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notes from circulation, and ceasing its present session. But, he added, why operations. All this would have to be disguise the fact ? This was a question done within that period; for, although, on which it was very interesting to all by its charter, provision was made for the people to know what were the allowing it further time for the collec- opinions of the public servants. The tion of its debts, &c. yet, after the ex- time had come, when the people had a piration of its term, it can issue no right to know, how their servants, from new paper, nor answer any of the pur- the highest to the lowest, intended to poses of a bank of discount. He said act upon this matter. It was, thereit behooved all who were interested in fore, proper that the subject should be public affairs, without exaggeration on acted upon at the present session. the one side, or delusion on the other, The result proved it. No one could to prepare themselves to meet the cri. doubt, after reading this message, that sis. He then went on to show the the question had been agitated not a great importance of the present ques- moment too early. The election of a tion, more especially to the states con- Chief Magistrate was about to take nected with the waters of the Missis- place; a doubt had existed as to what sippi, within whose limits, thirty mill- was the opinion of the present Chief ions of active capital had been fur Magistrate upon this subject : was it nished for business by the bank. He not fit, proper, and expedient, that that drew a picture of the consequences doubt should be resolved ? In this likely to flow from all this facility view, the message, he said, so far from being withdrawn within four years, proving the application of the bank at and of the deep distress which must this session to have been premature, inevitably follow its withdrawal. Το carried on its face the proof of its being the people of the United States, he indispensable. The very fact of the said, it was now plainly put, whether constitutional objections of the Presiin one way, and in one way only, (for dent to the bank, and that, under his the message left no alternative) this auspices, no such bank could ever be evil was to be avoided. Mr. Webster re-chartered or created, demonstrated then proceeded with some remarks the necessity of action upon it at the upon the President's objections to the present session. He touched, also, bill. The first which he adverted to, upon another suggestion of the meswas the objection to the application of sage in relation to the prematurity of the bank for the renewal of its char. the application; which was, that it ter, on the ground that it was prema- would be the fault of the bank if its ture. So far from this objection being affairs were not wound up within the a just one, he said that the time of the period of its charter. This, he said, application was the latest day at which would be impossible, unless the bank the Bank could, with any justice to the were governed by angels instead of public, or any regard to the interest of men. If the interest paid by the peothe stockholders, come forward, if the ple of the western states was as heavy question, whether its charter was to be à drain upon them as represented by renewed or not, was at all doubtful. the message, how much heavier a drain, After adverting to the undoubted right he argued, would that be, which, of Congress to exercise a discretion as within four years, would draw from to the time at which they would act them, not only this interest, but the upon this subject, he said it was neither principal upon which the interest was Congress nor the bank that had first paid ? He enlarged upon the circumagitated the question; for that the stances of the western country, which Executive had not only once, but twice made money more valuable there than and thrice, called on Congress to act in the Atlantic states, and on the disupon the subject. He argued that it tress which would be produced by could not be premature, in 1832, to do withdrawing from them seven and a that which the President had invited half millions of dollars a year, for them to do as far back as December, which they were now paying but six 1829, &c. There was another point of per cent. interest to the Bank of the view, in which, he said, this remark United States, upon the substitute for might have been spared; he meant in which capital they would have to pay reference to those states of the Union a much higher rate of interest, &c. extremely interested in this measure,

Mr. Webster then proceeded to reand which had instructed, unanimously, view the objections of a constitutional their representatives, not only to vote nature contained in the message; the for the renewal of the charter of the different parts of which, he intimated, bank, but to vote for it now, at this were evidently from different hands. VOL. III.


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He entered into an argment on the the sense of the message, unconstitu-
several points made in the message, to tional.
show that they were either unfounded, Mr. Webster next examined the ob-
unsound, or untenable. In this constitu- jections, so often repeated, to the pres-
tional disquisition, some things were res- ent bank, on the ground of its being a
pectable, and some were new. Those monopoly, and showed that it could
which were respectable, he said, were not, in any sense of the term,
not new; and those that were new, he erly so called. He then went into an
left it to be inferred that he considered argument to show the fallacy of the
not very respectable. He examined and other objection which had been made,
refuted the argument drawn from prece- to foreigners being stockholders in the
dent, which he maintained was decid- bank; which, he said, instead of putting
edly on the side of the bank, instead of us in their power, so far as it goes, puts
being against it. He protested against them in ours. The ten millions which
the doctrines of the message, on the they hold in the stock of the bank, so
subject of the independence claimed for far as it had any effect, (small, indeed,
different branches of the Government, it must be) was a hostage in our hands,
pronouncing, without reservation, that, favorable to our peace and prosperity.
if you take away the power of thé He then very seriously deprecated the
Supreme Court, to decide whether a effect of this denunciation, from such
law of Congress, brought before them, high authority, of the holding by for-
is according to the constitution or not, eigners of stock in American funds.
you subvert the government; you take He adverted to the canal stocks of sey-
away the last guard—the last rampart eral of the states-of Ohio, of Penn-
of defence of your political and civil sylvania, of New-York, the prices of
rights; the legislative discretion stands which were every day quoted on the
unrestrained and unrestricted. You London Exchange, and which might
are brought within the predicament be seriously affected, to the injury of
which Mr. Jefferson so much depre- the interests of these states, by this
cated; you have got rid of unrestrained sweeping denunciation, if not counter-
legislation abroad, to have it fastened acted. He ridiculed the idea of such
upon you at home, &c. In regard to investments of their funds in our stocks
the bank question, the whole action of by foreigners, being “ dangerous to lib-
the Government, of the Executive, erty," which he regarded as mere de-
under every President till now, of every clamation, &c.
Congress, and of the Supreme Court, After adverting to some other parts of
had recognized the constitutionality of the message, he dwelt, with great force
the charter of this, as well as of the and some severity, upon that part of the
old bank, &c.

