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among these young groves, that are inundated to half their height. Nature is carrying on her most vigorous efforts of vegetation below. If there be wind or storm, the descending flat and keel boats immediately make for these groves, and plunge fearlessly, with all the headway they can command, among the trees. Should they be of half the size of the human body, struck fifteen feet from the ground, they readily bend before even a frail boat. You descend the whole distanceof a thousand miles to New Orleans, landing at night in fifteen feet water among the trees; but, probably, in no instance, within twenty miles of the real shore, which is a bluff. The whole spectacle is that of a vast and magnificent forest, emerging from a lake, with its waters, indeed, in a thousand places, in descending motion. The experienced savage, or solitary voyager, paddles his canoe through the deep forests, from one bluff to the other. He finds bayous, by which one river communicates with the other. He moves, perhaps, along the Mississippi forest into the mouth of White river. He ascends that river a few miles, and by the Grand Cut-off moves down the forest into the Arkansas. From that river he finds many bayous, which communicate readily with Washita and Red river; and from that river, by some one of its hundred bayous, he finds his way into the Atchafalaya and the Teche; and by that stream to the Gulf of Mexico, reaching it more than twenty leagues west of the Mississippi. At that time, this is a river from thirty to an hundred yards wide, all overshadowed with forests, except an interior strip of little more than a mile in width, where the eye reposes on the open expanse of waters, visible between the trees.

desires of youth, waiting an opportunity for dis play ; others, who have proclaimed the gospel, as pilgrims of the cross, from the remotest north of our vast country to the shores of the Mexican gulf, and ready to utter the words, the feelings and the experience, which they have treasured up in a travelling ministry of fifty years, and whose accents, trembling with age, stili more impressively than their words, announce, that they will soon travel, and preach no more on the earth, are there. Such are the preachers.

The line of tents is pitched; and the religious city grows up in a few hours under the trees beside the stream. Lamps are hung in lines among the branches; and the effect of their glare upon the surrounding forest is as of magic. The scenery of the most brilliant theatre in the world is a painting only for children, compared with it. Meantime the multitudes, with the highest excitement of social feeling added to the general enthusiasm of expectation, pass from tent to tent, and interchange apostolic greetings and embraces, and talk of the coming solemnities. Their coffee and tea are prepared, and their supper is finished. By this time the moon, (for they take thought, to appoint the meeting at the proper time of the the moon,) begins to show its disk above the dark summits of the mountains ; and a few stars are seen glimmering through the intervals of the branches. The whole constitutes a temple worthy of the grandeur of a God. An old man, in a dress of the quaintest simplicity, ascends a platform, wipes the dust from his spectacles, and in a voice of suppressed emotion, gives out a hymn, of which the whole assembled multitude can recite the words, and an air, in which every voice can join. We should deem poorly of the heart, that would not thrill as the song is heard, like 'the sound of many waters, echoing among the hills and mountains. Such are the scenes, the associations, and such the influence of external things upon a nature so fearfully and wonderfully' constituted as ours, that little effort is necessary on such a theme as religion, urged at such a place, under such circumstances, to fill the heart and the eyes. The hoary orator talks of God, of eternity, a judgement to come, and all that is impressive beyond. He speaks of his experience,' his toils and his travels, his persecutions and welcomes, and how many he has seen in hope, in peace and triumph, gathered to their fathers; and when he speaks of the short space that remains to him, his only regret is, that he can no more proclaim, in the silence of death, the mereies of his crucified Redeemer.

There is no need of the studied trick of oratory, to produce in such a place the deepest movements of the heart. No wonder, as the speaker pauses to dash the gathering moisture from his own eye, that his audience are dissolved in tears, or uttering the exclamations of penitence. Nor is it cause for admiration, that many, who poised themselves on an estimation of higher intellect, and a nobler insensibility, than the crowd, catch the infectious feeling, and become women and children in their turn; and though they came to mock, remain to pray.'

