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built. For that reason, she is pleased Republican than to the Monarchical to see the hand of the United States type, there will be separation. Alstretched between her northern shores ready the tie between the self-governand Japan-pleased to secure the pat- ing colonies and ourselves is one of alronage and support of the Great Re- liance rather than of dependence, and public, fresh from her anti-Japanese the Liberal conception of these relaagitation. We have, indeed, to admit tionships was always based on sympathat on a great range of questions in thy and on freedom. Probably, South which British commercial interests and Africa, Canada, and Australia are, and British feeling develop on one line, will remain, almost as safe from invaAustralian and free Colonial feeling is sions as from the Black Death. But we firmly established on another, which confess that we think the Colonies do now happens to be distinctly Ameri- not always realize, in the later developcan. It does not, of course, follow that ments of their politics, how much because the United States and the two moral force they owe to the home confederated Anglo-Saxon communities- nection, and how great would be their which will soon be three-think alike loneliness in the world of new Empires on such questions as Protection, the and old ambitions if the prestige of the color problem, and hereditary aristoc- Imperial Power and the support of the racy, and because their internal gov- Imperial Navy were withdrawn from ernments belong more distinctly to the them.

The Nation.


The human spirit or essence is on the whole a greatly maligned affair. When men say, "That is human nature" they do not always mean compliment, and quite frequently they mean the reverse. Indeed, the modern excuse for peccability and downright obliquity would seem to be “human nature"-which in the lump, say the wise, is a bad lot. For all that there are persons in the world who believe in the ultimate goodness of humanity. Of course, goodness is a quality which some philosophers do not greatly prize. When the critic of humanity wishes in some sort to belaud the species his method is to look rather for greatness than for goodness. Hence it comes to pass that for fifty monuments to greatness you will find one to goodness, and that usually a very little one.

Yet we all know in our secret hearts that it is goodness which matters. For while it is not in the power of every man to

be great, it is well within the power of every man to be good. And by goodness, of course, it is not necessary that we should mean such-and-such a view of morality and still less suchand-such a view of religion or theology. To be good really is to be human-unwarped, unsoured, and possibly unwise, as the world is supposed to go. And it is not, as we know, to be free from either failing or fault. In our mind the great beauty of human nature, or, as we may say, human goodness, is that when you put it to supreme tests it works out always tri. umphant, and comes up smiling, as it were. Whether your subject be gentle or simple, cultivated or unlettered, devout or otherwise, this is so. During the week, in an obscure and huddled-away public garden, known because of its propinquity to St. Martin's-le-Grand as the Postman's Park, there have been erected a

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twenty-two tablets to commemorate the Eliza Coghlan, aged twenty-six, of self-sacrifice and human goodness, or,

Church Path, Stoke Newington, died as the reporters put it, “heroic deeds"

saving her family and house by carof twenty-two comparatively undistin

rying blazing paraffin out into the

yard. guished human persons. The point Arthur Strange, carman, of London, and meaning of these tablets may be and Mark Tomlinson, in a desperate best inferred from the inscriptions venture to save two girls from a quickwhich they bear:

sand in Lincolnshire, were themselves

engulfed. Ernest Benning, compositor, aged John Clinton, of Walworth, aged twenty-two, upset from a boat one

ten, was drowned after an effort to dark night off Pimlico Pier, grasped

save a playfellow who had fallen into an oar with one hand, supporting a the river. woman with the other, but sank as she was rescued.

It will be seen that these noble persons William Fisher, aged nine, lost his

are all of them what certain writers life in Rodney Road, Walworth, while trying to save his little brother from

might term "heroes in humble life." being run over.

Furthermore, quite a number of them George Frederic Simonds, of Isling- were young children. Without wishton, rushed into a burning house to ing in the smallest degree to detract save an aged widow and died of his

from the honor and excellence which injuries.

now attaches to their names and memGeorge Lowdell, bargeman, drowned

ories, it is certain that few people will when rescuing a boy at Blackfriars. He had saved two other lives.

read these inscriptions and the like of Edward Blake, drowned while skat- them without reflecting that in similar ing at the Welsh Harp waters, Hen- circumstances nine persons out of ten don, in attempting to rescue two un

would do exactly as much as these known girls.

"heroes" did. It is human to do as Edward Morris, aged ten, bathing in the Grand Junction Canal, sacrificed

much, and it is being continually done. his life to help his sinking companion.

