« ZurückWeiter »
specimen of this cuttle-fish favoured me by Capt. Fayrer, was found on the shore (I believe) at Portpatrick, in April 1835. The length of body is 3 inches, the breadth 2, head it, arms 7 inches. This individual differs only from that described by Dr. Grant, Flem. Brit. Anim.' p. 254, in size, and in the trivial difference of the arms being webbed beyond the twelfth sucker. The specimens which I have seen cast ashore on the opposite coast of Ireland were generally about the size of the present one.
HORRID CRAB. (Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iv. p. 6, pl. 8, fig. 14.) Lithodes Maja, Leach. By Dr. Wylie, of Ballantrae, I have been favoured with a very fine specimen of this crab, which was taken in a herring net there in the summer of 1838, and in water from twenty to thirty fathoms in depth. It was brought to Dr. W. by the fishermen, as a species they had never before met with.
Hyas coarctatus, Leach. In April 1835, specimens of this crab were sent me from Portpatrick by Capt. Fayrer.
LONG-HORNED CRAB. (Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iv. p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 3.) Porcellana longicornis, Edw. Crust. t. 2, p. 257. Received with the last.
PLAITED LOBSTER. (Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iv. p. 15, pl. 14). Galathea strigosa, Fabr. Received with the last.
LONG-CLAWED LOBSTER. (Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iv. p. 14, pl. 13). Galathea rugosa, Edw. Crust. t. ii. p. 274. Received with the last.
All the species here enumerated, except the three first mentioned, have been obtained on the opposite coast of Ireland.
Belfast, Nov. 12th, 1839.
ART. IV.-On the Monkeys known to the Chinese, from the native
authorities. By Samuel Birch, Esq. Assist in the Dept. of Ant. of the Eng. Sec. Brit. Mus.; Assist. Sec. to the Archæological
Institute of Rome. At a period not very remote the writer of the present article, to aid the researches of a naturalist relative to the monkeys known to the Chinese, undertook a series of translations from the 'San tsae too hwuy,' or 'Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Three Sciences,' of the descriptions annexed to the plates of the various monkeys that are found in the division of Zoology in that exceedingly interesting work. The great Encyclopedia of Ma twan lin did not at that time, to the writer's knowledge, exist in London; and the distractions incident to
the business of life have not allowed him the leisure to inspect a copy of it, should it be in the possession of University College, in the splendid library of Dr. Morrison. Although the ‘Kang-he tsze teen' was not minutely examined, it was occasionally referred to; but since Chinese plates are far better than descriptions for the general enquirer, the “San tsae too too hwuy' was the work chiefly consulted, and other works used in a subsidiary point of view, to eke out its deficiencies. Some idea seemed fixed in the naturalist's mind that a higher order of apes than either the oran-otan, or chimpanzee, had been said to exist in China; and accordingly the native authorities were most diligently searched, in order to find the animal in question, and the results, such as they are, are now at the disposal of zoologists.
