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Professor Strong, of Hamilton College, and Dr. Bowditch, of Boston. The answer, by the editor, to the sixteenth question, is recommended to the attention of teachers of navigation. It shows conclusively that the fundamental stating of plane sailing is erroneous, when the actual figure of the earth is taken into consideration, or else, that the term, difference of latitude, must be wrested from its only true and appropriate meaning. Professor Strong and Dr. Bowditch sent the only solutions to the nineteenth question, (by Professor Adrain,) requiring the nature of the curve described by a body projected obliquely along a given inclined plane, when the resistance is uniform. *
Dr. Bowditch's solution is a master-piece of science, taking, up the question on its fundamental principles, without the aid of formulæ previously demonstrated, and pursuing it with admirable ingenuity through all its modifications, varieties, and consequences. The prize solution to a very elegant question in plane geometry, proposed by Mr. Fleming, is also by Dr. Bowditch, and is a fine specimen of skilful geometrical analysis.
The questions in No. II. are marked by the same variety of difficulty, as those of No. I. Some of them are so easy as to be within the reach of the least experienced analyst, while others rise to the more elevated regions of the science. Among the latter, we may remark the extension of the thirteenth question of No. I. to a higher order of lemniscates, and a beautiful prize question by Professor Adrain. A mathematician's genius, it is said, is sometimes as well shown by his questions as by his solutions. Certainly no one, who has any pretensions to science, will read the question we have last mentioned, without being forcibly struck with the speculative ingenuity of the proposer.
We need scarcely repeat, that the Mathematical Diary has our best wishes for its success.
Art. XIV.–The Duties of an American Citizen. Two dis
courses delivered in the first Baptist Meeting House in Boston, on Thursday, April 7, 1825, the day of public fast. By FRANCIS WAYLAND, jun. Pastor of first Baptist Church in Boston. Boston. James Loring, 1825.
These discourses are an example of those speculations, which are daily growing more and more common, both in this country
* It is a little singular that this case of uniform resistance, (of friction for example,) although it is the only one of any practical use, has been altogether overlooked by the English mathematicians.
and in Europe, respecting the intellectual, political, and moral progress of the age. The great impulse communicated to society at the revival of letters, and which has never ceased to act, but has continually increased in activity and strength, is now grown so rapid and powerful, as to make itself felt by the most inattentive observer. Formerly we were in the habit of com- . paring large portions of time with each other—the ancients with the moderns, the days of Grecian and Roman civilization with the middle ages, and these again with the age
which has succeeded them. Now we do not content ourselves, with even comparing century with century,—we cannot be satisfied without noting the changes of society from year to year.
The denomination of Baptists, to which Mr. Wayland belongs, although numbering among its divines some very learned and able men, has been accused, and with some ap- . pearance of reason, of neglecting, and even of discouraging, the acquisition of general literature among its clergy. To this charge, if it be well founded, Mr. Wayland is an honorable exception. It is delightful to see such a man laying aside, for a time, the peculiar dialect of his sect, and entering into the discussion of subjects, connected with the general welfare and happiness of the community. This he has done in the present instance with great ability. From considering, in the first place, the present intellectual and political condition of the nations of Europe, he passes to the examination of our own relations with the old world, and thence deduces the duties, which, as citizens of the United States, we owe to our country, and to the pre
Mr. Wayland rightly divides the inhabitants of Europe into two great classes—those who support a government of will, and those who desire a government of law—the enemies and the friends of political and religious toleration. It seems to us, however, that he has fallen into some inaccuracy, in denominating the former the Catholic, and the latter the Protestant party. It is not always among the Protestants that the con. science is left free, nor is the enlightened Catholic the necessary enemy of toleration. No particular set of doctrines is certain to protect a people against civil or religious despotism. The tyranny which oppresses the Catholics of Ireland is as wicked and inexcusable, as that which crushes the liberals of Spain.
ART. XV.-Scena Quarta dell' Atto Quinto di Adad, Poema
Drammatico, del Signor GIACOMO A. HILLHOUSE. Tradotta in Verso Italiano da L. Da Ponte. New-York. Stampatori Gray e Bunce. 1825.
