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PCA. *icih enwi it falls or lies thus (*e0- thither, thus, *-i- connective, *-10- fall, lie, *-en- inanimate intransitive): F. icisenwi, C. isihtin, M. isēhnen, O. ijisin.

The mutation form is PCA. hc: F. 0. c, C. s, M. hs:

PCA. *icihcinwa he falls or lies thus (same as preceding, with animate suffix *-in-): C. isisin, M. isēhsin.

PCA. *cenkihсinwa he lies extended, lies down: F. cegicinwa, M. sehkēhsin, O. cingicin.

PCA. hl: F. O. n, C. hy, h, M. hn:

PCA. *lähläwa he breathes: F. näsäwa he survives, is saved, C. yäbyäw, M. nähnew, O. näsä.

For the mutation, presumably to PCA. hc, I have no example.

PCA. hs, probably alternates with ht, cf. above; it occurs independently: F. C. 0. s, M. hs:

PCA. *nemihsa my elder sister, *nemihsäha same, diminutive: F nemisäha, C. nimis, M. nimēh (plural nimēhsak), O. nimisä.

PCA. *atehsowa he is dyed, ripe: C. atisow, M. atähsow, O. adiso.

PCA. hc, apart from alternation with ho and hl, above, occurs independently: F. O. c, C. s, M. hs:

PCA. *nemehcõha, *nemehcoma, *nemehcomehsa my grandfather: F. umecohani his grandfather, nemecoma my father-in-law, nemecomesa my grandfather, C. nimusum, M. nimähsuh, umähsumähsan his grandfather, O. nimicomis.

PCA hk:

PCA. *nõhkuma, *nõhkumehsa my grandmother: F. nõhkuma my mother-in-law, nõhkumesa my grandmother, C. nõhkum, M. nõhkumeh, 0. nõhkumis.

51. Nasal plus consonant; in F. the nasal has disappeared; in C. and M. it appears as h; in 0. it is preserved:

РСА. .


mp nt ntc

р t tc

C. hp ht hts

M. hp ht hts

0. mb nd ndj

[blocks in formation]

PCA. mp: F. P, C. M. hp, O. mb:

PCA. *ump- up: F. upāckäwi it flies up, C. uhpinam he lifts it up, M. uhpä'nen it is blown aloft, O. umbinang he lifts it up.

PCA. nt:

PCA. *wāpantamwa he looks at it: F. wāpatamwa, C. M. wāpahtam, O. wābandang.

PCA. *untenamwa he takes it from there by hand (*unt- thence, therefore): F. utenamwa, C. uhtinam, M. uhtänam, 0. undinang.

The change before PCA. *-ehk-, *-āp- gives PCA. ns (833):

PCA. *unsehkamwa he goes to it from there, from that side, for that reason: F. usehkamwa; cf. M. uhsähkaw he goes from there or for that Teason.

PCA. *unsāpamäwa he looks at him from there: F. usāpamäwa, C. usāpamäw, M. uhsāpamew.

A relic of the s-mutation before other elements is M. uhsätsīnam he takes it (small thing) bodily from there with his hand (PCA. *-etcyäbelly, round small body, *-en- by hand).

The mutation before high front vowels and y (833) gives PCA. ntc:

PCA. *uhtcīwa he comes from there: F. utcīwa, C. uhtsiw, 0. undji; cf. M. uhtsēmow he calls out from there (connective *-i- lengthened to ē by regular M. variation).

PCA. n0: F. n(?) O. n, C. ht, M. hn:

PCA. *-ahan - track an animate object: C. wanahahtäw he loses the trail of him, M. natuahahnew he seeks his trail, O. pimahanād he tracks him on.

Mutation, PCA. nc: imperatives, C. wanahas lose thou his trail, M.natuahahsin, O. animahaj track him along; 0. j is probably analogic for nj.

PCA. nl: F. O. n, C. hy, h, M. hn:

PCA. *nönläwa she suckles him: F. nõnäwa, C. nõhäw, M. nõhnew, 0. nõnād.

PCA. *wēnläwa he names him: F. winäwa, C. wihäw, M. wēhnew, 0. winād.

In F. these verbs show an otherwise unparalleled alternation, by which t (from PCA. nt?) replaces n in some of the forms: ä-nötātci when she suckled him, ä-witātci when he called him by name. This may be connected with the circumstance that the corresponding verb for inanimate object ends in PCA. nt:

PCA. *wēntamwa he names it: C. wihtam, M. wēhtam, 0. windang; cf. the derivative, PCA. *wēntamawäwa he names it to him, tells him it: F. wītamawawa, C. wihtamawäw, M. wēhtamowäw, O. windamawād.