Scarcely a week passes in which the Geoffrey Maule Nicholson, manager newspapers do not have to record inof a Stratford distillery, George Elliott stances of extraordinary, unhesitating, and Robert Underhill, workmen, suc- and moving self-sacrifice on the part of cessively went down a well to rescue a

human beings without distinction of comrade and were poisoned by gas.

condition or sex, and even without disAmelia Kennedy, aged nineteen, died

tinction as to age. Little children can in trying to save her sister from their burning house, Stoke Newington.

show us, and do show us, how to die Edmund Emery, of 272, King's

when the occasion arises. So do Road, Chelsea, passenger, leapt from a bargemen and carters and laborers Thames steamboat to rescue a child and sempstresses and flower-girls and and was drowned.

women employed at the backs of theaWilliam Donald, of Bayswater, aged

tres. Most of these people are unednineteen, railway clerk, was drowned in the Lea trying to save a lad from a

ucated and unlettered, and they have dangerous entanglement of weed.

not been instructed in the philosophies Harry Sisley, of Kilburn, aged ten, as to death or heroism. Yet they are drowned in attempting to save his capable of giving up their lives withbrother after he himself had been res

out so much as a thought, without recued.

flection, as if those lives were of no George Blencowe, aged sixteen, when a friend bathing in the Lea cried

possible moment, and we know that for help, went to his rescue and was

really they are not singular or alone in drowned

this quality, which in effect is a genTHE COLOR RED.

eral and approximately universal human quality. Therefore, we think, it is plain that we have after all ample and sound reasons for being proud of human nature, and for respecting it and believing in it, and bein'g thankful for it. And this being so it would appear to behove us to remember that human nature is a great and creditable affair, not only when we think or write of it, but in our handling or conduct of all the matters of life. The common notion that the common man is of small consequence and not seriously to be considered in the working out of the scheme of the world is a grave and perilous and impertinent error. Take, for example, your rough, unlearned, and. it may

coarsemouthed hod-bearer. His place in the order of things is to labor and bear burdens for you; and to encourage contempts for him, no matter how general those contempts may be or how particular they may be, is to fall into grave and serious misconception both with regard to the hod-bearer and oneself. For in that rough-and-ready, hard-swearing, hard-drinking, hardliving. unnotable person you have a potential and for that matter actual embodiment of human goodness and nobility. Happily, a common man, or any other sort of man, is not sure to

The Academy.

be called upon to exercise the goodness within him to the point of sacrificing or laying down his life. But when he is so called upon we know that he will make the sacrifice. It is therefore, that he should be considered with respect and treated with respect, and in purveying for him certain spiritual and worldly things which we believe him to require we should bear always in mind his innate nobility, and in no circumstances should we countenance or tolerate the convenient conventional slanders about “human nature." One hears a great deal nowadays about the necessity for “writing down" to the common man. Much endeavor is spent in this direction and much profit seems to attach to it. If we only knew, our real business and difficulty are to write up to him.

Our writing should not appeal to what we cynically consider the baser side of him, but simply and solely and always to what we know is the nobler and more excellent side of him. It is impossible really to destroy the greatness and goodness that are rooted in him by reason of his humanity. But to overlook that greatness and goodness and, especially, to deny it and pretend that for practical purposes it is not there, is to make a wanton and scandalous mock of God's handiwork.


It has been asserted, and the theory has many disciples, that color exercises a great influence over character. If this be true, it accounts for the importance of certain colors over others at various periods, and among various nations. Of all colors, red is the one round which innumerable superstitions have gathered and it has exercised a vast influence, for good and evil, among all sorts and conditions of peo

ples, from the dawn of civilization down to the present day. History tells us of the partiality of uncivilized man for bright colors. They appear to excite in savages the pleasure they do in children, for primitive peoples receive education mostly through the senses. We see from the fragments that re. main of prehistoric man that the sense of color was, fully developed long before the period of the Iliad or of the


Book of Genesis. Brilliant colors have alty. This was probably the reason always pleased warlike people and it which caused King John, while conis therefore natural that red should ferring certain privileges on the Jews, be the favorite. In its most vivid tints to insert in the Act a special clause forit has a great effect upon the senses: bidding them to buy, and presumably the color of blood excites to action and to wear, scarlet cloth on any pretext encourages to combat. At the present whatever. It is curious that red should day red pigment is used by all uncivil- also be symbolical of anarchy. During ized

New Zealanders paint the French Revolution scarlet was the their skins red; the Indian negress color of the apostles of Liberty, Equaladorns herself in a red turban; the ity, and Fraternity. They wore it on tribes of Central Africa are bribed their heads as caps; they waved it in with yards of red calico; in all parts of their hands as flags. Nay, are not the world the partiality for this color Londoners familiar with the latter, is to be seen. In an account of a mis- fluttering in the breeze to the tune of sion to the Philippines we read that the Marseillaise round the lions in Trano native was allowed to wear red un- falgar Square? til he had established his reputation Many curious and interesting superfor skill and bravery by killing a man. stitions have gathered round this color.

