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novel, and it is not fully evident that of that brave and well-beloved EngMiss Maude Radford Warren clearly lishman, Amyas Portal Hyatt, who perceives how vicious, dangerous, anıl died towards the close of that cammischievous a creature is Callahan, the paign in Manila Hospital.” Thus does Chicago boss, whom she introduces in Mr. Stanley Portal Hyatt dedicate his "The Land of the Living”; but her de- "The Little Brown Brother,” a book scription of his behavior is strictly true written in defence of the white man's to nature. Having informally adopted right to protect himself against vioand educated an orphan boy, and find- lence while carrying civilization to the ing him honest to the core, he abstains tropics, and in opposition to the thefrom using his services in his own ory that white, brown and black men work, and allows a "reforming” Irish are precisely similar, and therefore politician to train him in public affairs. have the same desires, necessities, and Secretly, Callahan's heart is set upon capabilities. Opinion in regard to the his ward's marriage with an impover- value of such a book depends upon poished Irish gentlewoman whose estate litical belief, and some will find the he has bought, and when he finds the story lamentably unkind to innocent reformer in his way, he deliberately brown folk, and others will see in it leads him into dishonesty, political and a just defence of the white man's charpersonal, and after he is corrupted be- acter and conduct. All will agree that yond redemption, amiably presents him the picture of the fearless English girl to the United States of America as a and her father alone with the halfSenator. Not one of the personages breeds and savages of a Philippine Isin the tale seems to perceive that Calla- land, looking for defence to the Amerhan's behavior is in any point unbecom- ican officers near them, is as interesting ing an American citizen and to the as any of those to be found in English Irish gentlewoman he "stands for loy- fiction with the scene changed to Inalty and enduring love," not for trea- dia and all the white characters Engson to his adopted country. Miss lish. The hero is a good lover and a Warren's merit is her perfect apprehen- good fighter, and the plot abounds in sion of uneducated Irishman's intrigue and is well arranged. Natideal of friendship, a very noble and urally, the combatants on one side bebeautiful ideal. Had she noted that ing savages and fanatics, there are the man holding it must be wonderfully many scenes of horror, but none going clear-sighted and strong-willed to dis- beyond the point of the despatches retinguish and observe the dividing line ceived by respectable papers, and the between his personal privilege of self- pictures of the peace-at-any-price civilsacrifice, and his political duty to pre- ian agree with those which he himself serve public interests inviolate her has outlined in his letters and books. novel would have been illuminating to The American soldier is praised in the all readers; as it stands, it will gratify most glowing terms, both in the those who enjoy a true picture, even if preface and in the story, and the govthe artist do not fully recognize its ernor-general of 1904-1905 and the edimeaning. Harper & Brothers.

tor of the American newspaper are

commended as highly as the soldiers. "To the memory of those gallant But as was said at first, the reader's Americans, the officers of native troops, opinion is settled by his preference for who fell during the Pulajan campaign his own race or another. Henry Holt in the Island of Samar, 1904-1905, and & Co.

an

SEVENTH SERIES
VOLUME XLI.

No. 3355 October 24, 1908.

CONTENTS

1. The Problem of Aerial Navigation. By Professor Simon Newcomb,
Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America
NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER
The King and the Constitution. By a Loyal Subject

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 205
Sally: A Study. Chapters III and IV. By Hugh Clifford, C. M. G.
(To be continued.)
BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE
Modernism in Islam. By H. N. Brailsford FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW
The Application of Scientific Methods to Housekeeping. By
Mabel Atkinson
ALBANY REVIEW 227
CHAMBERS'S JOURNAL 234
CORNHILL MAGAZINE 240

The House in Islington. By W. E. Cule
"A Commentary." By Lady Robert Cecil

Milton and the Brute Creation. By George G. Loane SPECTATOR 244
Crystal Gazing.

OUTLOOK 248
NATION 250

Irony.

II.

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IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.
IX.

X.

FROM BEGINNING
Vol. CCLIX.

XI. XII. XIII.

A PAGE OF VERSE

The Dreamers Know. By Wilfrid Richmond
The Rose. By Althea Gyles.
Night on the Sea.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS

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195

215

220

NATION 194 194 WESTMINSTER GAZETTE 194

SATURDAY REVIEW

253

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THE LIVING AGE COMPANY,

6 BEACON STREET, Boston.

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goes,

Mary, Mary of the Ships,

As sorrow once was thine,
Look down upon the sea to-night

And guard this ship of mine.
Westminster Gazette.

