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ORAL AND WRITTEN
WILLIAM H. ELSON
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
SCOTT, FORESMAN AND COMPANY
For permission to use copyrighted material grateful acknowledge
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATICN LIBRARY.
This book is intended for use in the seventh and eighth school years. In a unique way it is welded with Books Welding
One and Two of the series, making a united the Series
* unity is accomplished by adding a complete summary (pages 323-332) of the language facts taught in Books One and Two, and by giving frequent references to it in the early chapters (see page 3). By this means the work of Books One and Two is reviewed in close articulation with the work of Book Three. This plan has special value in bringing out the particular language facts taught in the earlier grades which are to be developed further in the seventh and eighth years.
The book is divided into approximately one hundred fifty carefully planned lessons for each year's work. These lessons Plan and
are grouped into chapters composed in the Organization
main of related units that center about a
common theme, providing work for a period equivalent, in general, to a school month. The lessons for each chapter, therefore, are not haphazard and miscellaneous, but are woven together into a purposeful whole, closing with a review of all the technical facts treated during the month.
The material on which conversation and written exercises are based has been selected with reference to its
living interest for pupils and its vital Emphasis Laid
relation to their experiences. The leson Oral Work
sons are so arranged that oral discussion precedes and prepares for written expression. The wealth of ideas contributed by the various members of the class in oral discussion is thus placed at the service of the individual pupil in the written exercise that follows. Similarly, in the mechanics of expression, the difficulties of the written composition are anticipated in the oral lesson. In this way the text recognizes the superior value of oral speech, not only as a preparation for written expression, but also as a means of enlarging the vocabulary and giving flexibility in the use of language.
The book aims directly at developing the ability to speak and write. Theme subjects have been chosen for the
wide variety of appeal they make to the pupil's Sources of
spontaneous interest because of their relation Themes
to his own life. The literature of the text, the illustrations, and the pupil's environment are all drawn upon as sources of topics for conversation and discussion. The literary selections deal mainly with the experiences of youth, thus reviving in memory similar experiences and appealing directly to the imagination; the pictures, notably those that portray stories, furnish an exceptional basis for original expression; personal observations, seasonal and festival subjects, and current events contribute to a well-rounded collection of topics for discussion. The whole is vitalized and motivated by the class composition (see page 15), which becomes a socialized recitation designed to develop actual methods of workmanship in composition. Reporting for a school paper is introduced from time to time to serve the same end. The use of individual tests for accuracy (see pages 5 and 20) makes the work of written expression increasingly effective.
Such technical facts as develop an understanding of the sentence and its various elements, together with the
eight parts of speech, are presented as miniTechnical
mum essentials in the regular lessons of the Treatment
" book. Great care has been taken to avoid burdening pupils with unnecessary intricacies that promise little or nothing for greater power of expression. The grammatical terms used conform with the report (adopted in 1913) of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Nomenclature, appointed by the National Education Association, the Modern Language Association of America, and the American Philological Association.
Following the numbered lessons of the text will be found (pages 333-372) a “bird's-eye view" of English grammar; that is, a systematic outline of the main facts of the subject. This outline includes not only the language facts previously developed in the lessons of the three books, but also such additional material as may be found helpful from time to time either for reference or for teaching purposes. With the topics treated in Book Three, there are given page references to the detailed discussion or to summaries; while material not previously treated in the text is developed with illustrative examples and exercises for application.
Throughout the book distinct emphasis is placed on correct usage, the best examples of which are the fourteen Scientific
verbs, see, do, come, etc., that, according to
scientific studies, represent eighty-five percent of Selection
"all the verb errors made by pupils. Other topics treated have not been selected haphazard on mere personal opinion, but on the basis of their relative importance as indicated by recent scientific studies showing the blunders made most frequently by pupils in oral and written expression, notably the investigations made in Kansas City by the University of Missouri, the investigations made by the University of Wisconsin, and other similar studies.
The translation of the pupil's knowledge of principles and language facts into correct habits of expression can
be secured only by systematic and frequent Mastery by
repetition. Consequently each language fact Repetition
and correct form taught is put before the pupil again and again with varied associations in subse