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Dr. George A. Plimpton, 70 Fifth Av., New York City.
Prof. Louise Pound, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (English)
Prof. Edward Prokosch, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. (Ger-

man) Prof. Nathaniel Reich, 3238 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Prof. Leo Lawrence Rockwell, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, Pa. (Ger

manic Langs.) Dr. Alfred I. Roehm, Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. (Teaching of

Modern Langs.) Dr. William Rosenau, Esplanade Apt. 5H, Baltimore, Md. (Post

Classical Hebrew, Johns Hopkins Univ.) Prof. S. L. Millard Rosenberg, Univ. of California (Southern Branch),

Los Angeles, Calif. (Spanish) Mr. Karl Ruppert, 905 W. Adams St., Tucson, Ariz. (Anthropology,

Univ. of Arizona) Prof. G. Oscar Russell, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. (English) Prof. R. E. Saleski, Univ. of Delaware, Newark, Del. (Modern Langs.) Dr. Edward Sapir, Victoria Museum, Ottawa, Canada. Prof. Nathaniel Schmidt, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Semitic Langs.

and Oriental History) Dr. Alexander H. Schutz, 810 Hillcrest Av., Columbia, Mo. (Romance

Langs., Univ. of Missouri) Mr. C. R. J. Scott, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (Latin) Prof. Fred Newton Scott, 538 Church St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (Rhetoric

and Journalism, Univ. of Michigan) Prof. H. F. Scott, Ohio Univ., Athens, O. (Classical Langs.) Prof. Robert D. Scott, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (English

Dramatic Lit.) Prof. Ovid R. Sellers, 846 Chalmers Place, Chicago, Ill. (Hebrew and

Old Testament, McCormick Theological Seminary) Prof. W. T. Semple, 315 Pike St., Cincinnati, O. (Classics, Univ. of

Cincinnati) Prof. J. E. Shaw, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. (Italian and

Spanish) Prof. Percy V. D. Shelly, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(English) Prof. William P. Shepard, Hamilton Col., Clinton, N. Y. (Romance

Langs.) Dean L. A. Sherman, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (English Lit.) Prof. Daniel B. Shumway, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(German Phil.)
Prof. Lillian S. Smith, Agnes Scott Col., Decatur, Ga. (Latin and

Greek)
Miss Maria W. Smith, 6 Lantern Lane, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dr. S. B. Smith, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, O. (Latin)
Prof. Antonio G. Solalinde, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc.

(Spanish)
Prof. Frank G. Speck, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(Anthropology)
Dr. E. A. Speiser, 210 S. 36th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Arthur R. Spencer, Esq., Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dr. Taylor Starck, 32 Bowdoin St., Cambridge, Mass. (German,

Harvard Univ.)
Mrs. Mary Summers Steel, 132 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (Defects

of Speech, Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Prof. Guido H. Stempel, 723 S. Park Av., Bloomington, Ind. (Com-

parative Phil., Indiana Univ.)
Mr. Theodore T. Stenberg, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Tex. (English)
Prof. Orin Stepanek, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (Slavonic

Langs.; English)
Winston B. Stephens, Esq., 5152 Albany Post Road, New York City.
Mr. W. R. F. Stier, Room 1007, 347 Madison Av., New York City.
Prof. Harold S. Stine, 242 E. Durham St., Philadelphia, Pa. (English,

Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Prof. Albert Morey Sturtevant, 924 Louisiana St., Lawrence, Kans.

(Germanic Langs. and Lits., Univ. of Kansas)
Prof. Edgar Howard Sturtevant, 1849 Yale Sta., New Haven, Conn.

(Greek and Latin, Yale Univ.)
Dr. John R. Swanton, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

(Ethnologist)
Prof. Helen H. Tanzer, Hunter Col., New York City. (Classics)
Mr. Ernest H. Templin, Stanford University, Calif. (Spanish)
Dr. Nainsinh L. Thacker, 409 Forty-Ninth St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Prof. Wm. N. Thomas, 414 S. 79th St., Birmingham, Ala. (Classics,

Howard Col.)
Prof. Henry Alfred Todd, Columbia Univ., New York City. (Romance

Philology) Died January 3, 1925.
Prof. Milton Haight Turk, 40 Park Place, Geneva, N. Y. (English,

Hobart Col.)

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Edwin H. Tuttle, Esq., The Royalton, Apt. 34, 918 M St. NW., Wash

ington, D. C. Prof. Edwin B. Twitmyer, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(Psychology) Prof. Axel Johann Uppvall, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(Scandinavian Langs.) Prof. Harry B. Van Deventer, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(Latin) Rev. M. F. Vanoverbergh, 2 Convent Hill and 130th St., New York

City. Mr. James R. Ware, Lehigh Univ., Bethelehem, Pa. (Latin) Miss Lella B. V. Watson, 1814 W. 8th St., Santa Ana, Calif. (Head of

Lang. Dept., Santa Ana Junior Col.) Prof. Albert P. Weiss, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, O. (Psychology) Prof. M. N. Wetmore, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. (Latin) Pres. Emer. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif.