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None, but one who has seen, can imagine the interest, excited in a district of country, perhaps, fifty miles in extent, by the awaited approach of the time for a camp meeting; and none, but one who has seen, can imagine how profoundly the preachers have understood what produces effect, and how well they have practised upon it. Suppose the scene to be where the most extensive excitements and the most frequent camp meetings have been, during the two past years, in one of the beautiful and fertile valleys among the mountains of Tennessee. The notice has been circulated two or three months. On the appointed day, coaches, chaises, wagons, carts, people on horseback, and multitudes traveling from a distance on foot, wagons with provisions, mattresses, tents, and arrangements for the stay of a week, are seen hurrying from every point towards the central spot. It is in the midst of a grove of those beautiful and lofty trees, natural to the valleys of Tennessee, in its deepest verdure, and beside a spring branch, for the requisite supply of water.

The ambitious and wealthy are there, because in this region opinion is all-powerful; and they are there, either to extend their influence, or, that their absence may not be noted, to diminish it. Aspirants for office are there, to electioneer, and gain popularity. Vast numbers are there from simple curiosity, and merely to enjoy a spectacle. The young and the beautiful are there, with mixed motives, which it were best not severely to scrutinize. Children are there, their young eyes glistening with the intense interest of eager curiosity. The middleaged fathers and mothers of families are there, with the sober views of people, whose plans in life are fixed, and waiting calmly to hear. Men and women of hoary hairs are there, with such thoughts, it may be hoped, as their years invite. Such is the congregation, consisting of thousands.

A host of preachers of different denominations are there, some in the earnest vigor and aspiring

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The Soul of Man. A Sermon,

preached at the Tabernacle Church, Salem, Mass. April 22, 1832 By Leonard Withington, Pastor of the First Church in Newbury.

This discourse was delivered a few months since, at the Salem Tabernacle Church, and has been published at their request. The text is from Genesis ii. 7.6. And man became a living soul.The reverend author has approached his sub

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ject with a manifestly deep sense both wish to have a mind move to any object, you of its intricacy and its importance; but

take away prejudices and objections. It is true, he has not, for that reason, any the less

the mind is sometimes destroyed, as to its men

tal operations, by physical causes, as in cases of deliberately or laboriously entered into sickness, insanity, drunkenness, or a blow. the examination. He thinks it not only But this is destroying action, rather than mova legitimate subject of philosophical as

ing the mind. The mind itself yields, in its

healthful operations, to no powers but such as well as religious inquiry, but not alto

originate in mind. Even in cases of melgether an unpromising, and far less a ancholy and insanity, it is curious to see how forbidden one. The soul,' he says, 'is

the impulse originating in the nerves or the commonly regarded as something very

brain, must assume a moral aspect before it

can act on the mind. The causes in such case hard to be understood. What is the

are physical, but they are always transformsoul ? was a question once put to Mari- ed into intellectual images by the mind, and vaux. "1 know nothing of it,” he an

in this way they obtain their tyrannic power. swered, “but it is spiritual and immor

Insanity is transformed sensation; sensation

transformed into delusory motives. Thus, a tal."

« Well," said his friend,“ let us painful pressure on the brain, leads a madask Fontenelle, and he will tell us what to think that pain to be caused by a it is." No," cried Marivaux, “ ask

dungeon ; by a chain ; by a treason, and by an any body but Fontenelle, for he has too

approaching trial. Now if you could strip the

pang of all its moral appendages, i. e. take much good sense to know any more about away all the moral, and leave the physical alone, it than we do." Still, mysterious be

he would not suffer half so much. There is a douings as we are, he supposes this subject

ble process here; the pain first causes the mental to be just as much an object of success

amplification of intellectual images, and these

reflects back and increase the pain. So a melanful investigation, as any thing else. We choly mind always finds a whole host of sufobserve its operations, and we observe

ficient causes. li is a kingdom admitting no

laws but its own. its effects, and the more attention a man

It deals with error and with

truth; with guilt and obedience; with hapchooses to give to any of these things, piness and misery; with conscience and with the farther and better he may compre

