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to be transacted calling for the pres- schoolboy and the zest for dancing of ence of a Minister. The plea may be a girl of eighteen, that he is as facile admitted, but nevertheless if so the re- princeps in the ball-room as on the sult was exactly the opposite to that quarter-deck, and that it was his sowhich it was desired to attain. The cial qualities as an ideal companion inference drawn in Germany was not and conversationalist rather than his that His Majesty was enjoying a fam. naval genius that secured him the ily meeting in the Baltic, but that the honor of a command to accompany the business in hand was so mysterious, King is frankly incomprehensible to and so personal, that Ministers were the average German. The Kaiser, who purposely not allowed to be in attend- knows Admiral Fisher, and who also ance. It is true that the King was ac- knows his uncle, would find no difficompanied by Sir Charles Hardinge, culty in accepting this explanation. but it can hardly surprise any one that But the majority of Germans have not the Germans fail to take Sir Charles these advantages. Hardinge seriously when he is put for- The official communiqué published ward as an equivalent for an absent by the German Government, rebuking Secretary of State and Cabinet Minis- the methods, false and unnational, einter. His presence, indeed, emphasized ployed to disturb the “confidence and the significance of Sir Edward Grey's calm which alone are worthy of a great absence; for he is believed in Germany and peaceable nation," says: to be the King's factotum, his political private secretary, with no other pur

It should not be forgotten that a pose in life than that of anticipating

businesslike and sound solution, to

achieve which is the common interest His Majesty's wishes and obeying His

of all the Powers, is not facilitated by Majesty's will.

nervous and exaggerated enumeration Even this was not all. His Majesty of possible dangers. was accompanied to Reval by Admiral Sir John Fisher and by General Therefore the supreme necessity on the French, one of the most distinguished part of all concerned is to avoid giving officers in the British Army. Why, occasion for nervous alarms. It is idle asked the Germans, did the King take to say that there is no justification for the heads of the fighting services to their fears. When His Majesty's meet the Emperor unless some naval chauffeur has to pass a frightened and military alliance was toward? The horse in a narrow road, he does

which satisfies Englishmen, not sound his gong and increase his that Fisher and French are invaluable speed because the horse has no reason ingredients in a picnic party, is angrily to be alarmed. On the contrary, he rejected by our suspicious cousins. goes as quietly as possible, recognizing They regard Sir John Fisher as the that the unreasonable nervousness or most dangerous man in the British the horse is a fact in nature to be reckEmpire. He is believed to lie awake oned with, allowed for, and provided o' nights planning how to repeat Co- against. It might be well, in dealing penhagen at Kiel, and when he sleeps with Germany, to be as prudent, as he dreams of new monsters of the deep cautious, and as practical as would the which will make even the German chauffeur. Dreadnoughts as obsolete as the Ro- King Edward, at Reval, referred, in man galleys. That such an ogre should a phrase which Kas since made the be the most delightful companion on a tour of the world, to his confident exsea trip, that he has the charm of a pectation that the meeting would "con



duce to the satisfactory settlement in version of parts. The King may be an amicable manner of some momen- our Diplomat-King, but kings are only tous questions in the future.” We all available as diplomatists when they are hope that the anticipation may be real- associated with the policy of the Secized. But we cannot shut our eyes to retary of State for Foreign Affairs. the fact that its realization is more Even if the policy of Ministers had likely to be retarded than to be pro- been originated by His Majesty, the moted by emphasizing the increased more necessary it would be, in the inability of the English and Russian Em- terest of the Crown itself, that no pires to get their own way as the credit should be claimed for the Sovesult of their understanding. "Momen. reign. Credit cannot be claimed when tous questions" in the modern sense a policy succeeds without discredit atcan only be settled by general agree- taching to the originator when that polment. Any apparent desire to settle icy fails. If the exclusive responsibilthings by dual or triple understandings ity of the Minister is impaired, it is dischallenges the uninvited parties to trip astrous for the King. “Sole action, for up the proposed arrangement. The the Sovereign," said Mr. Gladstone, Morocco trouble sprang directly from

would mean undefended, unprotected an agreement between a group of the

action—the armor of irresponsibility Powers, to which some of those who

would not cover the whole body against afterwards met at Algiers were not sword or spear, a head would project parties.

beyond the awning and would invite It is a homely adage that it is im

sunstroke. possible to eat one's cake and have it

As his most precious inheritance, His too. So it is impossible to utilize the

Majesty is heir to that palladium of Monarch as Commis-voyageur extraordi

the Constitutional monarchy, the naire of the British Empire without ex

theory that the King can do no wrong. posing ourselves to the risk of having

It is fully to be expected that he will his personal functions exaggerated to

not allow any glamour of popularity or his detriment and to ours. That the

any glozing words of flattering sycoKing has no personal policy as distinct

phants to beguile him into sacrificing from that of his official advisers is so

the substance of impeccability for the obvious that it is almost an insult to

phantom of personal prestige. assert it. No one likes to have to de

"Since the King can do no wrong," clare that he is not addicted to the

says Mr. Lowell, in his recently pubstealing of silver spoons. But when

lished work on “The Government of our over-zealous friends and envious

England," foes alike declare that we are experts in the appropriation of spoons, even

he can do neither right nor wrong. He such a disclaimer may be necessary.