During the ancient periods of Greek The majority have died out with the and Roman civilization, red played a advent of better education, but some large part in the life history of the still remain. The antipathy to red peoples. Warriors coated their bodies hair is to this day very prevalent in with the color when they returned England and Wales among the peashome as conquerors; they also cele- antry, though the preference shown it brated the event by daubing the stat- by Sir Edward Burne-Jones has caused ues of Jupiter and of the lesser gods, it to become the rage with the cultured while great lords adopted the same few. Still, there exist many people custom to emphasize their power and who maintain, in spite of numberless superiority. In ancient times, as in evidences to the contrary, that red hair, the present day, especially in Italy besides being ugly, is the invariable where relics of paganism still linger sign of a fiery and deceitful temper; in various forms,

was distin- some even go so far as to refuse to guished by color. When art was in have a red-haired servant in the house. its infancy it was customary to paint In many places the presence of such a the garments of the males red and of person was considered unlucky, and the females blue; thus it happened that among the fishing villages of the north the Madonna and other holy women of England if one entered a cottage were always clothed in the latter color, while a line was being made or baited, while St. Joseph, the Apostles, and bad fortune was certain to come if the masculine saints are generally repre- end was not immediately passed round sented as dressed in the former. This a crook or through the fire. fishdedication of color still exists in Rome erman also considered it most unlucky and other parts of Italy; an infant to meet a red-haired person, and the when it is baptized has a ribbon of the spell could only be broken if he turned special color of its sex pinned on to its round and walked a few steps back robe. Red is also indissolubly asso- again. Many good people in Shropciated with the pomp and splendor of shire are firmly convinced that should Empire and with all the national sen- a person with ruddy locks be the first timents which in England cling to Roy- to enter a house on New Year's Day a


death will inevitably take place in it let clothes. Other diseases besides during the year. The superstition smallpox are supposed to be cured by about red hair obtains in Italy, and the the application of this color. The inprejudice is expressed in the proverb:- habitants of the West of Scotland and

of the West Indies wrap a piece of red Capelli rossi, o tutto fuoco o tutto mosci.

or cloth

flannel round children's (Red hair, either all fire or all soft ess.)

throats to protect them from whooping In ancient days the color was sup- cough, while early in the nineteenth posed to cure all manner of diseases, century a shop in Fleet Street still sold and the belief in its efficacy exists in pieces of red cloth for those suffering some countries at the present day. It from scarlet fever—the remedy in all was especially considered to have a these cases being supposed to lie in healing effect on smallpox, for which it the color and not in the material. Sore was applied both externally and inter- throats were also cured by wearing a nally. John of Gaddesdon, physician charm concealed in a red bag, while a to Edward II, describes how he cured skein of scarlet silk tied round the one of the Royal princes who was suf- neck with nine knots in front was a fering from this terrible disease. He sure preventive against nose bleeding; says, “I took care that everything if the sufferer were

a woman, the round the bed should be of red color, knots must be tied by a man, and vice which succeeded so completely that the tersa. prince was restored to perfect health, Besides being a sure and certain with only the vestige of a pustule re- cure for most of the ills that flesh is maining." From another source we heir to, there is also a widespread beobtain still further details concerning lief that this color has the effect of Doctor John Gaddesdon's treatment driving away evil spirits. In certain of his patient. It appears that he parts of Scotland no one would think caused the unfortunate prince to be of turning cows out to grass for the wrapped up in red blankets and cov- first time without making them evilered with a red counterpane, while he spirit proof by tying a piece of scarlet gave him red juice of pomegranates to worsted round their tails; it is to be drink and red mulberry wine to gargle hoped they cannot see it, for we all with. So late as 1765 we learn that know what an irritating effect red has the mperor Francis I, who was suf- on COWS. In New Zealand, after a fering from smallpox, was ordered to death the house of the deceased is be wrapped up in scarlet cloth. The painted with this color to prevent the treatment on this occasion, however, entry of demons and bad spirits, and cannot be considered an unqualified wherever the corpse rested on its joursuccess, as the patient died. Even in ney to the grave, some rock, tree, or Japan the belief in red, as a cure for stone was colored to protect the desmallpox, was universal, for in a his- parted spirit; the body also tory of the country we are told that painted red before it was abandoned. the Royal children, when suffering At the present day the Chinese carry from the malady, were placed in rooms red cloth in their pockets and braid surrounded by red hangings and their their children's hair with red silk to attendants were obliged to wear scar- protect them from evil spirits.

The Outlook.


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