God. hend them all. This is especially true We can promise those who like the of mental philosophy-or, indeed, spir- blending of metaphysics with morals a itual philosophy, as Mr. Withington very rational treat in the perusal of this would, perhaps, say; inasmuch as it is valuable discourse. The metaphysics one of the advantages to a knowledge are close enough for a doctor of the of our souls, that we always have them middle ages, but as clear as a clear head in possession; they are always, if I may

could make it, while the moral follows so speak, near us. Every man has one after like a shadow. A curious fact is soul, which he may make the subject of furnished in one of the notes. self-examination. The traveler is 0

Several old people have told me of a man (in bliged to cross seas and explore deserts the county of Essex,) very intemperate, who, before he can measure the pyramids or

about thirty years of age, made a resolution that see the waters of the Nile. The astron

he would not drink a drop of spirit for forty

years; he kept it, and the very hour the forty omer must prepare his glasses, and lift years were out, he returned to his cups, and his telescope to the stars, before he can died a drunkard. I have no doubt of the fact. catch the objects of his science. Even But what an instance, to show that the will is

mistress of her own election, &e. the most familiar operations of the material world are objects external to us. We must look abroad to see them; and The Alhambra. By the Author there are mysteries in the most common

of the Sketch Book. process which no man can explain. But the mind is within us—it is ourselves ;

Two volumes of the Chronicles of and we are conscious of all its efforts

Grenada, including sketches of “ Moor and movements; and we have only to

and Spaniard,” might be supposed to

have exhausted the author's materials, register in a faithful recollection what we have thought and felt, and our

or observation. In some degree it has ; knowledge is complete, as far as human

and there are parts of the present work science can go.'

below the standard of Irving; though

there are many excellent works that He then goes on to describe what the soul is not, and what it is. The follow

may well rank beneath that high grade.

The Alhambra, then, has not the freshing passage, in this connection, may be taken as a specimen of the writer's style

ness and polish of the Sketch Book, nor

the humor of “ the Dutch Herodotus." both of argument and composition. We are aware, that this has been

Matter must be moved as matter, and the called, in the London Literary Gasoul must be moved as a soul. If you wish to elevate a rock you apply a lever, but if you

zette, the best of Irving's works; but wish to move a soul, you apply a motive. If

we have several to forget, before we you wish to have a ship removed from the

can so believe. stocks, you knock away the blocks; and if you One of the longest and best of the VOL. III.


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tales is that of “Prince Ahmed al Ka- affecting and wonderful resemblances. mel, or the Pilgrim of Love,” which af- We were somewhat surprised, that a fords the author an opportunity of dis- man of his religious opinions, should playing his best power—that is, a quiet, have given utterance to sentiments like collateral satire and humor, that is not the following: The frankness and cannecessarily a part of the tale, but for dor of the writer is certainly to be comwhich the tale seems, in part, to be a mended; and we apprehend that few vehicle; so that it is hard to say which sectarian preachers of the present day, one was made for the other. Prince would be independent enough to tell Ahmed, it was predicted by the astrolo- so much truth, unasked for. The congers, who spoke upon safe grounds, trast presented in the extract is striking. without asking the stars, was threaten- In these days of refinement,-when there is ed with much danger from love, and his more luxury and extravagance on that very soil, father shut him up in a tower, with the

which was at the time of the landing of our fath

ers a dreary wilderness, and the abode of savage sage Bonabbon, from whom he could

man, than existed in the long settled country of learn as little as from Cato the Censor. their nativity at the time of their embarkation, it The sage,to render the imprisonment less is difficult to conceive of the sacrifices, which they tedious to the Prince, instructed him in

must have made, and the hardships, which they

must have endured, in leaving their homes and the language of birds, but found, too

firesides, and in effecting a settlement in a savlate, that the birds conversed upon little age wilderness. We are accustomed, in these but the fatal and interdicted subjects.

times, to speak of the sacrifices, made by the

missionaries of the cross, and of the trials to Every thing, in fact, conspired to re

which they are exposed, in leaving their native mind the Prince of it, and to urge


country to preach the gospel in foreign lands. to increase his knowledge of the myste- But what are they, when compared with the ry: Every thing to the captive breath- sacrifices and hardships endured by our pilgrim ed of love.