must not be praised or blamed for po

litical acts; nor must his ministers That His Majesty takes no personal

make public the fact that any decision part in the negotiations of Anglo-Rus

on a matter of State was actually made sian

Conventions and the like is by him. His name must not be brought equally obvious. Yet journals boasting into political controversy in any way, an immense circulation speak of Sir or his personal wishes referred to in Edward Grey as "ably seconding his

argument, either within or without

Parliament. (p. 39.) Sovereign.” The fact is that even the great services which His Majesty is in A still greater authority has said the a position to render to the cause of same thing in even more emphatic peace are endangered by such an in- terms. Mr. Gladstone wrote:

Dignity and visible authority lie social and political events. (Yoke of wholly with the wearer of the Crown, Empire, p. 193.) but labor mainly and responsibility wholly with its servants. From mere

Since these words were written that labor power may be severed, but not veil of mystery has been largely lifted, from labor joined with responsibility.

in part, by Lord Esher himself, with This capital and vital consequence flows out of the principle that the po

results which do not altogether tend to litical action of the Monarch shall encourage His Majesty in emulating everywhere be mediate and conditional the achievements of his predecessor, upon the concurrence of confidential ad- Queen Victoria was an indefatigable visers. It is impossible to reconcile worker, one of those who scorn deany, even the smallest, abatement of

lights and live laborious days. “Blessed the doctrine, with the perfect and absolute immunity of the Sovereign from

be drudgery” might have been the consequences. (Gleanings, p. 230.)

motto of the Victorian reign. She

toiled like a galley slave through interWhen Mr. Escott tells us that “to the minable despatches. Until the closing entire satisfaction of his subjects, King years of her reign she always had a Edward has informally become the

Cabinet Minister in attendance, and head of our diplomatic system” (Escott, she never strayed from home. King p. 401), and when the same authority Edward possesses many admirable asks why the King cannot become his qualities, but other pursuits have own Foreign Minister, it is evident that greater attractions for him than the ideas are in the air which may imperil toiling and moiling through the arid the very basis of the throne. Contrast wilderness of despatches and blue with these suggestions the sagacious

books. He is frequently away from observations of Lord Esher on the im- home, and when he goes abroad his portance of avoiding the attempt to Ministers are left at home. make the Sovereign the master work- All this is compatible with popularman of his realm:

ity, and with a certain amount of fac

titious prestige; it is also compatible Nor is it important nor desirable to with a considerable rôle in public afattempt to lift the veil of mystery

fairs. But it was by her laborious and which to a large extent even in our pry

conscientious discharge of public duty, ing times conceals from vulgar eyes the influence of the sovereign. In a great

for the most part unseen, that the late degree mystery and secrecy are vital to

Queen revived the monarchy in Engthe maintenance of Royal authority. A land, and if it is to be maintained, monarchy to be stable should subsist Lord Esher's words may well be borne in twilight, and an Emperor of China

in mind: possesses a stronger hold on the imagination of his subjects than a bon bour- The character and rule of Queen Vicgeois like Louis Philippe of France. toria have set a high standard, below Some instinct of this kind has guided which it will be impossible for a mon. the steps of the Queen throughout her arch to fall without personal disaster. reign, so that in spite of her simple Future monarchs will have to beware tastes of sympathy more freely given of the example of Queen Victoria. to the poor than to the mighty, and of

(Ib., p. 197.) the lights which by her own published books she has thrown on the domestic

Let me recall the words used by Mr. life of the Court, she has nevertheless

Gladstone as the laws governing the contrived to conceal from the public

exercise of a direct and personal influthe nature of the power wielded for so many years over her Ministers as well ence by the Sovereign in the whole as the influence she has exercised over work of the Government:

cally returns into the Royal hands whenever a ministry is changed.

The amount of that influence must vary greatly, according to character, to capacity, to experience in affairs, to tact in the application of a pressure which never is to be carried to extremes, to patience in keeping up the continuity of a multitudinous supervision, and, lastly, to close presence at the seat of governinept; for, in many of its necessary operations, time is the most essential of all elements, and the most scarce. (Gleanings, p. 233.)

King Edward has character, capacity, experience and tact. But patience in “the continuity of a multitudinous supervision," and "close presence at the seat of Government" are hardly compatible with the ubiquity of a Diplomat-King frequently on the road.

