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those which were so fortunate as to reach the opposite bank were so wet and fatigued, that the boys stationed there with clubs found no difficulty in securing them alive or in killing them. Their migrations on that occasion did not, as far as I could learn, extend farther eastwardly than the mountains of Vermont; many remained in the county of Renssellaer, and it was remarked that for several years afterwards the squirrels were far more numerous than before. It is doubtful whether any ever return westwardly, but finding forests and food suited to their taste and habits, they take up their permanent residence in their newly-explored country; there they remain and propagate their species, until they are gradually thinned off by the effects of improvement, and the dexterity of the sportsmen around them.
(To be continued.)
ART. IV.- Notices of Irish Entozoa. By JAMES L. DRUMMOND,
M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the Royal Belfast Institution, President of the Belfast Natural History Society.
(Continued from p. 71.)
ANTHOCEPHALUS rudicornis, Drum. WHEN about to send a communication to the Magazine of Natural History,' relating to some more of the Echinorhynchi, a fish, which in this part of the world is of rare occurrence, appeared in the Belfast market; namely, a halibut, (Hippoglossus vulgaris), which weighed 120 tbs. My indefatigable friend, Wm. Thompson, Esq., secured the viscera, attached to which I found a great number of tumors containing Entozoa; and, as much of this field of Helminthology remains to be explored, while every fact pertaining to it is of importance, I have thought it better to put on record the few observations I could make on the present species, than forward the remarks I had to offer respecting others already well known.
In the alimentary tube there was not an Entozoon of any description, but ample amends were made for this by the luxuriant crop on its external surface. The stomach, liver, spleen, mesentery, and intestines were everywhere studded with almost innumerable white or cream-coloured tumors, from the size of a large pea down to that of a grain of clover seed; while, at the same time were seen, under the transparent peritoneal coat of these viscera, numerous Nematoidea coiled up in spires.
The smallest vesicular tumors were spherical, but the larger were all depressed or lenticular, with a round or elliptical outline (Fig. 32, a). On examining these tumors, I had first to remove the peritoneal covering, under which was a white, thickish coat, of so soft a consistence that it could not be torn off like a membrane, but yielded to the forceps.When this coat was perforated, a white, curdy fluid could be pressed out in considerable quantity, and along with it the Entozoon itself, (or sometimes two from the same capsule), of very small size, the animal bearing no correspondence in its bulk to that of the entire tumor. 32
to od besi WSPOTU Ludoune who
Anthocephalus rudicornis, Drum. (a), portion of the intestine with the attached tumors containing the Anthocephalus. (b), the Entozoon as it appeared when first removed from a tumor. (c), a protruded rostellum. (de) magnified view of the Anthocephalus when compressed, the head and neck protruding.
On getting the animal freed from its habitation, and washing off all extraneous matter, it appeared of an ovate form, and was very sluggish, though exhibiting signs of vitality by soon losing its regular outline, and contracting its margin so as to form various scallops and indentations; and after long watching it in the microscope no farther change could be observed.
I then tried the effect of compression: a specimen was laid
on a slip of glass in a drop of water, and another slip placed over it. This had the effect of causing the head, which was previously invisible, to protrude; then the neck appeared, and it became evident that the animal was formed on the model of the Anthocephali. Four transparent sacs were seen in the anterior part of the body, (Fig. 32, e) and from these, four tubes ran up to the head, each evidently containing a rostellum. After watching in vain for the protrusion of the latter, I had recourse to stronger pressure, and in several instances succeeded in getting a rostellum to issue from its sheath, and show that it was constituted as in others of the same family, that it was crystalline, armed with numerous uncinuli, and that it was protruded by eversion.
Compared with the bulk of the animal, the rostella are much larger than in any others of the same family that I have hitherto examined; the uncinuli, too, are of greater comparative magnitude, and the rostella altogether exhibit less delicacy of workmanship than in any similar organs I have heretofore observed. The first rostellum which I succeeded in protruding, reminded me strongly of the appearance of a hairy caterpillar: fig. 32, c, is the sketch I made of it at the time, and all those which I afterwards saw bore an exact resemblance to the first. In one instance only did I succeed in getting a view of the whole four extruded from their thecæ.
Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the animal freed from a small quantity of very tough mucus which adhered to it, and which, in being torn away, assumed the appearance of a membrane of great tenuity, but I believe it to have been mucus alone. The substance of the Entozoon is granular throughout, having no appearance of vessels, intestine, ovaries, or caudal aperture, but in several specimens, (not in all), when the head and neck were protruded, a large transparent space was conspicuous in the anterior end of the body, in which the head and neck, I presume, had been previously lodged.-(Fig. 32 d).