message which states, as an objection Mr. Webster then dwelt at some to the bank on the part of the execulength, on other positions of the mes- tive, that neither upon the propriety of sage, which he considered untenable ; present action, nor upon the provisions such, for instance, as that one Congress of this act, was the Executive consultcannot bind its successors, and that ed. If Congress had not consulted the every thing contained in any bill passed Executive, he said, the Executive had by Congress, that was not absolutely consulted them ; for the President had necessary, as some features of the bank

called their attention, three years ago, charter was said not to be, was uncon- in most emphatic terms, to the subject stitutional. The absurdity of this last of the renewal of the charter of the notion, he illustrated by a reference to bank, and afterwards recommended to the code of criminal law established by them to establish a bank, of which the Congress under the general power to prominent features were, that it was to establish post-offices and post-roads ; have neither property, debt, loans, nor under which, capital punishments were

credit! authorized, which might have been dis- After touching on some other points, pensed with, by substituting other pun.

Mr. Webster said the time had come, ishments for them, and which, there- when we tread on the very edge of a fore, not being necessary, would be, precipice of disaster, general distrust, under the doctrines of the message,

want of sound and safe currency; unconstitutional. There was no power, when the day was advancing which indeed, in the bank charter, he argued, this bank had put, once put an end to, which might not be substituted by and which he had hoped never to see some other of equivalent effect, and again. It was time that the people which was not, therefore, according to should awake to their danger, to a

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sense of which he thought this last vise ways and means for supplying the warning would not fail to arouse them. United States with salt.

Mr. White, of Tennessee, replied to June 13, 1777, Resolved, That it be Mr. Webster, and vindicated the course recommended to the several states, to of the President. The debate was con- erect and encourage, in the most liberal tinued occasionally, by Messrs. Clay, and effectual manner, proper works for Holmes, and others, until Friday the the making of salt. 13th, when the question was put, The country suffered severely for the “ whether the bill should become a law, want of salt during the revolution. the President's objections to the con. The national debt was greatly enhanced trary notwithstanding ?” and was de. by. the extravagant and unavoidable cided in the negative, as follows :- price paid for salt during the war, and (two thirds being necessary to carry a the expense of its transportation. measure against the executive veto.) When the present government was

Yeas-Messrs. Buckner, Chambers, Clay, formed, one of the first acts of taxation Clayton, Dallas, Foot, Frelinghuysen, Hen- laid a duty on salt. It has, with the dricks, Holmes, Johnston, Poindexter, Prentiss, Robbins, Robinson, Ruggles, Seymour, Silsbee,

exception of a few years, been ever Sprague, Tipton, Tomlinson, Webster, Wil

since continued. The manufactures kins-22.

have commenced and grown up under Nays-Messrs. Benton, Bibb, Brown, Dud- the solicitations and encouragement of ley, Ellis, Forsyth, Grundy, Hayne, Hill, Kane, King, Mangum, Marcy, Miller, Moore, Taze

our Government. On the sea board well, Troup, Tyler, White-19.

about $2,000,000 capital has been inInternal improvements. A bill passed

vested in manufacturing salt of sea making appropriations for the prosecu

water, by solar evaporation, and about tion of internal improvements. The

600,000 bushels of best alum salt is following are the most important items. yearly manufactured in more than 1500

establishments, owned by as many perFor the Delaware Breakwater, $270,000 the sea wall at Deer island,

In the interior, salt is still more

60,000 " the pier and mole at Oswego, N. Y. 19,000

easily manufactured from the springs. “ improving Big Sodus Bay, N. Y. 17,000 At the present time salt is manufactur« Genesee River, N. Y.

