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The following list of fossil shells from the Norwich crag is the joint work of Mr. Searles Wood, F.G.S., Mr. G. Sowerby, F.L.S., and the author; the fact of certain species being common or not to the red and coralline crag of Suffolk, being given exclusively on the authority of Mr. Wood.


The fossil shells in this list have all been found in the immediate neighourhood of Norwich, except where Southwold is mentioned as the locality. All the recent species, of which the habitations are not given, belong to the British seas.

Explanation of the Signs.-The * prefixed to a name implies that the species is now living; where a ? is added, the identification has been considered doubtful, either from the imperfect state of the specimens, or the want of a sufficient number of fossil or recent individuals to allow of a satisfactory comparison. In estimating the per-centage of living species, two of these doubtful cases have been counted as one, the authors anticipating that at least one half of the number will eventually be identified.

The mark ...... in either of the columns headed “Red Crag'and.Cor. Crag,' denotes that the species against which it is placed is also found in one or both older deposits. •Min. Con.' Sowerby's Mineral Conchology.


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1*Pholas crispata, Lamarck, *Solen siliqua, Lamarck, Mya lata, Min. Con.

pullus, including M. subovata of Woodw. list 5* arenaria,

truncata, Mont. *LUTRARIA compressa, Lam. (Mactra Listeri of

Woodward), *? MACTRA magna, Woodward, (Mactra stultorum ??)...

solida, Mont. (Mac. ovalis, Min. Con.).... 10

arcuata, Min. Con......

subtruncata, Mont. (M. cuneata of Woodw.) *AMPHIDESMA Boysii, Leach,

n. s. one valve only, *CORBU LA nucleus, Lam. (C. rotundata, Min. Con.) 15*SAXICAVA rugosa, Lamarck, *Tellina crassa, Mont. (Tel. obtusa, Min. Con.)

obliqua, Min. Čon. *? -ovata, Min. Con. same as Tel. triangularis,

Wahl. (Tel. calcarea of some authors) of Nor

wegian seas, TELLINA pretenuis, Woodward, 20*

solidula, Montagu, found fossil at Crost

wick, near Norwich. *?

-fabula, one valve of fossil from Southwold. Lucina, n. S. allied to divaricata. Mr. Wood thinks

that the ligament in this species was internal,

radula, (L. antiquata, Min. Con.)

Cor. Crag.

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Red Crag. Lucina, n. s. allied to Tellina rotundata, Montagu, 25*Donax trunculus, Montagu. *?Astarte plana, Min. Con. (very near Ast. borealis).

compressa, Mont. (including Ast, angulata of Woodward's list),

n. 8. allied to Ast. obliquata, Min. Con...

-oblonga, Min. Con. 30*CYPRInA islandica,

.? CYTHERÆA, n. s. allied to C. lineata, Min. Con. *Venus? paphia, Mont. including Astarte ovalis and

Ast. antiquata of Woodward's list, CARDITA, n. s. a small species,

scalaris, Min. Con. 35 CARDIUM edulinum, Min. Con.

edule, (Car. obliquum of Woodward's list) *Pectunculus pilosus, Lam. (variabilis, Min. Con.) Nucula, n. s. allied to Nuc. margaritacea,.....

Cobboldiæ, Min. Con. 40

allied to Nuc. oblonga, Min. Con. • ?MODiola papuana, Lam. (M. vulgaris of authors).

One valve only from Postwick, near Norwich.

Recent species inhabits Norwegian seas. *Mytilus edulis, (including M. alæformis, Min.Con.

and M. antiquorum of Woodward's list), Pecten plebeius, same as P. sulcatus and P.

ditus, Min. Con.

obsoletus, Min. Con. 45

princeps, Min. Con. *?ANOMIA striata ! *? ephippium!.

undulata,.. *TEREBRATULA psittacea, Lam. Recent species in

habits Newfoundland. 50 Patella, n. s. allied to P. virginea, including P. parvula, Woodward,

......? *CALYPTRÆA Sinensis, Mont. (Infundibulum clype

um, Woodward). *Bulla obtusa, Mont. (Bulla minuta, Woodward).

-cylindracea, Mont.

-allied to B. millium. 55 AURICULA pyramidalis, Min. Con.

RINGICULA ventricosa, Min. Con. * ?Natica glaucinoides, perhaps same as Nat. glaucina,

n. s. resembling in shape Paludina solida, Say,

hemiclausa, Min. Con.
60 VELUTINA similis, (Sigaretus similis, Woodward).

allied to V. lævigata.
TORNATELLA, like T. flammea of E. Indian seas,

but smaller; (Actæon Noa, Min. Con.)
*SCALARIA groenlandica, (Sc. similis, Min. Con.)

Recent species inhabits Greenland,

clathratulus, (Sca. minuta, Min. Con.) 65*?Trochus nitens, (T. tumidus ?)...

similis, (T. zizyphinus ?)...



Red Crag. | Cor. Crag. LACUNA, n. s. allied to Turbo canalis, Montagu. *TURBO? ulve, Mont. (T. minutus, Woodward).

