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10. PCA. ä is in C. and some dialects of O. a mid vowel, elsewhere low; it is long:

PCA. *säkesiwa he is afraid: F. sägesiwa, C. säkisiw, M. säkesiw, O. sägizi.

11. PCA. i coincides in C. and O. with PCA. e; in M. the distinction is only in part maintained in actual pronunciation, but is kept intact by the ever-present quantitative variation, in which e alternates with ä, and i with ē. Even in C. and O. the divergent treatment of preceding dentals (§§33.35.37) is fairly well maintained.

In addition to the examples which have occurred in the preceding paragraphs, we may mention a very common morphologic element which consists of the vowel i : *-i-, connective, which is used when an element ending in a consonant is followed by an element beginning with a consonant:

PCA. *pemātcihäwa he causes him to live, restores him to life (*pem-, *-at- as in §9, *-i- connective, *-h- action of causative type on animate object, *-ä-w-a he. . . . the other): C. pimātsihäw, M. pemātsihew.

PCA. *pōnimäwa he stops talking to him (*pōn- cease, *-i- connective, *-m- action by speech or thought on animate object): F. pōnimäwa, C. pōnimäw, M. pōnimew, O. pōnimad. Contrast, without connective. *-i-, PCA. *pōnälemäwa he quits thinking of him, gives him up (*-älethought): F. pōnänemäwa, C. pōnäyimäw, M. pōnänimew.

PCA. *säkimäwa he frightens him by speech (*säk- as in §10): C. säkimäw, M. säkimew.

PCA *säkihäwa he frightens him: C. säkihäw, M. säkihew, O. sägihād.

In the first syllable of words PCA. seems to have had only e, never i, after consonant; i.e. only such types as *pem-, never such as *pim-. In absolute initial, on the other hand, the dialects have only i-, never e-. This initial i-, however, is only a substitute for e; as soon as a prefix is added e appears:

PCA *iäwa he says so to him, calls him so (*e0- thither, thus, here as stem of radical verb), but *nete@awa I say so to him (prefix *ne-t- I, ending *-a-w-a action by non-plural actor on animate third person): F. inäwa, netenawa, C. itäw, nititaw, M. inäw, nitänāw, O. inad (conjunct mode), nindina (independent).

12. PCA. è is set up for the usual correspondence of M. e with the i of the other dialects:

PCA. *mēläwa he gives it to him (radical verb): F. minäwa, C. miyäw, M. mēnäw, O. mīnād.

13. PCA. M., F. C. O. i.

M. is in actual pronunciation partly distinct from i and e, for the highest variants (as in French fini) are reserved to it; in quantitative variation it alternates with i (cf. §11). Furthermore, M. alters a preceding ē in the word or phrase to i, a preceding ō to u. Morphologically PCA. is recognizable also in the other dialects by the retention of preceding t and changeable n (which never stand before PCA. i, §§33.35.37).

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If we take M. as our starting point, we find the M. vowel as (1) the short alternant of M. i (from whatever source, §14) in the quantitative variation of M. vowels; (2) the M. representative of PCA. wi after consonants (§27); (3) an independent phoneme, the representative of PCA., with the correspondence F. C. O. i.

It will be noticed that in the PCA. vowel system and i are anomalous in having no corresponding back vowel; this harmonizes, on the one hand, with their later disappearance in most of the dialects, and, on the other hand, with the fact that their decidedly limited occurrences are mostly traceable to a pre-Central-Algonquian state where a fourvowel system prevailed. It seems probable that PCA. represents (1) a pre-Central-Algonquian wi after t, 1, and (2) a pre-Central-Algonquian yi after any consonant.