This latter alternation, between stems for animate and for inanimate object, is quite extensive; for the purpose of these notes it will suffice to indicate its general character: at the end of certain transitive verbstems we find the following consonants and their compounds:

stem for animate object: 0, 1, sw by heat, m by speech;
stem for inanimate object: t, s by heat, t by speech;
animate 'middle voice' derivative: su, su by heat, mu by speech;
inanimate, same: tä, tä by heat.

The mutation of PCA. nl is PCA. nc:

PCA. *nōnci suckle thou him: M. nõhsin, O. nõj (Cuoq; j analogic for nj)--analogic C. nõhi.

PCA. *nõncyä'demwa bitch: M. nūhsi'nem, 0. nõnjäsim; cf. C. nõsämäk female fish.

PCA. *wēhci name thou him: M. wēhsin, O. wij (analogic for *winj), analogic, C. wihi.

PCA. ns: F. C. s, M. hs, O. nz, beside alternating with nt, above, occurs, for instance, in

PCA. *axkehkonsa little kettle: M. ahkähköhseh (the last syllable here is PCA. *-ehs-, second diminutive ending superadded), O. ahkihkonz; cf. F. mahkosesäha little fawn (PCA. *maxkwa bear: F. mahkwa C. maskwa; -es- is PCA. *-ehs- superadded as in M.; -äh- is the living F. diminutive suffix).

PCA. nc: F. c, C. s, M. hs, O. nj, is the mutation form of PCA. ni, nl, above; I do not know whether it occurs independently.

PCA. nk:

PCA. *tankeckawäwa he kicks him: F. tageckawäwa, C tahkiskawäw, M. tahkäskawew, O. tangickawād.

PCA. *-anki he .... it, conjunct verb ending: F. äh-kickahagi when he severed it by tool, C. äh-kiskahahk, M. as kēskahah (for the full form of the final consonant, cf. the iterative kayēskahāhkin whenever he cuts it), 0. kickahang.

When the ending *-ki (848, under xk) is added to stems in n, connective *-;- is not used, and the resultant is nk:

F. peponwi it is winter: pepõgi next winter,
C. kimiwan it rains: kimiwahki if it rains,

M. kemēwan it rains: kemēwah if it rains, kämiwāhkin whenever it rains,

0. madwädjiwan it flows noisily: mädwädjiwang as it flows noisily.


Since the publication of our last number several members of the Society have changed the location of their work:

Prof. Ray P. Bowen, who was Associate Professor of Romance Languages at Syracuse University, has gone to the University of Oregon with the rank of Professor, as head of the Department of Romance Languages, with the special duty of developing graduate studies in his subject.

Dr. Erwin A. Esper, formerly Instructor at the Ohio State University, has gone to the University of Illinois as Assistant Professor of Psychology. Dr. Esper's dissertation 'A Technique for the Experimental Investigation of Associate Interference in Artificial Linguistic Material' forms the first of our LANGUAGE MONOGRAPHS. It is being printed in France, and should reach the members about the same time as the present number of LANGUAGE.

Dr. Urban T. Holmes, until recently Assistant Professor of Romance Philology at the University of Missouri, has gone to the University of North Carolina as Associate Professor of Romance Languages.

Dr. Clarence G. Lowe, who has been Instructor in Classics at Yale University, is now Assistant Professor of Latin at Washington University, St. Louis.

Dr. Marbury B. Ogle, who has been since 1907 Professor of Latin at the University of Vermont, is now at the Ohio State University as the Chairman of the Department of Classical Languages.

Dr. Walter Petersen, who was last year at the University of Redlands (California) is now Assistant Professor of Ancient Languages at the University of Florida.

G. Oscar Russell, Assistant Professor in the Department of Spanish at the University of Utah, has gone to the Ohio State University, with the rank of Professor, to conduct classes in Phonetics and in Spanish.

Dr. Edward Sapir, one of the Editors of Language, who for a number of years has been Chief of the Division of Anthropology at Ottawa, has accepted a call to the University of Chicago, where he is Associate Professor of Anthropology.

Three members of our Society, Louise Pound, Kemp Malone and Arthur Kennedy, have launched a new periodical 'American Speech.'

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