The oldest work which contains pictorial illustrations, is the “Shan hae king,' or ‘Book of hills and streams,' a very dull itinerary of the empire, full of mythological ideas relating to “dragon-haunted streams and elf-frequented hills,” but excessively monotonous and prosy in its general narrative.It is illustrated with an ample commentary, and was written during the dynasty of Han; being of some archæological interest, but tiring to the patience of the general reader. In this book appears a plate of an animal called Sing-sing or Sang-sang; and the account, as well as the plate, have been implicitly followed by the Encyclopedia which appeared under the dynasty of Ming. As this is the animal called oranotan by the Jesuits and Dr. Morrison, a short description of the plate is necessary. As figured, it is essentially man; it stands erect, with a broad human countenance, and mass of frontal brain; it has feet, not hands, on its posterior extremities : in its left hand, articulated as in mankind, it holds a bunch of fruit, in its right, a young animal of the same class. The features are Caucasian, and its hair reaches from the crown of the head, whence it falls in rich profusion, to the earth. “In its exterior appearance," says the Shan hae king, “it is like an ape; it walks with its face down, runs erect, and comes out of the Chaouyaou hills.”—(Plate iii. 1). The description annexed to the plate of the 'San tsae too hwuy' states, “Tseo shan yew show chwang joo yu, luy Me-how, fa-chuy ta; keang-tung shan chung yih yew ming Sing-sing nang yen. In the Tseo magpie hills there are animals whose external appearance is like an ape's of the Mehowspecies; their hair' reaches to the earth. In the Keangtung hills there are animals called Singsing, that can speak."-(Zoology, Book iv. Art. 39). In the ‘Kang-he tsze tsen, under the article Sing, are collected a number of accounts from other diction
aries relative to this animal ; and as this work forms an integral part of every Chinese library, it will be unnecessary to quote the original text, since it is readily accessible to sinologists in general. Sing, (after the usual preliminaries as to pronunciation),“ The Yupeen observes that the Sing are like dogs with a human face; the Kwangyun that they are like an ape; the Urh ya shih show that they are small, and addicted to weeping; the Shan hae king, that it has a man's face, a swine's body, can converse, and is found in the Fung ke heen of Keaoule (Cochin China); also that its external appearance is like a Hwan,2 and that its cry resembles a pig's squeak, or a child's weeping; the Leo ke-le, that the Singsing can speak, but is nevertheless a beast." Nearly similar stories are given of the Sang.
The term “swine's body” does not ill apply to the comparative nakedness of the oran-otan's, when considered in relation with the other apes, as a reference to any specimen will fairly prove. The conversational powers of this animal is a fiction purely Chinese, from its mournful chattering note.But the most interesting account of it is in the Ching tsze tung Dictionary; where, after narrating at some length the manner of catching them, by means of wine and wooden shoes, the following opinions of ancient works are quoted on the subject. “The Sho wan says that the Sing-sing make a hasty noise, like a dog's bark, and nothing more. Toopo, in the account of the southern hills, gives a plate representing a Sang-sang like a monkey. In the description of the interior southern rivers, it is stated, there are plates representing the Sang-sang like a dog, also a Sing-sing whose external appearance resembles a monkey. It can speak, and each part has three feet. The original representation is like an ape, it runs erect, but walks prone to the earth, like a dog. It is said to be naturally addicted to wine, and fond of lighting a fire. It can speak, that is to say, it can emit a sound like a child, and it knows how to keep up a conversation.There are two sorts of Sing-sing and Sang-sang, the great and small; and without doubt they can speak as a dog does to a dog, by assuming a kind of angry note. However, Too and the plates are "at spear and shield' (contradict each other); if they are in the shape of a dog they cannot speak like a man. In the Shan hae king in the account of the interior southern
1"Gems Arranged,' a Dictionary mentioned in Dr. Morrison's preface, as well as the Kwang yun. The Urh ya, a quarto-sized work, is pictorial like the San tsae &c.
2 This animal is sometimes said to be like a wild swine, at others like a wild dog.
rivers it is stated, that three hundred le up in the woody district of Tsowsze there are male Sang-sang. In the history of the eastern latter Hans, it is said that there exists a tradition among the southern barbarians, that the Yen-mang foreigners have birds called Hoke (game cocks ?) and Sang-sang.” In the Japano-Chinese Encyclopedia entitled the 'Heuen cheuen too hwuy,' or 'Collection of Plates explaining Sounds, a copy of which is in the possession of the British Museum, and is the identical one brought by Kæmpfer from Japan, purchased of him by Sir Hans Sloane, and from which many of the plates in his work are taken ;-is a plate (part xii. 9) of the Sing-sing, here evidently an oran-otan walking erect, with large ears, black body, and short cur-like tail. There is no description attached to it.