16,000 « Ocracock Inlet, N. C.

ed in twenty-two states. We manu

22,000 “ Cape Fear River, N. C.


factured, the last season, 4,387,510 “ Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi, 50,000

bushels. We manufactured more than < the Arkansas river,

15,000 we imported. These numerous manu« the Cumberland river,

30,000 « Savannah river,

factories on the sea-board and in the

25,000 expense of surveys under Act 1824, 30,000

interior, distributed through the coun. “ repairs of Cumberland Road (East) 150,000 try, furnishing more than half the salt “ bridges on road to Mars Hill, (Me.) 21,000 used, are competitors with each other, “ Little Rock and Memphis Road, (Arkansas,)

and competitors with the importers of

20,000 « continuing Cumberland Road in

foreign salt. This competition is eerOhio,

100,000 tain to secure the country against odi“ the same road in Indiana,

100,000 " the same road in Illinois,

ous monopolies, which were justly com

70,000 « roads in Michigan,

40,000 plained of in former times. Salt-manufactured and imported. A Tabular view of the quantity of salt The annexed facts are abridged from a imported into the different States and speech of Mr. Reed of Massachusetts, Territories of the United States, durmade in the House of Representatives, ing the calendar year 1829, furnished June 20, on a motion to reduce the from the Treasury Department. duty on salt from ten to five cents a States.

Bushels. bushel.


453,692 In July, 1776, in the continental New-Hampshire,

249,599 Vermont,

1,701 Congress, a committee of thirteen, one Massachusetts,

1,032,083 from each state, was instructed to in- Rhode Island,

94,838 quire, in the recess of Congress, into Connecticut,


1,374,763 the easiest and cheapest method of New York,


609,252 making salt in these colonies.


505,146 Dec. 29, 1776, It was Resolved, District of Columbia,

194,667 That it be earnestly recommended to


293,693 the several Assemblies or Conventions,


322, 107 South-Carolina,

376,367 immediately to promote, by sufficient Georgia,

361,173 public encouragement, the making salt Florida,

6,922 in their respective colonies.


125,986 Louisiana,

318,283 June 3d, 1777, Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to de- Aggregato,


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Importations of salt at the following tracted credits heretofore existing and places in the year 1831.

the change in the legal value of the Passamaquoddy,

13,169 pound-sterling, which is now fixed at Frenchman's Bay,

2,833 four dollars and eighty cents, instead of Penobscot,

29,690 four dollars and forty-four cents. The Belfast,

17,942 Waldoborough,


law will go into operation on the 3d of Wiscasset,


March, 1833. Bath,


Day of Humiliation. A resolution Portland,

233,369 Kennebunk,


was introduced into the Senate by Mr. Portsmouth,

197,952 Clay, and afterwards passed that body, Vermont,

9,552 requesting the President to appoint a Newburyport,

48,619 Gloucester,

day of fasting, humiliation and prayer,

13,702 Salem,

20,824 in consequence of the appearance of the New-Bedford,


Cholera in this country. In the House Dighton,


of Representatives the resolution unPlymouth,

48,648 Marblehead,


derwent considerable discussion, and Boston,

444,719 two or three modifications. It failed, Providence,

79,345 after being so changed in its substance Bristol,


as to make the recommendation the act Newport, Middletown,


of the two Houses of Congress, without New-London,

10785 calling upon the President on the subNew-Haven,

60,728 ject. "It was laid on the table, on moFairfield,


tion of Mr. Adams of Massachusetts. Champlain,

879 Oswegatchie,


Patents. An act concerning Patents New-York,


and Useful Inventions makes it the Bridgetown,

5,435 Philadelphia,

227,502 duty of the Secretary of State, annually, Delaware,

5,721 in the month of January, to report to Baltimore,

222,098 Congress, and to publish in two of the Vienna,

4,326 Georgetown,

newspapers printed in the city of WashAlexandria,

43,241 ington, a list of all the patents for disRichmond,

116,238 coveries, inventions, and improvements, Petersburg,

52,113 which shall have expired within the Norfolk,

132,193 Camden,

22,688 year immediately preceding, with the Edenton,

17,819 names of the patentees, alphabetically Plymouth,

15,549 arranged. Application to Congress to Washington,

5,891 prolong or renew the term of a patent, Newbern,

16,272 Beaufort,


shall be made before its expiration, and Wilmington,

31,195 shall be notified at least once a month Charleston,

372,055 for at least three months before its preSavannah,

275,699sentation, in two newspapers in which Mobile,

231,118 Key West,


the laws of the United States shall be Apalachicola,

550 published in the state or territory in Saint Marks,

6,124 which the patentee shall reside. The New Orleans,

526,402 Brunswick,


petition shall set forth particularly the

grounds of the application. It shall be Bushels,

4,494,006 verified by oath; the evidence in its Gross duty at 15 cents per bushel, $674,100 90.