THE PROBLEM OF AERIAL NAVIGATION.

men

was

The recent construction of machines century ago for limiting what could be on which, for the first time in history, expected from the development of

have flown through the air, steam navigation. At each early stage, coupled with the prospective growth from the time when steam was applied of the dirigible balloon into an air- to the propulsion of boats on the Seine ship, has led to a widespread impres- and the Hudson, to the date when the sion that aerial flight is soon to play an first steamship crossed the Atlantic, it important part as an agency in com- was easy, by taking what was known merce. Such a feeling is quite natural as the measure of the future, to show under the circumstances. In fore- that no great result could be expected casting the possible results of invention from the new system. With the earlier we begin by reasoning from analogy, engines no ship could cross the ocean. and the progress of invention in the di- But improvement in engines rection of aerial navigation, with its brought about both by invention and alternations of success and failure, is by the development and application of at first sight very like what we have physical principles. The theory of the seen in the beginning of every new steam engine, and indeed of heat ensystem of developing the powers of na- gines in general, had been set forth by ture. Possibilities of great results Carnot, but the ideal steam engine to have first been shown; then, step by which this theory led was so far outstep, difficulties have been overcome, side the practical reach of the time that until possibilities have grown into real- the earlier inventors and engineers ities. The possibility of aerial flight paid little attention to it. Only the has been shown both in theory and germ of the theory of energy had been practice, and the difficulties now en- found by Rumford, and it was not uncountered in perfecting it seem quite til it had been farther developed that like those met with in perfecting the it could be fully utilized in guiding insteam engine, the telegraph, and the vention. Thus it came about that, intelephone. The present movement has stead of the ocean steamship being rapan advantage over the preceding ones idly developed, a century elapsed bein that its ultimate outcome is more

fore it had assumed its present proporclearly in sight. We find it easier to tions, Is it not reasonable to expect imagine ourselves flying through the that the airship, whether balloon or air in balloons or upon aeroplanes than flyer, will have a similar history? it was a century ago to conceive of the This question cannot be answered by world's

commerce being carried pointing out present imperfections. We by the power of steam. We can best all know that as a means of transporjudge the possibility that this prospect tation it is, up to the present time, so will be realized by first considering expensive and so doubtful that it is what it has in common with the past, only from future improvements that and then inquiring whether we have any important result can be expected. any grounds more secure than analogy We must inquire whether there is any on which to base a forecast.

well-defined limit to future improveIt might seem that there can be no ment, and, if there is, learn where we better ground for now limiting what shall stand when, if ever, that limit is may be hopefully expected from the approached. "conquest of the air" than there was a One word as to the trend of our in

on

quiry. The vital question is not now set by the theories of physics, is whether aerial navigation is practica- the finding in radium of a substance ble, for that has been settled in the af- which emits energy in seeruing defiance firmative. In the time of Montgolfier of the laws of energy. Ideally, the it was shown that men could rise and power of annulling the gravity of mat. float in balloons; twenty years ago it ter would perhaps be the most revoluwas found that a balloon could be tionary one that we can think of. But guided; now it is proved in the best of the most refined experiments made all ways, that of actual trial, that a with a view to discover whether anyman can fly through the air on an aero- thing can be reached in this direction plane. But we are all looking for have shown that by no method yet more than the bare fact of sailing or known can the gravitation of matter flying above the earth. We wish aerial be altered in the slightest degree. flight to serve some practical purpose Should some way of controlling or rein the world's work, and to compete versing gravitation be discovered; with the steamship, the railway, or the should it be found possible to make mail-coach in the carriage of passengers the ether react upon , matter; should or mails. The inquiry into which the radium hereafter be produced by the reader is now invited to enter is, What ton, instead of by the milligramme; measure of rational hope we can en- should some metallic alloy be found tertain of this consummation.

having ten times the tenacity and rigid. All the questions involved are, at bot- ity of steel-all our forecasts relating tom, those of physics and mathematics. to future possibilities in the application The pivotal points are such as num- of power would have to be revised. bers of feet and pounds, the density of But we must note that the present air, the tenacity of materials used in efforts of inventors are not taking this construction, and the resistance to mo- direction. They are accepting physical tion under varied conditions. These principles and the facts of engineering can be discussed in the most satisfac- as they now stand, and are not seeking tory way only by mathematical com- to discover new sources of radium, to putations. But it is not necessary to find new alloys, or to bring out laws of go into numerical details to find a basis nature hitherto unknown. Our forefor our conclusions. General princi- cast must therefore be based upon the ples, easily within the comprehension present state of science, and can relate of every educated person, will serve only to what is possible through invenour purpose as well as the most rigor- tion being continued on lines it is now ous mathematical investigation.

following. I enter this caveat not be

cause there is any great probability of I.

an epoch-making discovery in any of We must distinguish at the outset of the directions just mentioned, but to our inquiry between advance in knowl- define clearly the ground for our conedge and progress in invention. No clusions. definite limit can be set to the possible When we study progress in the apfuture of knowledge, nor to results plication of power from this point of which may yet be reached by its ad- view, we see that it has, during the vance. The best recent example of a entire nineteenth century, been apdiscovery in the required line, indeed, proaching fairly well-defined limits, the only example which suggests the which can never be extended except possibility of extending the efficiency by some revolutionary discovery that of a heat machine beyond the limit has not yet cast even its shadow be

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