From the mass of evidence presented upon this subject, evidence so totally discrepant and conflicting, comparatively little can be gleaned. The Sing-sing is most probably the oran-otan, elevated by popular tradition into a rank intermediate between man and monkey. In the natural history of a people who have committed errors so gross and ludicrous, as will be shown in the course of this communication, and who admit into their system every monstrosity that morbid imagination has conceived, the assumption is almost prova ed. At the same time it comes within the limits of the circle of probabilities, that in the interior, so unexplored, so wild, and so infested by brigandage, there may exist a race of men driven out of the pale of human civilization, like the Cargot or the Guoita, and degraded by popular opinion into animals ; or that in a country where infant exposure is tolerated through the maximum of its population, some idiots, whose life has been spent amidst the mountains, may have presented the melancholy spectacle of a humanity so depraved that its fellow-wearers have refused to admit it into their privileges.
Another type that falls into this class is the 'Joojin, or man-like." In the 'Shan hae king' it is called Tung yang (eastern sun man), and placed among the races of men ; but in the San tsae &c. it is arranged among beasts. If ever it had existence, it must have been man. It walks erect, is not quadrumanous, and the only circumstance that could have given rise to a notion of its being a beast, must have been the extraordinary appearance of the head, which, in the engravings, looks as if an incision had been made in the skin of the forehead,
1 The Joo jin is apparently the oran-otan, but has the addition of hair. For the indications of the scientific names of the animal, the writer is indebted to John Edward Gray, Esq. of the British Museum.
and the cuticle thrown down over the mouth, entirely covering the eyes, and rendering the visage totally irrecognisable. The plates and descriptions are the same in both, viz.“Tung-yang kwo yew Yu-yu, Urh ya tso fuh-fuh chwang e jin hih shin pa fa, keen jin tsih seаou seaou, tsih yèn ke-muh Too-po yun fuh-fuh wae show pa fa Sing-suh hwo jin seaou chin-yen kemuh chung nae Kaou-taou fan wei go tsan." _"In the kingdom of Tung yang are inhabitants which the Urh ya calls Fuhfuh; their appearance is human, with black body and straggling hair. When they behold mankind they smile, then become alarmed and screen their eyes. Toopo says that the Fuhfuh are monsters with straggling hair and Sings' feet, and that when they catch men they smile, become alarmed, screen their eyes, burst out into a loud wail, and turn back to kill us.
The Tung-yang (eastern sun) kingdom may possibly refer to the Corea. The word Fuhfuh is here written with the substitution of the sixtieth for the ninety-fourth radical of the language, an occurrence not uncommon in Chinese literature. From the term, Sings' feet, it is evident that the writer contemplated the hand-shaped foot (to use such a term) of the ape tribe, as distinguished from that of man. Analogous to this monkey is the Fuhfuh, of which some account is given under its name in the Kang hè &c.—“ The Urhya &c. affirms that it is like a man, with straggling hair, walks rapidly and eats men.
The Shan hae king, that in appearance they are like men, with long lips, with black hairy body; they turn back and follow men's footsteps when they see them, and then laugh. In the hills of Keaoukwang, and also in the Nang kang district, are beasts of a large size, ten cubits long, commonly called Shan too. The Shan hae king calls them Neaouyang (vicious goats), and also Kan. In the chapter of kings in the Annals of Chow, the northern provinces are said to call them Toolow (babblers).” Similar accounts are given of this animal in the ‘Ching tze tung,' and in the Japano-Chinese Encyclopedia is a plate representing the Fuhfuh sitting upright. The lower extremities of the animal are not visible; but from what is seen, it bears considerable resemblance to the mandrills, or ribbed-nose baboons. It is called in Japanese fi-fi. Fuh-fuh yew tso fuh-fuh ming neaouyang hwo e (?) Shantoo yih tung. “ The suh-fuh,' also
See second reduplication in the text. In the preface or abstract of contents, after the character Sing, Zyao occurs some Japanese at the side of Fuh; Fi-fi; by the aid of Mr. Medhurst's Vocabulary the two terms have been made out, but the reading of the Hiragana character is not easy. The Fuhfuh is not very distinct, and is the Simia Nasutus or Papio Maimon.