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effects of whose efforts have been most per. manent.
William Grocyn, fellow of New College, Oxford, perfected his knowledge of the Greek tongue at Florence, under Demetrius, Chalcondylas, and Politian; and at Rome under Her. molaus Barbarus. On his return to England, and before the year 1490, he voluntarily became the first lecturer in that language at Oxford. It is affirmed, however, by Polydore Virgil, probably from a partiality to his own country, that Cornelius Vitellus, an Italian, of noble birth and great learning, was the first who taught the Greek and Roman classics in that university. · John Tiptoft, the unfortunate earl of Woreester, was inferior to none of the ecclesiastics of his time in his diligent pursuit of ancient learning. He studied at Padua; and by the purity and elegance of his Latinity, recommended himself to the notice of pope Pius the Second, and other literati of the Italian school, His Latin letters still remain to evince the justness of this encomium. Moreover, he translated Cicero's Dialogue on Friendship, into English; which was printed by Caxton, in 1481, fol. He likewise translated into Eng
lish two elegant Latin orations of Banatusius Magnomontanus, supposed to be spoken by C. Scipio, and C. Flaminius, rivals in the courtship of Lucretia. These were also printed by Caxton, with Tully's two Dialogues · above mentioned. Tiptoft was the general patron of all those of his countrymen, who were actuated with the curiosity to penetrate the mines of antiquity, and to enter on the new plan of study. The Humphredian library at Oxford was instituted about this time; and he had prepared a present for it of select MS, books, valued at five hundred marks ; though there is some doubt whether, at the earl's execution in 1470, they had ever been received by the university.' Wood observes, that he had meditated a similar benefaction to Cambridge.
Italy was at this time the general mart for ancient authors, especially the Greek classics; and it is scarcely questionable that the above MSS. were purchased there. The Turkish emperors, now seated at Constantinople, were iga norant of the value of these treasures; and they became interesting objects of commerce to Italian emissaries dispatched to purchase books, which they afterwards sold in their own coun,
try. It was chiefly through this channel that the famous Florentine library was formed by Cosmo and Laurence of Medici, and by the
dukes of Florence, their munificent succes"- sors.
Lilly, the famous grammarian, resided, about the year 1500, during five years, in the island of Rhodes. 'Hence, we are informed by Rhenanus, that he was not only acquainted with the whole circle of Grecian authors, but with the domestic life and familiar conversation of the Greeks. He was the first teacher of Greek at any public school in England. He was appointed head master of St. Paul's school, in 1510, by dean Collet, the founder, After his residence at Rhodes, he added an additional polish to his Latin stile at Rome, under Johannes Sulpicius, and Pomponius Sabinus; and thus became one of the most accomplished scholars of his age. He died of the plague in 1522.
This practice of visiting Italy and Greece for instruction, was encouraged by some of the bishops, though they had received their education in the English universities. Pace, one of our learned countryrnen, and friend of Erasmus, was removed, while yet a boy, by Langton, bishop of Winchester, from the school within the precincts * of his own palace, to the university of Padua. The same bishop bequeathed by will to this his scholar, an exhibition of ten pounds a year, for seven years, . to support him while studying at Bononia. His instructors at Paduą were Cuthbert Ton, stal, afterwards bishop of Durham, and Hugh Latimer.
Again, before the year 1520, Richard Croke, one of the first restorers of the Greek language in England, was educated at the expence of archbishop Wareham, at the universities of Paris, Louvain, and Leipsic. He afterwards succeeded Erasmus in the Greek professorship at Cambridge. Croke published at Cologne, Introductiones in Rudimenta Græca, 1520, de dicated to his patron archbishop Wareham,
About this time, strong symptoms were manifested, that the mists of ancient prejudice
* It was customary in these carly times, for the bishops to educate in their families a number of youths, particularly the sons of the nobles and of gen:lemen. In the 13th century, Grosthete, bishop of Lincoln, educated in this manner most of the nobility in the kingdom. These youths were placed there iq quality of pages: Filios nobilium procerum regni, quos secum habuit domicellos.—Cardinal Wolsey likewise educated in his house many of the young nobility.
were clearing off. From the year 1503 to the reformation, nearly twenty new grammar schools were founded and endowed in Eng land—a greater number than had been esta blished for three centuries before. Among these was cardinal' Wolsey's school at Ipswich-an institution which rivalled those of Winchester and Eton. In addition to the scholars, it consisted of a dean, twelve canons, and a numerous choir.
As early as the year 1506, we find a lecturer established at Christ's College, în Cambridge ; who, together with logic and philosophy, is ordered to read vel ex poetarum, vel ex oratorum operibus. This was in the course of col. legiate discipline. A more decisive instance of an attempt to depart from the ancient contracted plan of education, occurs in the appointment of two professors for the Greek and Latin languages, by Fox, bishop of Winchester, on his founding of Corpus Christi Cole lege, Oxford, in the year 1517. The Latin professor is expressly directed to extirpate barbarism from the new society; and his course of lectures was not restricted to the limits of the college, but open to the students of the university in general. The Greek lecturer