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the name Bacchus from our scanty documents for Etruscan religion may well be due to chance. Furthermore, the word Bacchanal ‘shrine of Bacchus' is certainly not Greek whereas it harmonizes perfectly with Etruscan methods of word-formation. Probably the Etruscans brought the name and the cult of Bacchus to Italy from their earlier home in the Aegean basin.
We have discussed above the phrase, kavek Bakillis Armdak, which we translated 'and priest of Bacchus and of Hermes. From the stem Arma we have also a personal name in vas (like Bakivas from Bakis), whose possessive adjective appears in No. 6. 1-2: ess vā(n)as Sivāmlis Armāvlis ‘This is the tomb of Sivamas Armavas.' Sayce (p. 31) cites several cases of the omission of the vowel after o, as in Armãvlis for Armāvalis. There can be no doubt that Armas is to be identified with 'Epuis.
Other letters than o are sometimes used in a syllabic value. A clear case is la prisk (No. 8. 2) for la prisak (Nos. 1. 2 and 9. 4-5). Evidently one or two vowels must be supplied in the common word vhba pént. I suspect that we should read ess as eśas. Another instance follows.
The Lydian name of Athena appears on a bilingual, No. 40:
IIáprapas 'Aonvaini. Sayce (p.30) comments upon the use of ņ for en; but, in view of what we have learned about Lydian gods, it is not probable that we should assume the peculiarly Ionic n in the Lydian name of the goddess. Of course we should supply a rather than e. The surface of the stone on which No. 40 appears is badly weathered and there seems to be room for doubt about the second letter of Asạil. Buckley reports that “the two cross-bars of the F (s) are clear on the squeeze, although somewhat obscured by a more deeply cut sloping mark, doubtless a mere scratch.” In the photographs of two squeezes which accompany the text the cross-bars are certainly not clear; and, in view of the great probability that the name would appear with T at this point, we may for the present suspect that the apparent lower cross-bar of the letter is no more significant than the “more deeply cut sloping mark.”
In No. 2. 1 we have the phrase, oral Huvelll. If oral .... Bakills (No. 1. 1) means 'in the month of Bakis,' this should mean, Sayce thinks (p. 51), 'in the month of Huves.' That there was a god of this name and a goddess whose name had the same stem, appears from these Hesychian glosses:
"Της Ζεύς όμβριος. .
The name of the Boeotian village, 'Inttós, contains the name of these deities extended by the well-known pre-Greek suffix ooos, which appears in Boeotian, Attic, and Euboean as otos. It is clear that this cult was common to Asia Minor and Central Greece before the coming of the Hellenes. Probably the worship of the other gods mentioned above had a similar distribution.
Sayce (p. 38), following Littmann, finds the Lydian name of Zeus in No. 23. 3-4: Pļdāns tavśas Artimuk Ibsimsis, which he translates 'Apollo, Zeus, and Artemis of Ephesus.' This interpretation is improbable for several reasons. (1) The familiar pair, Apollo and Artemis, are not likely to be separated by the name of another deity. If Zeus were to be mentioned, his name would probably stand before that of Apollo or after that of Artemis. (2) We should expect the connective k to be expressed with each substantive of the series, as in No. 1. 1-2. (3) Sayce himself (p. 51) cites the following glosses from Hesychius:
ταύς μέγας, πολύς.
ταύσας μεγαλύνας, πλεονάσας. It is clear, then, that tavšas is an epithet of Pļdāns. We may add that Zeus is the one Greek god who has perfect credentials as an Indo-European. He is not likely to turn up in any of the indigenous languages of Asia Minor.
SPENSER'S LANGUAGE AND THE PASTORAL TRADITION
Roscoe E. PARKER
THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Since the appearance of E. K.'s dedicatory epistle in the first edition of Spenser's The She pheardes Calendar, many theories have been advanced in explanation of the diction which Spenser used. Most of these have dealt with the influence of renaissance theories of diction on Spenser's language; many have added little to the material contained in E. K.'s dedicatory epistle; and few have dealt with the details of the language itself. It is not my purpose in this paper to add another study to the list of those dealing with Spenser's relationship to contemporary theories of diction. It is my purpose rather to point out the extent to which Spenser used archaisms and to show that he consciously used a specialized diction for his pastoral poetry.
As a background for this study it seems worth while to present at this point the conclusions reached by the most recent investigators of Spenser's diction. According to Professor Herford:
“The language of the Calendar is, in short, as composite and heterogeneous as its literary descent: it is neither the English of Chaucer nor that of Lancashire peasants; but, in E. K.'s phrase, a gallimaufry of dialect from the provinces, colloqualisms from everyday life, ancient terms from black-letter folios, and neologisms from Spenser's own brainall interwoven upon a ground of the choicest contemporary phraseology."!
More recently Mr. W. L. Renwick, in The Critical Origins of Spenser's Diction, has reached the following conclusions:
"Spenser worked on precisely the same lines as were laid down by du Bellay and Ronsard: the ancient native literature to be studied with a linguistic purpose; dialects, and particularly such as retained some archaic character, to be brought into the main stream of literary speech; technical terms to be put to poetical use; new forms to be created from existing roots; and lastly, words to be borrowed from ancient and modern foreign languages: the language to be plastic, not rigid, and the poet to be the final judge of fitness."