This is an Italian translation of the fourth scene of the fifth act of Mr. Hillhouse's last drama. Mr. Da Ponte has shown great taste and judgment in the selection of this scene, because, besides its intrinsic merit and independent interest, it exhibits in one view most of the characteristic features of the author's style and manner. Our readers will recollect that this is the part where Hadad, with all the ardor and eloquence of love, urges Tamar to desert her father's court, and fly with him to some “ far peaceful shore." The whole of this scene is rendered with remarkable fidelity, fluency, and force. The design of the original is fully seized by the translator, and its spirit extremely well sustained.
What is remarkable, and very unusual in versions from the English, there is something very Italian in the whole effect of this translation. This is partly to be ascribed, to what was probably an unintentional approach on the part of Mr. Hillhouse, to the Italian dramatic style, and partly to the address of the translator, who has so well availed himself of this resemblance, that scarcely a trace of foreign manner is left in what he has done.
The lines enumerating the unearthly splendors with which Hadad seeks to tempt the wondering and agitated gir', are beautifully rendered; and, indeed, throughout, Mr. Da Ponte shows himself completely master of that portion of his art, which consists in rising and subsiding with the inequalities of his author. Hadad's description of the progress of his passion, has all the fire and fervid vehemence of the original.
« Adad. Alle porte
Lucide visioni s' aggiravano*
Dello scorpio sentii."--pp. 11, 12. The translation of the rest of this fine scene is equally well executed. The spirit's thrilling narrative of his own daring crime, and Tamar's amazement, horror, grief, and desperate abjuration of his love, are given with all the power and passion of the English poem. The following concluding lines are strikingly dramatic: “ Tam. Ma ben or ti conosco, e abbiuro, ed odio
Più di quanto t'a mai, senza sapermi
Ad. (con furor demoniaco.) Basta! avrem tempo
Tam. Ahi salva me-me salva,
gran Dio di Giacobbe, e di Davidde !"-p. 16. Of the mere style, it is scarcely necessary to speak. The language is eminently poetical throughout, reminding us alternately of Zeno, Metastasio, and Monti, with now and then a verse which Alfieri might have written. We have not been able to detect in the translation, a single deviation from the general purity of the translator's language; and it is, no doubt, this remarkable exemption from the prevailing vice of Gallicism, that makes, by the contrast, even the pardonable “mi lusingo” of the dedication, strike us as a blemish and an oversight. We cannot conclude without expressing our regret, that the beautiful language of Italy is not yet sufficiently cultivated among us, to induce Mr. Da Ponte to give to the whole of Mr. Hillhouse's poem, a dress, wbich, judging from the specimen before us, would set off its numerous beauties to the greatest possible advantage.
* This verso sdrucciolo has a fine effect.
A LITERARY TRIFLER.
34 N. 6, Bryant The class of literary triflers is not by any means numerous in our country. I speak of those who are so, not casually, and in the intervals of business, but of those who are so by constant habit, and by profession. The genius of our nation is so practical—the men of education among us are so generally distributed among the learned professions, and other pursuits which require diligent occupation—that an instance of an individual, giving up his time and faculties to the mere toys and accidents of science and literature, is actually a sort of phenomenon. One of these, however, bas lately fallen under my observation, and I am going to give the world his description.
A few years since, I had occasion to make a journey through the middle states. For the sake both of economy and expedition, I travelled in the stage coach. Contrary to my usual fortune in such cases, (which is, to be crammed so closely among a crowd of passengers, that I am denied all use of my limbs while in the coach, and find that I have almost lost power to use them when I get out of it,) I had, for the whole first day, no companion. I was delighted with this circumstance, which seemed to me a dispensation from inconvenience and impertinence, and gave me an opportunity of pursuing my own reflections without interruption. I formed plans for the transaction of my business when I should arrive at my place of destination. I looked on the face of nature, as it lay in the deep verdure of summer, and watched the continual changes in the scenery as we passed. I speculated on the difference in the soil and productions of the different districts through which I was travelling. I whistled, sung, lolled on the three seats of the coach, and when I wished to hear another human voice than my own, I put my head out of the window, and talked to the good-natured driver about his horses.
The next morning I had the prospect of passing another day in the same manner. I was still alone, but solitary travelling