(Comparative Phil.) Judge James Wickersham, Juneau, Alaska. Prof. Charles Allyn Williams, 714 W. Nevada St., Urbana, Ill. (Ger

man, Univ. of Illinois) Prof. Edward J. Williamson, 40 Park Place, Geneva, N. Y. (Modern

Langs., Hobart Col.) Prof. Ola Elizabeth Winslow, Goucher Col., Baltimore, Md. (English) Prof. Francis A. Wood, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. (Germanic

Phil.) Prof. Willis P. Woodman, 808 Main St., Geneva, N. Y. (Latin, Hobart

Col.) Prof. James Houghton Woods, 16 Prescott Hall, Cambridge, Mass.

(Philosophy, Harvard Univ.) Prof. Wm. F. Wyatt, Tufts College, Mass. (Greek) Prof. W. I. Zeitler, University Inn, Orono, Me. (English, Univ. of

Maine)
Dr. Jeremiah Zimmermann, 133 South Av., Syracuse, N. Y.

NAMES RECEIVED MARCH 23-31

Mr. Otto E. Albrecht, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

(Romanic Langs.) Prof. Claude E. Anibal, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, O. (Spanish) Prof. Laurence D. Bailiff, 855 N. Vermont Av., Los Angeles, Calif.

(Spanish, Univ. of California, Southern Branch)

Prof. A. U. N. Camera, 575 Dahill Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Romance

Langs., Col. of City of New York) Mr. George F. Cole, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (Ro

manic Langs.) Jaime de Angulo, Esq., 2815 Buena Vista Way, Berkeley, Calif. Prof. A. H. R. Fairchild, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (English) Mr. Herbert P. Flower, 969 North Av., Reedley, Calif. Prof. E. F. Hacker, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, O. (Romance

Langs.) Mr. William L. Hurwitz, 2614 N. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Prof. Sanki Ichikawa, 25 Kitayamabushicho, Ushigome, Tokyo, Japan.

(English, Tokyo Imperial Univ.) Prof. Eva Johnston, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (Latin) Prof. H. S. V. Jones, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. (English) Miss Selma S. König, 604 E. Erie St., Albion, Mich. (Modern Langs.,

Albion Col.) Miss Charlotte Townsend Littlejohn, 23 E. 67th St., New York City. Robert M. Littlejohn, Esq., 23 E. 67th St., New York City. Mrs. Robert M. Littlejohn, 23 E. 67th St., New York City. Prof. Edward W. Nichols, Dalhousie College, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

(Classics) Prof. Roscoe E. Parker, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. Prof. Henrietta Prentiss, Hunter College, New York City. (Speech

and Dramatics) Prof. J. F. L. Raschen, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Modern

Langs.) Prof. Arthur F. J. Remy, Columbia Univ., New York City. (Ger

manic Phil.) Jas. Renwick Rodgers, Esq., 400 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Miss Else M. Saleski, 508 N. Frances St., Madison, Wis. (German,

Univ. of Wisconsin) Miss Grace Sturtevant, 114 High St., New Haven, Conn. Prof. Jacob Zeitlin, 706 W. Nevada St., Urbana, Ill. (English, Univ. of Illinois)

TOTAL, 264 FOUNDATION MEMBERS

SOUND PATTERNS IN LANGUAGE

EDWARD SAPIR

VICTORIA MUSEUM, OTTAWA There used to be and to some extent still is a feeling among linguists that the psychology of a language is more particularly concerned with its grammatical features, but that its sounds and its phonetic processes belong to a grosser physiological substratum. Thus, we sometimes hear it said that such phonetic processes as the palatalizing of a vowel by a following i or other front vowel ("umlaut") or the series of shifts in the manner of articulating the old Indo-European stopped consonants which have become celebrated under the name of “Grimm's Law" are merely mechanical processes, consummated by the organs of speech and by the nerves that control them as a set of shifts in relatively simple sensorimotor habits. It is my purpose in this paper, as briefly as may be, to indicate that the sounds and sound processes of speech cannot be properly understood in such simple, mechanical terms.

Perhaps the best way to pose the problem of the psychology of speech sounds is to compare an actual speech sound with an identical or similar one not used in a linguistic context. It will become evident almost at once that it is a great fallacy to think of the articulation of a speech sound as a motor habit that is merely intended to bring about a directly significant result. A good example of superficially similar sounds is the wh of such a word as when, as generally pronounced in America (i.e., voiceless w or, perhaps more accurately analyzed, aspiration plus voiceless w plus voiced w-glide), and the sound made in blowing out a candle, with which it has often been compared. We are not at the present moment greatly interested in whether these two articulations are really identical or, at the least, very similar. Let us assume that a typically pronounced wh is identical with the sound that results from the expulsion of breath through pursed lips when a candle is blown out. We shall assume identity of both articulation and quality of perception. Does this identity amount to a psychological identity of the two processes? Obviously not. It is worth pointing out, in what may seem pedantic detail, wherein they differ.

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