The most recent investigator, Professor Merritt Y. Hughes, in Spenser and the Greek Pastoral Triad, states his conclusions as follows:
1 Herford, C. H., The Shepheards Calendar, London, 1914, Introduction, p. xlix. · The Modern Language Review, 17. 15-16.
"French theories and native tendencies explain the principles of poetic diction which E. K. preached and Spenser practiced in The Shepheardes Calendar. Their theories about the use of native words (quamvis iam obsoleta), had nothing to do with the doctrine of poetic decorum which demanded that the speakers in pastoral dialogue should use a coarse, simple speech in keeping with their rustic character. A part of Spenser's innovation was the application of archaism to the problem of pastoral decorum and the resulting "old, rustic language" which the best judges of his time seem to have condemned. None of his contemporaries thought of connecting it with the Doric dialect which Theocritus' practice had established as the language proper to pastoral in Alexandrian Literature. They did not think of his diction as a dialect in any sense. Pastoral became known as a “Doric lay" in a later day than Spenser's. The idea that it should be written in dialect disappeared from European literature when the imitators of Theocritus laid down their pens and it had hardly regained currency when The Shepheardes Calendar was written."
These three critics agree that Spenser was influenced by contemporary theories of diction, that he was an innovator, and that he used words which had "ben long time out of use." With these conclusions no student of Spenser is likely to disagree. But there appear to be ample grounds on which objections to Professor Hughes' theory that the pastoral tradition exercised no influence on Spenser's diction may be based. In fact, this theory is contrary to the practice of the earliest writers of English pastorals, to the declarations of E. K. in the dedicatory epistle written for The Shepheardes Calendar, and to Spenser's own practice throughout his poetic career.
England's first contribution to the pastoral genre was made by Alexander Barclay (1475-1553). He wrote five pastoral eclogues, largely translations from Mantuan and Aeneas Sylvius, which were archaic both in style and diction. In these eclogues appear such archaic words as crudder, cundities, commen, pleasaunce, galand, and yfese (N. E. D.). Barlcay was followed by Barnaby Googe, who wrote eight eclogues (1563) in rather homely style and metre. He used such words as hopper, yat, kyne, and repyght. In these earliest English pastorals, in common with most of the translations of the time and with the compositions in imitation of foreign models, may be found such foreign adaptations as fuiet, traditour, troietise, gallamaufry, baies, hout, and sparple. Perhaps these are illustrations of the linguistic tendencies of the times, but E. K. apparently saw them in a different light. In explanation of the fact that Spenser wrote The Shepheardes Calendar in the form of eclogues, E. K. offers the following suggestive summary of the tradition:
• Studies in Philology, 20. 189.
Greg, W. W., Pastoral Poetry and Pastoral Drama 78-80. • Cf. Greg, op. cit. 80-82.
“So flew Theocritus, as you may perceive he was all ready full fledged. So flew Virgile, as not yet well feeling his winges. So flew Mantuane, as not being full somd. So Petrarque. So Boccace. So Marot, Sanazarus, and also divers other excellent both Italian and French Poetes, whose foting this Author every where followeth; yet so as few, but they be wel sented, can trace him out. So finally flyeth this our new Poete as a birde whose principals be scarce growen out, but yet as one that in time shall be hable to keepe wing with the
I do not mean to suggest that Spenser was writing in imitation of any one of these predecessors, but the pastoral tradition was firmly fixed; and "how could it be, (as that worthy Oratour sayde) but that walking in the sonne, although for other cause he walked, yet needes he mought be sunburnt?"
That Spenser observed the tradition of a specialized diction for pastoral poetry may be demonstrated by a study of his use of archaisms. For this study I have somewhat arbitrarily chosen a brief selection from each of the three periods of Spenser's poetic writings—early, middle, and late. The first is from the February eclogue of The Shepheardes Calendar, the second is from the first book of The Faerie Queene, and the third is from Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. The first selection is certainly one of the most archaic passages in Spenser's poetry; it will therefore furnish an extreme example of the archaic pastoral diction. The second is not pastoral and will serve as a means of comparison with the pastoral diction. The third is probably a late example of Spenser's pastoral diction and will furnish an illustration of archaic usage after the poet had gained experience in non-pastoral writing.
Many of the words which appear to be archaic in these passages have been found to have been in good standing with the Elizabethans. Such words, for example, are galloge, hent, overcrawed, pienct, defast, baite, carke, des pyght, areed, gan, etc.? These words, of course, have not been included in the lists of archaisms which follow.
The archaisms in the following list occur in the Thenot story of the oak and the briar in the February eclogue of The Shepheardes Calendar, II. 98-246. 1. Archaic forms occur as follows: a. Verbal endings in -en of the third person plural:
Broughten, 1.212, Mod. Eng. 'brought.' *Cf. Herford's edition of The Shepheards Calendar, op. cit. 7.
? The following books have been most helpful in this study: Abbott, E. A., A Shakespearian Grammar, London, 1873; A New English Dictionary; Onions, C. T., A Shakespeare Glossary, Oxford, 1911; Schmidt, Alexander. Shakespeare Lexicon, Berlin and London, 1874.