-? semicostatus, Woodward. 70*LITTORINA littorea.

squalida, including Turbo carinatus, bicarinatus,sulcatus, ventricosus, elongatus, and Delphinula carinata of Woodward's list).

n. s. allied to Turbo crassior, Montagu. *TurriteLLA terebra, Lamarck,

incrassata, Min. Con...... 75 CERITHIUM punctatum, Woodward,

n. S. allied to C. reticulatum.
PLEUROTOMA mitrula, Min. Con.
*Fusus corneus,

striatus, Min. Con., including F. contrarius,
Min. Con., and Murex angulatus and Mur.

compressus of Woodward's list,..
80* despectus! (or variety of Fusus striatus ?)

turricula, (Murex punctuatus, Woodward), CANCELLARIA costellifer, (Murex costellifer, Min.

Con.), Cassis bicatenata, Min. Con. * ?PURPURA lapillus ? including Murex crispus, elon

gatus, lapilliformis, and pullus of Woodward's

85*? bulbiformis, (query, variety of the pre-

BUCCINUM rugosum, Min. Con.

n. s. allied to B. macula,
granulatum, Min. Con.

? 90 elongatum, Min. Con........

? TEREBRA, n. s. allied to Helix elegantissima, Mont. Voluta Lamberti, Min. Con.




*Cyclas amnica.

n. s. allied to Cyclas amnica. 95* *? CYRENA trigonula, Wood (Loudon's Mag.) perhaps

same as a recent undescribed species, com

mon in Lower Egypt. Helix allied to H. Turonensis.

hispida, Montagu.

plebeium, Drap. 100* AURICULA myosotis, Drap. fossil from Southwold.



1 The name of Littorina squalida has been given to a recent species from northern seas, by Messrs. Broderip and Sowerby, in Zool. Journal. Perhaps when better known it may prove to be only a variety of L. littorea.

VOL. III.-No. 31. N. S. 21


Red Crag. | Cor.Crag. *? Planorbis corneus ? Lam. only one specimen.

marginatus ? Montagu; variety with keel slightly prominent and marginal....... *PLANORBIs vortex, Lamarck.

*LIMNEA palustris, (L. tenuis, Woodward). 105

n. s. between L. fossaria, Mont. and L.
elongata, Drap. Query, variety of L. palustris.

allied to peregra.

n. s. from Southwold.
*Valvata piscinalis, Lamarck.
110«?PALudina unicolor ? including Pal. obsoleta, me-

dia, and rotundata, of Woodward's list; re-
cent species inhabits Bengal.

impura, Lamarck.

In addition to the above, fragments of Scalaria foliacea, Murex alveolatus, Hinnites Dubuissoni, Cardium Parkinsoni, Car. grænlandicum, Astarte Danmoniensis? and other shells, probably washed out of the red crag. Also a young Pileopsis, and valve of a Chiton, called by Woodward Chi. octovalvis ; also a valve of a Cyclas allied to C. rivicola.

The Cirripeda are not mentioned in the above list, as they have not yet been sufficiently examined; but at least two species of Balanus occur, besides some single valves of a large species allied to B. Uddevallensis, and common to the red crag, from which stratum they may have been washed out.

ART. II.—Monograph of the Genus Sciurus, with Descriptions of

New Species and their Varieties. By J. BACHMAN, D.D., President of the Literary and Philosophical Society, Charlestown, South Carolina, &c.

( Continued from page 227.)


Sciurus Carolinensis ; Gmel.

Ecureuil gris de la Carolina ; Bosc. vol. ii., p. 96, pl. 29. Essent. CHAR.-Smaller than the Northern Grey Squirrel, tail narrower than in that species, the length of the body; colour above, rusty grey, white beneath, not subject to vary in colour. Dental formula; Incisors 3; Canines, 8; Molars, * ;--22.

This species, which has been described for so many years, has been invariably considered by authors as identical with the northern grey squirrel. There are however so many marks of difference in size, colour, and habits, that any naturalist who has had an opportunity of comparing specimens, and of witnessing their difference in habit, will feel himself justified in regarding them as distinct species. The head is shorter and the


between the ears proportionately broader, than those of the northern grey squirrel : the nose also is sharper. The small anterior molar in the upper jaw is permanent, and not deciduous, as I have invariably found it in all the specimens I ever examined. It is considerably larger than in the other species, and all my specimens, which give evidence of the animals having been more than a year old, instead of having the small, thread-like, single tooth, as in the northern species, have a distinct double tooth with a double crown; the other molars are not unlike those of the other species in form, but are shorter and smaller; the upper incisors are nearly a third shorter. The body is shorter, less elegant in shape, and has not the appearance of sprightliness and agility, for which the other species is so eminently distinguished. The ears, which are nearly triangular in shape, are so slightly clothed with hair internally, that they may be said to be nearly naked; externally they are sparsely clothed with short woolly hair, which, however, does not extend beyond the margins, as in the other species; the nails are shorter and less hooked; the tail is shorter, and does not present the broad distichous appearance of the other.


Length of head and body
Ditto of tail (vertebra)

to point of hair
Height of ear
Palm to end of middle claw
Heel to end of middle nail......
Length of fur on the back
Breadth of tail with hairs extended

9 6
7 4
9 6

1 3


5 3

Colour.-Teeth light orange colour; nails brown, lighter at the extremities; whiskers black; nose and cheeks, and around the eyes, a slight tinge of rufous grey. The fur on the back is, for three fourths of its length, dark plumbeous, then a slight marking of black, edged with brown in some hairs and black in others, giving it, on the whole upper surface, à uniform dark ochreous colour. In a few specimens there is an obscure line of lighter brown along the sides, where the

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