect the spine from the sun. Many sash, and a gigantic sword. His ges- of the companies were made up of tures were theatrical in the extreme, boys, for the father of a large family and he could keep up an incessant flow introduces a few of his sons into the of conversation on the subject of the ranks in order that their names mas

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