1. A form like M. wahkit kamik on top of the house probably represents a PCA. *waxkit.kamike which in turn goes back to a pre CentralAlgonquian *waxkitwikamike (PCA. *waxkit- on top, over, *-wikamikhouse, non-initial element), PCA. replacing an earlier wi after t. This is supported by the following consideration. Noun stems in vowel plus w lose their w in further derivation: PCA. *ukimāwa chief: F. ugimāwa, C. ukimāw, M. ukēmāw, O. ugimā, gives PCA. *ukimāxkwäwa princess (*-xkwäw- woman, non-initial form): C. ukimāskwäw, M. ukimuhkɩw. Similarly, the verb *atāwäwa he trades: F. atāwäwa, C. M. atāwäw, O. adāwä forms the F. derivative atāwäneniwa trader (PCA. *-lenɩwman, non-initial). But before the above element for house the w of such nouns is kept, and verb-stems add w; that is, we may properly set up PCA. *-wikamik-, providing only that the above sound-change be admitted. Thus:

PCA. *metäwa participant in the Mystic Rite: C. mitäw, M. metäw, O. midä; PCA. *metäwikamikwi lodge for the Mystic Rite: C. mitäwikamik, M. metäwıkamik (ɩ generalized), O. midäwigamig.

Similarly, from the verb above, M. atāwäwikamik trading-house, store, O. adāwäwigamig.

Analogic forms, if our supposition be correct, are M. atawäwinen.w trader, and, in the opposite direction, C. atāwäkamik, beside less common atāwäwikamik trading-house.

Similar and perhaps related to the above is the element PCA. *-wikädwell, *-wikān- dwelling. After vowel we have F. atāwäwikāni tradinghouse. After consonant F. has generalized the form with, C. that with wi, except in one word:

PCA. *ke'tıkäwa he farms, *ke'tıkāni farm (*ke't- big; pre-CentralAlgonquian *ke'twikäwa): F. kehtigāni, C. kistikäw, kistikān (animate gender) grain, O. kihtigä, kihtigān.

Elsewhere C. has u, the regular C. representative of PCA. wi after consonant (§27):

PCA. *pēntikäwa he enters the lodge (*pēnt- inside): F. pītigäwa, M. pihtɩkew, O. pīndigä—analogic C. pīhtukäw.

The u of C. is historically original where consonants other than t, 1 precede, as in

PCA. *kecwikäwa he completes the house (*kēc- finish): C. kisukäwanalogic F. kicigäwa (for *kicwigäwa).

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PCA. *ulikawa he arranges, builds a house (*ul- arrange; for pre-CentralAlgonquian *ulwikäwa): M. unikäw-analogic F. acigäwa, for *anigäwa, with c on the principle yielded by §§35.37.

PCA. after 1 occurs also in the inflectional ending *-alɩ which forms the plural of inanimate and the singular obviative of animate nouns and independent-mode verbs.

2. In PCA. yi does not appear after consonants; where this combination is morphologically postulated, appears instead. Thus the stem PCA. *axky- earth, land with the inanimate singular ending PCA. *-i gives

PCA. *axkı earth, land: F. O. ahki; cf. the plural PCA. *axkyälı lands: F. ahkyäni, O. ahkin.

The PCA. *we'@eny- eat (consonantism uncertain), with the verb formative *-i- gives PCA. *wē'Oeniwa he eats: F. wiseniwa, O. wīsini; cf. the non-initial form PCA. *-'0eny- with verb-formative *-ä- in PCA *pōni'@enyäwa he quits eating: F. pōnisenyäwa.

A PCA. which probably goes back to postconsonantal yi appears in PCA. *ileniwa man: F. ineniwa, C. iyiniw, M. inänɩw, O. inini.

14. PCA. I appears everywhere as i and is thus distinct from PCA. ĕ only in M. The same considerations apply here as in the case of PCA.

. M. I is (1) the long alternant of M. (from whatever source, §13) by normal M. vowel-variation; (2) the M. representative of PCA. wä, yä, we after consonant (§§25.26.28); (3) a M. substitute for M. ē (from whatever source) whenever M. , ī, ia, ua, or postconsonantal y or w follows in the same word, eg. M. pihtikew he enters (§13); contrast forms like

PCA. *pēntenamwa he puts it inside by hand (*-en- action on object by hand): M. pēhtenam, C. pihtinam,

PCA. *pēhtcihcinwa he falls inside (*-i- connective; before i the t is replaced by tc, §33; *-ho- fall, lie, *-in- formative of animate verb; before i the 6 is replaced by c, §35): M. pēhtsihsin, C. pīhtsisin.

Likewise forms like M. kimīnekwaw he gives it to you, kiminenemuaw I give it to you, kimisimwaw ye give it to me, minātua' if they give it to the other, as opposed to mēnäw he gives it to him (§12), kimenineminaw we give it to you, and so on.

