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PCA. *nötcp- follow, pursue: M. nõtspinehäw he follows, pursues him (PCA. *-nähw- seek animate object), O. nõhpinanād he follows him (PCA. *-na- assail).

PCA. tck also is not very common:
PCA. *ketckyäwa he is old; old person: F. kehkyäwa, M. ketskīw.

PCA. *-alakatckw- palate: C. nayakask my palate, M. ninākatskun (plural only) my palate, kakīpanakatskow he is dumb (PCA. *kekyäpabsence of a sense, reduplicated form of PCA. *kep- block, obstruct), 0. ninagackung at my palate.

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PCA. 't:
PCA. *ke'tıkāni farm, see $13.

PCA. *pe’tenamwa he picks it up by mistake (*pe't- accident, *-enby hand): C. pistinam, M. pe’tenam, O. pihtinang; cf. F. pehtenawawa he shoots him by mistake (PCA. *-elaw- shoot animate object).

PCA. *mä'tenamwa he uses it up by handling: C. mästinam, M. mä'tenam.

PCA. 'to seems to occur only as mutation of the preceding:

PCA. *ke'tci much, greatly: F. kehtci, M. kä'ts, O. kihtci.
PCA. *pe'tci by mistake, by accident: C. pistsi, M. pä'ts, O. pihtci.

PCA. *mä'tcihäwa he exterminates him: C. mästsihäw; cf. M. mä'tsinanäw (PCA. *-nað- assail), 0. mähtcibudä it is worn out by friction (PCA. *-putä- affected by rapid handling, inanimate).

The s-mutation of 't (833) appears in
PCA. *pe'sehkawäwa he bumps into him by accident: M. pe'sähkawew.
PCA. *mä'sehkamwa he wears it out: M. mä'sehkam, 0. mäsihkang.

PCA. 'O:

PCA. *ku'däwa he fears him: F. kusawa, c. kustäw, M. ko'new, 0. kusād.

PCA. *ne'däwa he kills him: F. nesäwa, M. ne'new, O. nisād.

PCA. *-a'demw- dog, non-initial: C. wāpastim white dog or horse, 0. wābasim white dog, M. wāpeskā'nem (PCA. *wāpeck- extended form of PCA. *wāp- white).

The mutation to 'c (835) appears in

PCA. *ku'ci fear thou him: C. kusi, M. ko'sin (-n reflex of an appended particle PCA. *na, which is still so used in F.), O. kuci. Cf. F. kīh-kuci thou shalt fear me, M. kinaw-ko'sim, C. ka-kusin.

PCA. *ne'ci kill thou him: M. ne'sin, O. nici.
PCA. *ne'ciku kill ye me: F. necigu, M. ne'sikun.

PCA. 'I appears in C. as hy and h, probably determined by surrounding vowels:

PCA. *a'lapya net: C. ahyapiy, M. a’nap (plural a’napyak), O. asab (plural asabīg).

PCA. *pemi’läwa he flies along: F. pemisäwa, C. pimihāw, M. pemē'new, O. pimisä.

PCA. *a’läwa he places him: F. asawa, C. ahäw, M. a'new, O. asād.

The mutation (837) gives PCA. 'c, but has been analogically removed in C. inflection:

PCA. *a'ci place thou him: F. O. aci, M. a'sin-analogic C. ahi.

PCA. 's appears not only as mutation of 't (see above), but also independently:

PCA. *a'senya stone: F. aseni (inanimate gender), C. asiniy, M. a'sen, O. asin.

PCA. *wē'sakesiwa he is in pain: C. wisakisiw, M. wē'sakesiw, O. wisagizi he is bitter; PCA. *wē'sakihсinwa he falls painfully: F. wisagicinwa, C. wisakisin, M. wē'sakēhsin, O. wisagicin.

PCA. 'c has been illustrated above as the alternant of 'o and 'l; I do not know whether the following examples are of this character or not:

PCA. *säkehkwa'ciwa he has a nightmare: C. säkihkwasiw, M. säkihkua'siw; cf. F. kawehkwaciwa he is sleepy (PCA. *kaw- fall over), C. kawihkwasiw, M. kakūhkwa'siw (reduplicated and awe contracted to , $16). PCA. *cē'cēpa duck: F. cicipa, C. sīsīp, M. sē’sip, O. cicib.

A PCA. ’k seems to be demanded for M. -’kw- eye, as in põhki’kow he is one-eyed, but I cannot give correspondences.

47. PCA. c as first member:



? ck


C. sp st sk

M. sp ? sk

0. ср ct ck

The combination ck is quite common:
PCA. *ickutäwi fire: F. ackutäwi, C. iskutäw, M. iskõtäw, O. ickudä.
In the rare combination cp F. seems to have hp:

PCA. *icpemenki up above, on high: F. ahpemegi, C. ispimihk, M. ispämiah, 0. icpiming.

A PCA. ct seems to be demanded for one word:
PCA. *ustekwāni his head: C. ustikwān, 0. uctigwān.