That this species has four bothria there can, I think, be little doubt; but as, from its sluggishness, the head could only be seen when compressed, their natural appearance could not, of course, be ascertained. In several instances, however, I observed the dilated portions of the head expanding and contracting (though very slowly) with an undulatory motion of their margins, like that of the Bothriocephali, Scolex polymorphus, &c.
These are all the observations. I have been enabled to make on this species, which, I believe, has not been previously de
scribed, and I have referred it to the genus Anthocephalus, (as in a former paper I did that which I named Anth. paradoxus), not on account of its agreeing exactly with the character of that genus, for it has no caudal vescicle, but because it approaches more nearly to it than to any other. Much, I believe, must yet be known concerning the encysted Entozoa, before a proper arrangement and nomenclature can be applied to them; and in the mean time it is perhaps better to refer them to known genera, at the risk of some inaccuracy, than to fabricate new names, which, after a time would, in all probability, have to make way for others of still newer coinage. The specific title, rudicornis, I have applied on account of the coarse appearance of the rostella as compared with that of any others which I have hitherto observed.
The only other Entozoon which I observed in this large halibut was the Filaria capsularia, which, in great numbers, lay coiled up in the peritoneum of the stomach, liver, and intestines. But, however copious they might be in these localities, still the number was small when compared with that which I detected between the middle and inner coats of the stomach. The former, or muscular coat of this viscus, in the halibut, is connected with the inner or mucous coat, throughout a great part of its extent, by a thick, lax layer of cellular membrane; and on separating the one coat from the other, I found this layer to be, in many places, literally crammed with the Filariæ.' They were in hundreds, each rolled up singly in a spiral form, but more frequently with several others under the same covering, forming so many distinct, round, flattened masses, lying as close to each other as stones in a pavement. Belfast, March 5th, 1839.
(To be continued.)
ART. V.On a new Species of Lamia from the vicinity of the Swan River, New Holland. By The Rev. F. W. Hope, F.R.S.,
F.L.S., &c., &c., &c. I SEND for insertion in your 'Magazine of Natural History, a description of a new species of Lamia from the vicinity of the Swan River, in Australia. My chief object in selecting Lamia is in consequence of the Baron De Jean, in his last Catalogue, omitting that term altogether, while he coins and publishes a new name to include under it insects which have years ago been ably described by the celebrated Fabricius. If entomologists of the present day are allowed to expunge,
ad libitum, the early Linnean and Fabrician names, and adopt others merely from caprice, there will be no end of confusion. Synonymy is always a perplexing study, and it is to prevent a serious evil gaining further ground, that I here protest against a system sadly too rife amongst naturalists, of changing well established names. The Baron De Jean, in his Catalogue of 1838, adopts the term Batocera instead of Lamia of Fabricius; why a new-fangled term is to be used instead of an old familiar name, remains to be explained. On the ground of priority I support the ancient names, and I feel convinced that there are many others who undoubtedly will advocate the same cause. Had Lamia been the only Fabrician term expunged by De Jean, I might have passed it over with a slight remark; but when I find Buprestis, Stenochorus, and Haltica entirely abandoned, and the genera of Cerambyx, Elater, Cnodulon, and Tritoma sunk into mere synonyms, and in their place the barbarous terms of Hammaticherus, Ampedus, and Amarygmus adopted, it is high time to speak out, and endeavour to put a stop to an evil which must embarrass science, and certainly greatly retard its progress.
In concluding my remarks, I quote a passage from the preface of the Baron De Jean's last Catalogue, (vide page 11), and for the future leave the question in other hands, hoping that those who wish well for science will oppose a system which, if acted on, can only lead to inextricable confusion.
Quoique je me sois toujours prononcé contre le principe exclusif de l'adoption du nom le plus anciennement publié, ce n'est pas cependant que je pense qu'un auteur ait le droit de changer les noms qui ont été etablis avant lui, ce n'est nullement cela que j'ai voulu dire. Je crois, au contraire, qu'il faut conserver les anciens noms, mais lorsqu'il y en a plusieurs, on a le droit de choisir, et il faut alors prendre le plus en usage, ou celui adopté dans l'ouvrage le plus marquant et le plus répandu, au lieu de s'attacher uniquement a la date de la publication.” With respect to the above passage I have only to add "that the ancient names ought to be retained ;” and acting on the suggestion of the Baron, I prefer the ancient Lamia to the modern Batocera, as it is a name in common usage, and occurs in one of the works of Fabricius, certainly “le plus marquant et le plus répandu," viz. the "Systema Eleutheratorum.'
LAMIA Boisduvalii, Hope. (Sup. Plates No. 2.) L. Boisduvalii. Long. lin. 25; lat. lin. 8.
Nigro-cinerea, thorace bispinoso elytris albidis maculis ornatis, humeris subspinosis, sutura ad apicem in spinam desinente.