I close this paper with an expression of profound gratitude to the King for having recently administered to sycophants and flatterers a signal rebuke. The notion that he aspired to play a governing rôle in the affairs of State ha been so diligently disseminated that his absence from London at the recent Ministerial crisis had all the effect of a startling surprise. As a late Prime Minister pointed out, authority has given place to influence in almost every department of Royal activity; but he added:

Not that even power is entirely gone, The whole power of the State periodi.

The Contemporary Review.

One of the fateful moments when the whole power of the State had returned to the King's hands occurred last spring. The occurrence was not un. foreseen. His Majesty was at Biarritz, and a Ministerial (risis found the Sovereign in partibus. It is true that he returned to England for the Council, at which the new Ministers were sworn in. Some of the newspapers grumbled. But they overlooked the significance of the object-lesson which His Majesty had administered to those who at home and abroad had been deluding themselves with vain dreams as to the revival of personal rule. They might have learned from the "episode de Piarritz" the true estimate in which their notions are held by the Sovereign himself. A similar lesson, administered as effectively to those who indulge in similar day dreams as to His Majesty pursuing a personal policy aiming at the isolation and throttling of Germany would contribute to the confidence of the world. How that lesson should be administered the Sovereign is in a much better position to decide than the writer.

A Lojal Subject.





to die, and later that no such good forTo little Saleh, now some fourteen tune awaited him. By the time the years of age, that voyage across the vessel reached Ceylon, however, he had trackless seas was in the beginning a found his sea-legs, and was able to give sort of dreadful nightmare. During the his undivided attention to his mental first few days all other emotions were miseries. forgotten in the compelling agonies of The first sight of the coast, with its sea-sickness, and the boy went through clusters of nodding palms and its the successive stages of the malady, shroud of vivid greenery, comforted fearing at the outset that he was like him a little; for here, at any rate, was


land, friendly land covered with for- on board who understood his language, est and fruit-groves such as he had al- learned for the first time what is ways known, not the vast emptiness of meant by solitude and weariness of the sea. Colombo itself, too, brought spirit. Each dull hour heaped up the some measure of consolation; for there burden that was crushing him. He were Malays here in fair numbers, men was in the grip of a grinding homewith whom he could converse in his sickness-a yearning so acute that it own tongue, albeit they spoke a sadly was as agonizing as an aching tooth, degenerate jargon, whereas on board forcing itself upon his attention insistthe ship, since he as yet had no Eng- ently, maddening him with a pain lish, he was to all intents and purposes which yet lacked the relief of expres. dumb. The white

in whose sion, and haunting his very slumbers. charge he was travelling spoke Malay He longed with unspeakable intensity fluently, but Saleh, who had known for all familiar things—the faces that him hitherto only as a high official, re- he knew, even though they belonged garded him with awe, and gave him to men and women for whom he cared none of his shy confidence. A further nothing; for the sound of his mother acquaintance with Colombo, however, tongue spoken with the native accent; ended by increasing the gnawing home for the scene, the color, the very atsickness from which the lad was suf- mosphere of his home; for the trivial fering. His only conception of the things of every day, so little valued whole round earth was as one vast when they were his, which hitherto tangle of forest through which the big had made up life for him. The depresrivers crawled seaward, wherefore, to sion, inseparable from lack of occupahim, the dissimilarity of Ceylon to the tion or interest, deepened the gloom of Malay Peninsula Was more striking the nostalgia which darkened his days; than its resemblance. The place was, but the emotion that throughout opin a disquieting fashion, reminiscent of pressed him most sorely was fearhis fatherland-a land of shadows filled blank, unreasoning fear. The immenwith the echoes of distant voices; but sity of the world was a new fact which it was to the boy only a mocking re- had been flashed upon his intelligence flection of the reality, and its points of suddenly, had been revealed to him abdifference jarred on him like discord- ruptly with no course of preparation to ant notes. On every side, it seemed to softeu the shock. It smote now upon him, he was met by sorry distortions

his understanding, numbing, cowing of familiar scenes. It was as though him. IIe, who hitherto had never wanhe looked upon his home in a bad dered more than a dozen miles from dream, and beheld it hideously de. the village in which he had been born, formed and misshapen. He went back who had lived in a land whose every to the ship with a heart heavy as lead. inhabitant was known to him, found

The vessel, her coal-bunkers replen: himself now adrift upon the bosom of ished, put to sea once more, and began a boundless sea, with countless eyes, to thrust her nose into the boisterous be fancied, glaring at him with a cruel waters of the Indian Ocean, The glitter from those restless waters, and dreary interminable days, their monot- the dome of the unpitying heavens ony unbroken by the smallest happen- arching over him. On board the ship ings, trailed one after the other in slow he was in the midst of strangers, men procession; and Saleh, who did not care who were not only unacquainted with to read turgid Malay verse, and was him, but belonged to a different race, too shy to talk much with the only man followed strange customs, professed to

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