fathers! The servant of the cross, bound to

distant India, is as intimately acquainted with “Methought the billows spoke and told me of it; Calcutta, Bombay, and Ceylon, as if he had The winds did sing it to me, and the thunder, himself been a resident in those pagan cities, That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounced and the little missionary band, who have reThe name."

cently left our shores for the islands of the PaThe nightingale and the dove were,

cific, are already familiar with the natural his

tory of the places of their intended residence,however, the chief instructers of the the former and the present improved character Prince; and the dove brought him a of the inhabitants,--the present state and prosletter from a Princess, similarly impris

pects of the mission, and even with the names,

if not with the persons of the individuals, who oned, for her tendency to similar ab

are expecting to greet their arrival on those disstruse studies. He escaped from his tant shores. Not so, with our pilgrim fathers; prison, and under the guidance of an they knew little or nothing of the place where owl, began his travels to discover the

they intended to settle. They had no knowlPrincess.

edge of the manners, customs, and language of A parrot became the emis

the savage tribes, that inhabited the country sary to the lady; and by the advice of where they expected to reside. All that they his companions with a little aid from

knew, and all that they cared to know, was,

that it was far away from ecclesiastical dominamagic, Prince Ahmed accomplished


that there was no hierarchy, to control the liberation of the Princess, and pass- their faith and mode of worship,-no star chamed, according to the established form, a ber to test their conformity with fire and faggot, happy life. Some of the colloquies with

-no royal prerogative of lordship over the con

science. Of almost every thing else, respecting the owl are very comic. This wise the state and condition of the new world, they bird became prime minister, and th were ignorant. parrot, master of ceremonies. " It is Considered as part of an exclusively needless to say," writes the author, religious celebration, the sermon is ex" that never was a realm more sagely ceedingly well adapted to the occasion. administered, or a court conducted with Its tone is catholic and liberal. more exact punctilios.”

A Discourse, delivered before the The Faith of the Pilgrims; a Ser- Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of mon, delivered at Plymouth, on the Twenty

Intemperance, May 23, 1832. By William Second of December, 1831. By John Cod

Sullivan. man, D.D.

The occasion and the object of this After a brief sketch of the circum- publication we need not take the troustances under which the Forefathers of ble to explain, it being already, we preNew-England commenced their pilgrim- sume, in extensive and useful circulaage which has resulted in the erection tion. The author has treated his subof a new empire in the world, Dr. Cod. ject,-common-place and almost offenman institutes a comparison between sive as it is,--in such a manner as to those pilgrim fathers and the ancestors make it really entertaining as well as of the Jewish nation, and traces out instructive. Waiving statistics and mi

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nute descriptions, in a great measure,

echoes of the axe resound in the forest, which he has looked into history and philos

is next to fall and disappear. ophy, and brought them both to bear, There are several


pasequally and effectively, in unison with sages in the address, which we would the decision of common sense, which extract, but that, as above hinted, it is every man's own experience will con- presumed, that the pamphlet is in the firm.

hands of the greater portion of the As introductory to his address, Mr. New-England population. Some of the Sullivan has given a few facts and writer's arguments in reference to the dates, connected with the origirr and trade in ardent spirits, will not be adprogress of the society he was address- mitted, at present, as legitimate ; and ing, from which we learn that it origin- many, no doubt, will reproach him as a ated in 1805; that the Rev. Dr. Wor- meddler with other men's affairs. In cester, of Salem, was the earliest mover, the extract which follows, the Legislawith a view to social measures of reform ture will find an ample apology for the -but what mind first conceived of the caution it has observed, in reference to abolition of intemperance, cannot now propositions, which, however well-inbe known. Mr. Sullivan says- tended, would, if adopted, have excit

ed an evil, worse than that for which it In Dec. 1813, a circular letter was issued, which