support may be taken before any judge T. L. SMITH, Register. or justice of the peace ; it shall be acTREASURY DEPARTMENT,

companied by a statement of the ascerRegister's Office, 7th June, 1832.

tained value of the discovery, invenThe Tariff. The passage of the new tion, or improvement, and of the receipts tariff was one of the last important acts and expenditures of the patentee, so of the session. The history of its pro

as to exhibit the profit or loss arising gress and the attending circumstances therefrom. The act also provides that and debates would form an interesting whenever a patent shall be invalid or volume, and will not, of course, be ex- inoperative, by reason of inadvertence, pected in these brief monthly abstracts. accident or mistake, and without any The bill reduces the duties on various fraudulent or deceptive intention, the articles of importation, and yet, is said Secretary of State may cause a new by its friends to recognize the principle patent to be granted for the residue of of protection to all important branches. the unexpired period of the original of domestic industry. Its most impor- patent, &c. tant features are, the abolition of mini- Adjournment. The session of Conmums on woollen goods--the establish- gress closed on Monday, July 16, at ing of cash duties, instead of the pro- eight o'clock in the morning.




History of the late Polish Revolu- to throw off, was dreadful beyond any tion, and the Events of the Campaign. By thing we have ever imagined. A bruJoseph Hordynski, Major of the late Tenth tal savage, bore unlimited sway over Regiment of Lithuanian Lancers.

Poland. All offices under him were We believe that there is no Ameri- filled by Russians, or such Poles as can who did not take a deep interest in merited the abhorrence of their counthe late glorious, though unsuccessful, trymen. Such officers of the Polish struggle of the Poles for freedom.

army as were displeasing to the Grand Their cause was the cause of mankind; Duke, were treated with extraordinary their revolt might be considered an severity, and many escaped from the operation of that system which our own tyrant by suicide. The privates, who fathers set in motion, and their chival- had hitherto been governed by the rous character was an irresistible claim sense of honor, were now directed in upon our sympathies. Every one wish- their motions by the knout, like the ed them success; every one desired to slave-born Russians. The liberty of see the effects of Muscovite tyranny the press was abolished, and a terrible circumscribed. The book before us, if system of espionage substituted in its it be a true record of facts, as we doubt stead. There were nine hundred spies not it is, proves that our esteem for the in Warsaw alone. The citizens were Poles and our abhorrence of despotism arrested on the bare word of a vile spy, were equally well founded.

and condemned without trial or hearThe History of the late Polish Revo- ing. No expense or pains were spared lution, cannot be said to be well writ- to corrupt the nation. The fountains ten, as far as mere style is concerned. of moral and social life were poisoned, There are, however, many allowances or choked up. No man dared to speak to be made for this defect. The author freely to his most intimate friend, for and his editor were obliged to commu- Russian gold had made it dangerous to nicate with each other in a language have a friend. Foreigners were foreign to both. The original Polish ployed as informers, and even women, manuscript was first translated by the who were accounted ladies, were bribed author into French, with which he was to report the words and deeds of their not perfectly acquainted, and was then nearest and dearest friends. The worrendered into English by several dif- thiest sons of Poland were daily cast ferent persons, one of whom was a into dungeons on the slightest pretences, foreigner. The author could not read and, will it be believed ?-married wohis work in its new dress, and there men were incarcerated for repelling the were other circumstances, not attribut- criminal advances of Russian Generals. able to the editor, which prevented him The most ruinous monopolies were from correcting what was amiss. These granted to individual favorites, and the facts being considered, it is not wonder- whole land groaned under a general ful that the work contains many slips system of extortion. Such was the tyin grammar and verbal errors. These, ranny which the Poles at last rose to however, do not hinder it from being in resist. a very high degree instructive and in- Great as their wrongs were, the Poles teresting. Till now, we have had no showed a moderation of which there is continuous account of the Polish rev- no other example in history. They not olution, or any means of accounting only spared the Grand Duke's life, but for its failure. This book supplies suffered him to depart, though they the deficiency. The author was an eye- might easily have made prisoners of witness of, and an actor in, what he him and his army. They gave quarter describes. He shows, indeed, a lauda- to the Russian troops who opposed them ble partiality for his compatriots, and a

in arms. Two only of the Polish ofstrong dislike of the Russians; but we ficers who proved faithless to their are satisfied, that what he sets dow country, fell by the popular indignafact, may be confidently received as tion. Persons and property were resuch. His manner of relating events ligiously respected. No individual is bold, spirited and concise. There is was molested unnecessarily, nor was no amplification, no waste of words in any private house or shop forcibly enhis book, and we are sure that no one tered. Ladies sat at the windows by will ever yawn over it.

which the insurgent troops were marchAccording to Major Hordynski, the ing without fear or danger. What oppression which the Poles endeavored makes this forbearance more remark


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