48. PCA. x as first member symbolizes s of C., h of the other languages; it occurs before p and k: PCA. . F. C. M.


hp hp




PCA. xp:

PCA. *axpälemowa he relies (*axp- on things, lean, *-äle- thought, *-m-u- animate middle, by speech or thought): F. ahpänemõwa, C. aspäyimów, M. ahpänimow, O. ahpänimo.

In a few cases the pre-Central-Algonquian origin of this very frequent compound consonant can still be seen. There are a few fixed combinations of morphologic elements in which connective *-;- is not used between consonants; where t or @ and p thus come together, they are replaced by xp. Thus, the initial element PCA. *e*- thither, thus, as in

PCA. *idälemäwa he thinks thus of him: F. inänemäwa, C. itäyimäw, M. inänimew, O. inänimād,

joins the medial element PCA. *-pa- run, as in

PCA. *pemipahtāwa he runs by, on: C. pimipahtāw, M. pemēpahtaw, 0. pimibahto; cf. F. pemipahöwa,

in an archaic combination which does not take connective *-i-:

PCA. *ixpahtāwa he runs thither or thus: C. ispahtāw, M. ihpāhtaw cf. F. ihpahõwa, O. ihpahidiwag they race thither.

Similarly, with the transitive final PCA. *-pw- bite, eat an animate object, as in

PCA. *ackipowa he eats raw food (*ack- raw, fresh, *-pu-, *-pw- plus *-u-, derivative with meaning much like that of Indo-European middle voice): C. askipów, M. askēpow, O. ackibo,

the same initial gives

PCA. *ixpukusiwa he tastes so (*-ekw- undergoing, added to transitive verbs, *-esi- animate intransitive): C. ispukusiw, M. ihpākusiw, 0. ihpuguzi.

Or, again, this same final combines with the initial PCA. *atoton top of something, as in

PCA. *atõtapiwa he sits on something: M. atõtapiw, atūtapyakan chair,

and the form is

PCA. *atoxpowa he eats on something: F. atõhpõwa, C. atospow, M. atõhpow; cf. M. atūhpwan table, O. adõhpowin.

PCA. xk also is common:

PCA. *maxkesini moccasin: F. mahkesähi (diminutive), C. maskisin, M. mahkäsin, 0. mahkizin.

PCA. *nexkātalı my legs: F. nehkātani, C. niskāta, M. nihkātan, 0. nihkādan.

PCA. *-nexkä- arm: F. kickinehkäcwäwa he cuts off the other's arm (PCA. *kēck- seder, *-ecw- cut animate object), C. sowiniskäyiw he stretches out his arm (PCA. *cow- extend), M. kīskinähkıw he is cut of at the arm (, i.e. I, by contamination with M. -nehtsi- hand $36), O. kickinihkä.

It appears that this compound consonant, parallel with xp above, represents an ancient combination of t or 0 plus k. Thus, the conjunct and participle of inanimate verbs have the ending *-ki, e.g.

PCA. *me'cyäwi it is large, *mä'cyāki that which is large: F. mecāwi (ā analogic), mäcāgi, C. misāw, kā-misāk, M. me’sıw mä'sık (, i.e. ī, from yä, analogic), 0. micā, kā-micāg.

Now, stems in t add this ending without connecting *-i-, and the result is xk:

F. pyämigatwi it comes: äh-pyämigahki when it came,
M. pīmakat it comes: pimakah if it comes, plural pīmakāhkin,
0. tibihkad it is night: tibihkahk tonight, i.e. when night comes. -

Similarly, PCA. *kusiwa he moves camp: M. kusēw, 0. kuzi, with *ed-gives PCA. *ixkusiwa he moves camp thither: M. ihkösiw.

However, as I cannot give C. examples, the xk (as distinct from hk) is not proved for these cases.

49. The symbol ç is needed for a single peculiar correspondence:




ck This group occurs, so far as I know, in only one element: namely,

PCA. *meckw- red, as in *meckwi blood, $27; also PCA *meckusiwa he is red: F. meckusiwa, C. mihkusiw, 0. mihkuzi, cf. M. mehkon; PCA. *meckwäwi it is red: M. mehkīw, cf., with vowel of conjunct mode generalized, F. meckwāwi, C. mihkwāw, 0. mickwā.

50. PCA. h plus consonant means combinations in which the first member appears as h in all the dialects; only before sibilant F. and C. do not distinguish the h; O. does so by keeping the sibilant unvoiced:

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PCA. hp:
PCA. *pāhpiwa he laughs: C. pāhpiw, O. pāhpi.

PCA. *kõhpatcihäwa he degrades him: C. M. kõhpatsihäw; cf. O. kõhpadizi he is stupid.

PCA. ht in *ucihtāwa $37. Its mutation, htc:

PCA. *ucihtcikäwa he makes things (*-i- connective, *-kä- deverbative suffix, action on things): C. usihtsikäw, M. usēhtsikew; cf. F. acihtcigäwäwa he makes, O. ujihtcigādä it is made.

For the s-mutation (833) I have no example; presumably it would yield PCA. hs.

PCA. h0: F. 0. s, C. ht, M. hn:
PCA. *õhdalı his father: F. osani, M. õhnan, O. osan; cf. C. õhtāwiya.

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