is so desirable to provide a remedy. is signed Samuel Dexter, and which contains conclusive internal evidence, that it came from Legislative and executive authority are somethe gifted mind of this eminent citizen. At the times reproached among us, for the facilities next anniversary meeting an address was deliv- which they afford for the sale of ardent spirits. ered by the reverend Dr. Kirkland, late presi- It is not to be supposed that the moral condident of Harvard University. The first officers tion of society depends on statute laws. Such of this society were chosen in 1813, and were laws provide remedies for private wrongs, for as follows: The Hon. Samuel Dexter, Presi- the regulation of public rights and duties, and dent; Gen. Jolin Brooks, Dr. John Warren, for the punishment of misdemeanors, and great Hon. Benjamin Pickman, Jr. Vice Presidents ; crimes. They do not reach practices, which Rev. Abiel Abbott, Corresponding Secretary ; are right, according to the existing state of pubRev. Joshua Huntington, Recording Secretary ; lic sentiment. Samuel H. Walley, Esq. Treasurer; Rev. John As all legislative bodies, and all executive ofT. Kirkland, Rev. John Lathrop, Rev. Samuel ficers, who depend on popular elections, legisWorcester, Hon. Nathan Dane, Hon. Timothy late, and act pursuant to their perception of the Bigelow, Rev. John Pierce, Richard Sullivan, public will; if we would ha legislation conEsq. Jeremiah Evarts, Esq. Counsellors.

sistent with the calls of humanity, and have exNotwithstanding the eminent names which ecutive discretion applied to reform, it must appear in these earliest efforts, and the faithful first be established, that the public voice delabors bestowed, the plan received little en- mands such legislation and reform. In every couragement. It was held, by many sensible nation, where no military subjection is estabmen, to be visionary. The use of ardent spir- lished, as good laws, and as good rules are found, its was then so common ; it had been so long as the majority desire, or, certainly, as good as approved ; it was so interwoven with the cus- that majority are suited to have. In the case toms of social life, that it was honestly believ- before us, the labors of reformers are not aded to be irremediable by individual exertions, dressed only to those who'make laws and those systematic combinations, or penal laws. Yet who grant licenses to sell spirits, but to all reathe original founders persevered ; many of them sonable beings throughout the community. lived to rejoice in their labors; to behold radical When these, or a powerful majority of them, changes in private opinion; the establishment feel, that it is disgraceful to license the sale, or of numerous societies ; and to die in the be- permit the sale of ardent spirits, the laws will lief, that the day would come, in which the use become, just what the majority would have of ardent spirits, as drink, would be entirely them to be ; and executive officers will know, abolished.

that such laws must be enforced, or that their This effort at reform may be likened to the powers will soon come to an end. The day is, enterprize of our pilgrim fathers. The question probably, not very distant, when our laws wili which these adventurers must have put to prohibit, under sufficient penalties, the sale of themselves, and must have answered affirma- an article, which is admitted by all who pretend tively, was—Can the natives of the forest, who to know right from wrong, to be not only unnehold by a right transmitted through ages, be in. cessary, but the principal cause of disqualificaduced to retire, the wilderness be annihilated, tion to perform any civic or social duty; and the beams of the sun admitted, and the earth the promotive cause of nearly all the crimes adapted to civilization ? So the reformers of in- which disgrace the age. Unless we entirely temperance must have asked, and must have misunderstand the history of mankind, the deanswered, the questions: Can we assail and sign of man's creation, and his power over subdue a practice pervading all classes, to which himself to promote his own welfare, the use of no reproach is attached, and which is connected ardent spirits will, eventually, be abolished, with manly and generous virtues ? Can we pour and society will fence out its presence with as in upon the benighted and deluded world, the much zeal and sincerity, as though it were a fabeams of truth, emanating from Him, who tal and unsparing pestilence. founded the law of self-respect, and self-interest? They answered as the pilgrims answered Ladies' Family Library. By Mrs. -This can be done; and, with the blessings of the ALMIGHTY, it shall be done.