All this, however, as in the case of M., leaves (4) a residuum of forms in which M. I corresponds directly to the i of the other languages. The morphologic character of these forms, as well as the parallelism of PCA. make it likely that this PCA. I had its origin in pre-CentralAlgonquian changes of twē to tī, and of postconsonantal yē to i.

1. PCA. ti from pre-Central-Algonquian twē is recognizable, then, by M. i (not ē) and by the unchanged preceding t (§33). For example, there is a suffix forming reciprocal verbs, in which PCA. *-etu- alternates with PCA. *eti. This alternation is intelligible on an assumption of pre-Central-Algonquian *-etwe- (giving PCA. *-etu-, §23) alternating with *-etwē- (giving PCA. *-eti-). Example:

PCA. *nēmihetowaki they dance together (independent mode), *nēmihettwäte, *nēmihettwawe if they dance together (conjunct mode): F. nīmihetiwagi (analogic), nīmihetīwāte, C. nīmihitōwak nīmihitutwāwi, (analogic), M. nimchetowak, nimchetitua' (M. has nime- for PCA. *nem-i- owing to an analogy within the M. verbal system), O. nimihidiwag (analogic), nīmihidiwād.

2. PCA. i as a reflex of pre-Central-Algonquian postconsonantal yē is probable in the following non-initial element for land, in view of the initial form *axky- (§13):

PCA. *-axki- land: F. magwahkiwi mountain (PCA. *makw- rounded lump on a surface), M. ispāhkɩw highland (PCA. *icp- high).


15. The PCA. semivowels were w and y. They are generally preserved initially and after vowels:

PCA. *něyawi my body, myself: F. niyawi, C. niyaw, M. nēyaw, O. niyaw.

16. The combination of vowel-semivowel-vowel is in certain cases replaced by a single long vowel. These cases seem to have been strictly limited even in PCA. time; for instance, the sequence -awe- existed in PCA. in forms like:

PCA. *kawenäwa he lays him over, upsets him by hand, *kawenamwa same, with inanimate object (*kaw- fall over, *-en- by hand, transitive): F. kawenäwa, C. kawinäw, kawinam, M. kawänäw, kawänam (cf. nikāwenaw I . . . . him, nikāwenan I . . . . it), O. kawinād, kawinang.

The cases of contraction, therefore, were even in PCA. remnants of an earlier sound change whose results had for the most part been overlaid by analogic reformations. A set of examples is given by Michelson, IJAL 1,300. The best examples are furnished by transitive verb stems in -aw- in combination with the initial e of endings and suffixes:

with *-ekw- undergoing; awe gives ā:

PCA. *nōntaw. hear: F. nōtawäwa he hears him, M. nōhtawew, O. nōndawād: PCA. *nōntākw-: F. nōtāgusiwa he is heard, M. nōhtak the other hears him, kinōhtak he hears thee, O. kinōndāg.

PCA. *täpehtawäwa he hears him by being within reach of sound (*täp- reach all the way, suffice, *-eht-aw- hear animate object, noninitial): C. täpihtawäw: PCA. *täpihtākusiwa he is audible by being within hearing (*-ekw-, *-esi- animate intransitive): C. täpihtākusiw. with *-etu-, *-eti- reciprocal; awe gives ã:

PCA. *nakickawäwa he meets him (probably *naky- meet, *-eck-awfoot or body-movement on animate object): F. nagickawäwa, C. nakiskawäw: PCA. *nakickātowaki they meet: F. nagickātīwagi, C. nakiskātōwak.

PCA. *naxkwäckawäwa he goes so as to correspond with the other (*naxkw- correspond, answer, hit on fly, *-ä- post-initial, *-eck-awas before): M. nahkiskawew: nahkiskatowak they meet on their courses. with *-esu- reflexive; awe gives ā:

PCA. *-ē-hk-aw- frequent, annoy, injure an animate object by foot or body-movement: F. asāmīhkawäwa he frequents him too much (PCA. *usām- excess): F. winihkāsōwa he gets himself dirty (PCA. *wēndirty).

PCA. *nenuhtawäwa he understands the other's speech (*nenw- recognize, know, *-eht-aw as above): M. nenōhtawew: nenōhtasow he understands his own words.

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