Child. Vol. I. Already, these laborers have advanced so far, The publishers propose to continue and so many have joined in the enterprize, that the border of this dark wilderness is cleared,

this work to several volumes. In the and jg widening and penetrating; and the present volume are biographies of Mad


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ame de Stael, and Madame Roland, the of its distinguished author. It is a
two most extraordinary women of their work much needed, both theoretically
time. The materials for a life of the and practically, for the man of business,
former are not very full, and they were for the lawyer, and, of course, for the
much scattered in various works; Mad- student.
ame Roland, however, left a most mi- No principles are of more common ap-
nute and interesting account of herself. plication than those relating to the Law
The Ladies' Family Library forms a of Bailments. Judge Story makes that
neat and instructive volume.

term equivalent to" a delivery of a thing

in trust for some special object or purCorrespondence between the First

pose, and upon a contract, express or Church and the Tabernacle Church in Salem. implied, to conform to the object or purIn which the Duties of Churches are discuss.

pose of the trust." This definition ined, and the Rights of Conscience vindicated.

cludes Deposites, Mandates, (bailments This is a pamphlet of nearly two hun- without fee,) Loans for use, Pawns, and dred pages, mostly occupied with con- Hirings—the latter department alone troversial-religious matter, upon the comprising four sub-divisions. Under merits of which we shall not here un- one of them is discussed the law of the dertake to decide. The occasion of it right and responsibility of WAREHOUSEwas the application of a lady who had MEN, of WHARFINGERS, of Factors and left one of these Churches, for admit- BAILIFFS. Separate treatises

are also tance to the other. The views of the appropriated to PosT-MASTERS, INN-' former, in relation to the propriety of KEEPERS, Common-CARRIERS, and Cargranting the request, are given succinct- RIERS of PasseNGERS. It must be obvi. ly in a Report appended, among other ous to any man, who trades or travels, documents, to the Correspondence.- in any line of business, or in any secMost of the pa.nphlet is understood, we tion of the country, that principles rebelieve, to be from the pen of the Junior lating to these subjects cannot but be Pastor of the First Church.

continually coming up for his own de.

cision, The saving of time, trouble, Biography of Stephen Girard. By vexation, delay and expense, which Stephen Simpson.

might be effected by a tolerable familiar.

ity with them, on the part of The subject of this biography has


citibeen long known to the public as a

zen, is really beyond calculation. most opulent banker. Something, also, substantive business it is to be familiar

In regard to the profession, whose of his peculiarities of temper, or, as his biographer would call them, of genius, minded of the deficiencies heretofore

with these matters, they need not be rewere known; but Mr. Simpson has supplied much more. His means for gain- Blackstone devotes less than two pages

existing in this branch of the law. ing information were great, and his facts are probably indisputable. But up

to the whole subject of Bailments. Sir on these facts he builds a strange theo

William Jones's Essay is indeed a masry, namely, that Girard was, during tation.

ter-piece of elegant and learned disserhis whole life, incited by the high ambi

But that, like Blackstone's more tion of posthumous fame; or, in other

limited treatise, is by no means without words, that while he lived, he was sor

inaccuracies and deficiences, so far as it did, avaricious and unfeeling, that his

purports to go. Nor does it go far benevolence and philanthropy might be

enough. The most valuable part of the

Law of Bailments has been, not formed the more apparent to posterity. The book contains so many traits of Girard, oughly established, and minutely illus

indeed, but precisely ascertained, thorthat it will be acceptable to all who dalight in strange and anomalous charac

trated, since the publication of the

• Essay.' The illustrations which Judge ters.

A correspondent has furnished some notice of it in another part of the

Story has all along borrowed from the

Civil and Continental Law of Europe, Magazine.

are also an addition of great value and Commentaries on the Law of Bail: great interest. The extraordinary res

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earch devoted to this volume is really a ments. By J. Story, LL. D. 1832.

matter of admiration; the labor must This work will be welcomed by the have been prodigious. The style is legal profession, in this country cer, characteristically luminous, elegant and tainly, and, we doubt not, in England exact. It is the materiel of a practical also, with even more than the deference, man, in the manner of an accomplished which is usually paid to the productions scholar.


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